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International Collaborations in Behavioral and Social Sciences R e p o rt o f a W o r k s h o p Committee on International Collaborations in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science Board on International Scientific Organizations Policy and Global Affairs
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. NSF-7189 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13:â 978-0-309-11415-8 International Standard Book Number 10:â 0-309-11415-2 Limited copies are available from the Board on International Scientific Organizations, phone 202-334-2688. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Suggested citation: National Research Council, 2008. International Collaborations in Behavioral and Social Sciences Research: Report of a Workshop. Board on International Scientific Organizations. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a man- date that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
Committee on International Collaborations in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research Suzanne Bennett Johnson, Chair James Jackson Professor and Chair Director and Research Professor Department of Medical Institute for Social Research Humanities and Social Daniel Katz Distinguished Sciences University Professor of Florida State University College of Psychology Medicine University of Michigan Oscar Barbarin III Douglas L. Medin L. Richardson and Emily Preyer Professor of Psychology Bicentennial Distinguished Northwestern University Professor for Strengthening Families and Fellow, Frank Charles A. Nelson Porter Graham Child Richard David Scott Chair in Development Institute Pediatrics University of North Carolina, Harvard Medical School Chapel Hill Developmental Medicine Center, Laboratory of Cognitive Marc H. Bornstein Neuroscience, Boston Senior Investigator and Head Childrenâs Hospital Child and Family Research National Institute of Child Health Stephen W. Porges and Human Development Professor of Psychiatry Director, Brain-Body Center Kay K. Deaux University of Illinois at Chicago Distinguished Professor of Psychology Judith Torney-Purta City University of New York Professor of Human Development Graduate Center University of Maryland, College Park iv
Staff Kathie Bailey Mathae Elizabeth Briggs Director Senior Program Associate Board on International Scientific Board on International Scientific Organizations Organizations The National Academies The National Academies Elaine Lawson (until December Amy Franklin (until September 2006) 2006) Program Officer Program Associate Board on International Scientific Board on International Scientific Organizations Organizations The National Academies The National Academies Ester Sztein (since February 2007) Program Officer Board on International Scientific Organizations The National Academies
U.S. National Committee for THE International Union of Psychological Science Suzanne Bennett Johnson, Chair Charles A. Nelson Professor and Chair Richard David Scott Chair in Department of Medical Pediatrics Humanities and Social Harvard Medical School Sciences Developmental Medicine Center, Florida State University College of Laboratory of Cognitive Medicine Neuroscience, Boston Childrenâs Hospital Oscar Barbarin III L. Richardson and Emily Preyer Stephen W. Porges Bicentennial Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry Professor for Strengthening Director, Brain-Body Center Families and Fellow, Frank University of Illinois at Chicago Porter Graham Child Development Institute Judith Torney-Purta University of North Carolina, Professor of Human Development Chapel Hill University of Maryland, College Park Diane F. Halpern Director, Berger Institute for Work, Barbara Tversky Family, and Children, and Professor of Psychology and Chair, Department of Psychology Education Claremont McKenna College Teachers College Columbia University James Jackson Director and Research Professor Ex Officio Institute for Social Research Daniel Katz Distinguished Merry Bullock University Professor of Senior Director Psychology Office of International Affairs University of Michigan American Psychological Association Kevinï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Miller Combined Program in Education J. Bruce Overmier and Psychology Professor of Psychology University of Michigan Department of Psychology University of Minnesota vi
Liaisons John Hagen Alan Kraut Executive Director Executive Director Society for Research in Child American Psychological Society Development University of Michigan vii
Preface Many of the worldâs problemsâviolence, overpopulation, substance abuse, poverty, terrorism, infant mortality, HIV/AIDS, chronic diseaseâ involve human behavior. Since countries are increasingly interdependent, cross-national collaboration is imperative. U.S. psychological scientists can take an active role, working with colleagues in and from other countries, to improve the worldâs capacity to address these pressing issues. International research collaboration in the psychological, behavioral, and social sciences is critical to improving the quality of peoplesâ lives worldwide. However, such collaborations present numerous challenges, particularly since cross-cultural research faces issues of differences in cogni- tive styles and ways of analysis, both in the process of the research and as a subject of the research. The U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Psy- chological Science initiated this project to enhance international research collaboration in the psychological, behavioral, and social sciences by highlighting the benefits of such collaborations, successful approaches to obstacles and barriers, ways to enhance research quality, and methods to attract additional scientists to this important enterprise. At its spring 2003 meeting, committee members reviewed the results of a pilot exercise in which they interviewed colleagues who conduct social and behavioral sciences research with collaborators from other countries.Â These pilot interviews helped committee members develop a Web- based instrument that was used in June-July 2005 to survey researchers ix
PREFACE about their personal experiences with colleagues in other countries. The reported projects involved 40 countries and included adolescent/adult- hood research, infancy/early childhood research, and psychophysiological and medical problems. The reported projects were funded by a variety of governmental and nongovernmental sources (inside and outside the United States) and ranged in duration from several decades to quite brief periods. The survey results provided basic information about the scope and general logistics of international collaborations in social and behavioral sciences research, and the results provided a foundation for a May 2006 planning meeting, which in turn led to the October 5-6, 2006, workshop held at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. During the workshop, participants assessed barriers, challenges, and opportunities for international collaborative research in the social and behavioral sciences that involve human subjects and examined solutions for facilitating such research.Â By reviewing the examples provided, partici- pants were able to discern various factors that seem to predict a successful collaboration and were able to make suggestions for ways to enhance such collaborations in the future. While the focus of the workshop was on international collaborations, several participants described very comparable issues and impediments in conducting research with non-majority U.S. populations within the United States. Challenges include language barriers, cultural differences, and consent. Readers of this report will also note that many of the examples cited involve the psychological sciences. This is natural given the fact that U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science initiated the project. Workshop participants recognized that many of the identified issues and opportunities are relevant to other disciplines as well, and for this reason included other social and behavioral sciences to the ex- tent that they had experience with them. Others may want to build upon this report and project in the future and look at the extent to which these issues and opportunities exist in disciplines beyond the social and behavioral sciences. It is also important to note that most of the workshop presenters were from the United States and discussed projects outside the United States. Since the workshop was done primarily to encourage the participation of U.S. scientists, much of the content is directed to that audience. While it would have been desirable to include researchers from other countries, the
PREFACE xi size limitations, finances, and time constraints of the workshop limited the number and range of participants. We are deeply indebted to all those who responded to the survey, the members of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science, and the workshop participants.Â Suzanne Bennett Johnson Chair, Committee on International Collaborations in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research
Acknowledgments This workshop was the product of the collaborative efforts of many people. First, we wish to thank those who spoke and participated in the workshop for their invaluable contributions to the success of the workshop. Secondly, we would like to thank all the collaborators and the steering com- mittee in their efforts in conceptualizing the workshop and this report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Academiesâ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this re- port: Merry Bullock, American Psychological Association; S. Ashraf Kagee, Stellenbosch University, Republic of South Africa; Isabel Menezes, Univer- sity of Porto, Portugal; Bruce Overmier, University of Minnesota; Fernando Reimers, Harvard University; Sandra Waxman, Northwestern University; and Jill Weissberg Benchell, Northwestern University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility xiii
xiv acknowledgments for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring com- mittee and the institution. Finally, we would like to thank Amy Smith and the studyâs staff mem- bers, especially Elaine Lawson, Elizabeth Briggs, and Kathie Bailey Mathae for their hard work in support of the workshop and this report.
Contents Introduction 1 1 The Benefits of International Collaboration 4 Conceptual Benefits: The Frog in the Well, 4 Pragmatic Gains: Extending the Possible, 6 Simple Imperative: No Good Alternative, 9 2 Obstacles to International Collaboration 11 Project Scope: Long Periods of Lead-in, 12 Within-Team Differences: Dissimilarities of Practice, Asymmetries of Power, 14 Ethics Approval Procedures, 16 Data Management, 20 Publication and Dissemination, 22 3 Enhancing International Research Collaboration 24 Developing Research Capacity Around the World: Training and Infrastructure, 24 Communication, 29 Project Development, 29 Ethics Review Procedures, 30 Datasets, 31 xv
xvi CONTENTS Publications, 32 Dissemination, 33 Early-Career Scholars, 33 Funding Agencies, 34 Appendixes A Agenda 39 B Workshop Participants and Speakers 42 C The Benefits of Cross Cultural Behavior, J. Goodnow 47 D Results of a Survey of International Collaborative Research in Psychology: Views and Recommendations from Twenty-six Leaders of Projects, J. Torney-Purta 64 E Survey Questionnaire: Building International Collaborations in Psychological Research: Reflections on Successful International Collaborations 79 F: IRB and Ethical Issues in Conducting International Behavioral Science Research, C. Nelson 85