National Academies Press: OpenBook

Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration (2008)

Chapter: B Biographies of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"B Biographies of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2008. Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12045.
Page 104
Suggested Citation:"B Biographies of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2008. Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12045.
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"B Biographies of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2008. Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12045.
Page 106
Suggested Citation:"B Biographies of Committee Members." National Research Council. 2008. Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12045.
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B Biographies of Committee Members JAMES D.A. VAN HOFTEN, Chair, recently retired as a senior vice president and partner of the Bechtel Corpora- tion. He was also the managing director of Bechtel’s Aviation business in London. Dr. van Hoften received a B.S. with honors in civil engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.S. in hydraulic engineering from Colorado State University (CSU). Following tours in Southeast Asia as a Navy pilot, he completed his Ph.D. in hydraulic engineering at CSU and then became an assistant professor of civil engineering at the University of Houston. In 1978, he was selected as a member of the first dedicated space shuttle astronaut group. He led testing and analysis for the astronaut team for the entry software development and later headed the astronaut support group for these early missions. He flew on two very successful space shuttle flights. Dr. van Hoften joined the Bechtel Corporation in 1986 where he focused on complex infrastructure programs in the civil, military, and aerospace arenas. Dr. van Hoften is on the board of directors of two public international energy companies. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), was awarded the President’s Medal from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), was named an outstanding alumnus of the University of California, Berkeley, and received the Arnold E. Morgan Award as the outstanding graduate of CSU. Dr. van Hoften was one of the first members of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee for the Department of Trans- portation and has also served on the board of advisors to ASCE’s Civil Engineering Research Fund. SALLY A. AMUNDSON is an associate professor of radiation oncology at the Center for Radiological Research at Columbia University. Her research interests include functional genomics of responses to ionizing radiation and other stressors, signal transduction in DNA-damage and stress responses, radiation biodosimetry and molecular responses to low doses of ionizing radiation and to high linear energy transfer radiation. She is active in the Radia- tion Research Society, which awarded her the Michael Fry Research Award in 2004, and she is a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. She received a B.A. from Hamline University and an Sc.D. in radiation biology from Harvard University, and then pursued postdoctoral studies at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the National Cancer Institute. SAMIM ANGHAIE is a professor of nuclear and radiological engineering at the University of Florida, where he also is director of the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute. He has been a professor at the University of Florida since 1986, before which he was an assistant professor at Oregon State University for 2 years. His research interests include thermal hydraulics; computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer; high- 104

APPENDIX B 105 temperature nuclear fuels and materials; inverse radiation transport methods; advanced reactor design; direct energy conversion; and space nuclear power and propulsion. Dr. Anghaie received a B.S. in physics in 1972 and an M.S. in physics in 1974, both from Pahlavi University, Shiraz, Iran. He received his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from Pennsylvania State University in 1982. WILLIAM ATWELL is a technical fellow with the Boeing Company and currently supports the AeroThermal Group. Mr. Atwell has 40 years of experience in the areas of the space radiation environment, high-energy particle transport through materials, active and passive dosimetry, spacecraft, satellite, and anatomical modeling/shielding analysis, radiation detection instrumentation, biological and physical effects, and data analyses. He is one of the original members of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Space Radiation Analysis Group. Recently, his inter- ests and support activities have been in space radiation research projects for NASA, the European Space Agency, and the German Space Agency. He has been on the science teams for the 2001 Mars Odyssey Martian Radiation Environment Experiment and the Boeing Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Phase A study. He provides support to the NGC/Boeing Crew Exploration Vehicle proposal effort and the JSC-requested Radiation Trade studies. Mr. Atwell was a chair of the AIAA Life Science and Systems Technical Committee and is chair of the AIAA Life Sciences and Space Processing Technical Committee and a member of the AIAA Public Policy Technical Committee. Mr. Atwell is the recipient of the Astronaut’s Silver Snoopy Award, Rockwell International Space Systems Divi- sion (now Boeing) President’s Award, and numerous NASA, NATO, and AIAA awards and commendations. He received the 2001 Special Space Flight Achievement Award from JSC for his scientific support, modeling efforts, and space radiation analyses of the Phantom Torso Experiment (1998) and the International Space Station Increment 2 (2001). Mr. Atwell has authored more than 200 technical and scientific publications. He has an M.S. and a B.S. in physics/mathematics from Indiana State University and was a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Florida. BENTON C. CLARK is chief scientist for Space Exploration Systems, Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colorado, and has more than 40 years of experience in future-mission design, spacecraft design and operations, planetary science, space radiation, and development of advanced space instrumentation. He is the senior member of the Advanced Planetary Studies group, where flight designs for Discovery, New Frontiers, and Mars missions are conceived and developed. Dr. Clark has more than 80 publications and 120 reports, abstracts, and presentations in instrumentation, planetary missions, radiation, space science, planetary geochemistry, exobiology, astrobiology, and other fields of research and development. He has served on numerous advisory panels for NASA, AIAA, and the National Research Council (NRC). He has received the NASA Public Service Medal, the Wright Brothers Award, the Air Force Service Medal, the Rotary International Stellar Award, and the Lockheed Martin Nova Award; he is an inductee to the Aviation and Space Hall of Fame, and has been selected Inventor and Author of the Year for Martin Marietta Corporation. Dr. Clark has a B.S. in physics from the University of Oklahoma, an M.A. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in biophysics from Columbia University. MARC M. COHEN is a licensed architect who has more than 20 years of experience in space architecture design research and development, specializing in space living, working environments, and human factors. He recently took early retirement from the NASA Ames Research Center to join Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems. Dr. Cohen has an extensive record of accomplishment in developing architectural concepts for space stations, interplanetary vehicles, and lunar and martian surface habitats. He conducts advanced materials research and quantitative model- ing of habitat designs. He is an associate fellow of the AIAA, founded the AeroSpace Architecture Sub­committee, and currently chairs the AIAA’s Design Engineering Technical Committee. He has an A.B. from Princeton Uni- versity, an M.Arch. from Columbia University, and an Arch.D. from the University of Michigan. PATRICK J. GRIFFIN is a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff in the Applied Nuclear Technologies Department at Sandia National Laboratories and was chair of the NRC Panel on Assessment of Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis for Aviation Security. He was named a National Affiliate of the National Academies in recognition of his service to the NRC’s National Materials Advisory Board on several committees. At Sandia National Laboratories, he performs research in the areas of radiation modeling and simulation, neutron-effects

106 MANAGING SPACE RADIATION RISK IN THE NEW ERA OF SPACE EXPLORATION testing, radiation dosimetry, and radiation damage to materials. He has more than 20 years of experience in the areas of neutron dosimetry and radiation shielding, has been guest editor for the Journal of Radiation Effects, gave the keynote address at the 10th International Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry, and has received several awards, including the 2006 Sandia National Laboratories’ Meritorious Achievement for Individual Technical Leadership and the 2007 National Nuclear Security Administration Award of Excellence for significant contributions to the Stock- pile Stewardship Program. He is active in the standardization community and is the current chair of the American Society of Testing and Materials Subcommittee E10.05 on Nuclear Radiation Metrology. Dr. Griffin received a B.S. in physics in 1973 and a Ph.D. in theoretical nuclear physics in 1979, both from Ohio University. DAVID G. HOEL is Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. He has a B.A. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley; a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from the University of North Carolina, ­Chapel Hill; and postdoctoral training in preventive medicine from Stanford University. Dr. Hoel was at the National Insti­ tute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health for more than 20 years as director of the Division of Environmental Risk Assessment, which was responsible for developing methods for quantitatively estimating health risks from low-dose chemical exposures. He has particular interests in estimating the health ­effects of radiation exposures and has spent a total of 3 years working at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima as one of the program directors. His current research is focused on low-dose adverse health effects of gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation as well as plutonium in particular. His research support is from the Department of Energy and NASA. Dr. Hoel has served on numerous government and NRC committees, including the Science Advisory Board of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration’s transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (mad-cow disease) advisory committee. International committees on which he has served include a radiation exposure advisory committee for the UN’s International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. TATJANA JEVREMOVIC is an associate professor in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University. She is the director of the Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation and leads the Purdue Breast Cancer Research Group. She also holds an associate professor position in the School of Health Sciences (by courtesy) and is an adjunct professor in the Division for Environmental and Ecological Engineering. Formerly, she was the chief engineer for the Nuclear Fuel Division of NFI, Ltd., Tokai, Japan, and a lecturer at the University of Tokyo. Dr. Jevremovic’s research interests include computational reactor physics and radiation transport, ­neutron capture therapy, microbeam studies, and radiation shielding for space applications. She is a member of the American Nuclear Society and Women in Nuclear. She has authored more than 90 conference and journal papers and a text- book, Nuclear Principles in Engineering. She has B.S. and M.S. degrees in engineering physics/nuclear engineering from the University of Belgrade and a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from the University of Tokyo. WALTER SCHIMMERLING is the former program scientist for NASA’s Space Radiation Health Program, Bio- astronautics Research Division. Dr. Schimmerling served as a research biophysicist and senior research scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from 1972 to 1989. He also served as a NASA visiting senior scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, as manager of the Radiation Health Program at NASA Headquarters, and as program director of the joint NASA-National Cancer Institute research project on genomic instability. He is the author of numerous publications on high-energy heavy-ion physics and mitigating the health effects of radiation during spaceflight. He was also the chief scientist of the Space Life Sciences Division of the Universities Space Research Association. LAWRENCE W. TOWNSEND is a professor in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University of T ­ ennessee. Between 1970 and 1977 he served in the U.S. Navy as a nuclear submarine engineering officer. From 1981 until 1995 he held positions as research scientist and senior research scientist at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Townsend received numerous scientific awards, including NASA’s Exceptional Scientific Achievement

APPENDIX B 107 Medal for outstanding contributions to the understanding of nuclear interactions of cosmic radiation with matter and its implications for space radiation exposure and shielding. He is a council member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and a fellow of the American Nuclear Society and of the Health Physics Society. His research interests include space radiation transport code development, space radiation shielding, theo- retical modeling of secondary neutron production cross sections and spectra from energetic proton and heavy-ion interactions with thin and thick targets, modeling production of radioactive and stable heavy nuclides from nuclear spallation, and the design of neutron sources, including cold sources, for use in radiography, radiotherapy, neutron activation analysis, and materials studies. He was the principal investigator and leader of the Space Radiation Transport Code Development Consortium from 2002 to 2007. He is the author of approximately 525 publications, including 145 research articles in refereed journals. RONALD E. TURNER is a fellow at Analytic Services, Inc. (ANSER). Dr. Turner has more than 20 years of experience in space systems analysis, space physics, orbital mechanics, remote sensing, and nuclear and particle physics. He also has extensive experience in radiation effects on humans in space. His recent research on the Mars Odyssey mission included risk management strategies for solar particle events during human missions to the Moon or Mars. He has been a participant at NASA workshops looking at space radiation/biology missions, life science mission requirements for several Mars initiatives, and the impact of solar particle events on the design of human missions. Dr. Turner served on the NRC Safe on Mars study in 2002. He was the senior science adviser to the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts. Dr. Turner received a Ph.D. in physics from the Ohio State University, an M.S. in physics from the University of Florida, and a B.S. in physics from the University of Florida. He was also chair of the NRC Human Health and Support Systems Panel reviewing the NASA capabilities roadmap and is a member of the Space Studies Board Committee on Solar and Space Physics. ALLAN J. TYLKA is a research physicist in the High Energy Space Environment Branch of the Space Science Division of Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Dr. Tylka’s work has focused on using satellite data to investigate and model acceleration and transport processes in solar energetic particle events. He led development of CREME96, a revision of NRL’s Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics code, that is widely used in the aerospace industry to assess space radiation impacts on satellites. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a member of the American Geophysical Union, the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Tylka received an Alan Berman Research Publication Award, an NRL Technology Transfer Award, an NRL Invention Award, and the 2005 Editors’ Cita- tion for Excellence in Refereeing for the Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics. Dr. Tylka holds a B.A. in physics and mathematics from Washington and Jefferson College and an M.S. in physics from the University of Maryland. ­ Following his study of high-energy particle physics at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in H ­ amburg, Germany, Dr. Tylka received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland. GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK is currently a professor in the Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medi- cine, Northwestern University. Her interests include studies of the molecular biology of lymphocyte and motor neuron abnormalities in DNA-repair-deficient mice, studies of radiation-inducible nanoparticles, and analysis of molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in radiation-induced tumors. She received her Ph.D. in medical sciences ( ­ microbiology) from the Medical College of Ohio and did postdoctoral training in the Departments of Immunology and Molecular Biology at the Mayo Clinic. Dr. Woloschak was a senior molecular biologist and group leader of the Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, and a senior fellow at Nanosciences Consortium, Argonne National Laboratory-University of Chicago. She has served as a member on the National Institutes of Health’s radiation study section and on the NRC’s Committee on Radiofrequency Radiation, and chaired NASA’s peer review radiation biology committee.

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As part of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), NASA is planning for humans to revisit the Moon and someday go to Mars. An important consideration in this effort is protection against the exposure to space radiation. That radiation might result in severe long-term health consequences for astronauts on such missions if they are not adequately shielded. To help with these concerns, NASA asked the NRC to further the understanding of the risks of space radiation, to evaluate radiation shielding requirements, and recommend a strategic plan for developing appropriate mitigation capabilities. This book presents an assessment of current knowledge of the radiation environment; an examination of the effects of radiation on biological systems and mission equipment; an analysis of current plans for radiation protection; and a strategy for mitigating the risks to VSE astronauts.

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