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Acronyms and Glossary Abiotic Refers to chemical transformations that occur without the aid of microorganisms. Acre-foot A traditional measure of water applied, used in the United States. The volume of water required to cover 1 acre of land to a depth of 1 foot. Equal to 1.23 ML or 1,230 m3.. Adsorption The adherence of ions or molecules in solution to the surface of solids. Advanced wastewater Any physical, chemical or biological treatment treatment process used to accomplish a degree of treatment greater than that achieved by secondary treat- ment. Advection The process whereby solutes are transported by the bulk mass of flowing fluid. AL Elastic wave propagation log. Anisotropy The condition under which an aquifer property varies with the direction of measurement. For example âIf the hydraulic conductivity, K, varies with the direction of measurement at a point in a geologic formation, the formation is anisotropic at that point.â (Freeze and Cherry, p. 32) Anoxic Describes an environment without oxygen. Aquifer A formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains sufficient saturated per- meable material to yield significant quantifies of water to wells and springs. Aquifer storage and Injection of water into a well for storage and recovery (ASR) recovery from the same well. 277
278 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Aquifer storage transfer Injection of water into a well for storage and and recovery (ASTR) Recovery from a different well, generally to pro- vide additional water treatment. Artificial recharge (AR) Intentional banking and treatment of water in aquifers. Artificial Recharge and Recovery (ARR) Recharge to and recovery of water from an aqui- fer, that is, both artificial recharge of the aquifer and recovery of the water for subsequent use. AT Acoustic televiewer. Augmentation pond Water body designed to supply water to river systems at defined rates during particular times. Bank filtration Extraction of groundwater from a well or caisson near or under a river or lake to induce infiltration from the surface water body, thereby improving and making more consistent the quality of water recovered. Base flow That portion of a streamâs flow derived from ground water (as opposed to surface runoff and interflow). Basin (1) Hydrology: The area drained by a river and its tributaries. (2) Irrigation: A level plot or field, surrounded by dikes, which may be flood irri- gated. (3) Runoff control: A catchment con- structed to contain and slow runoff to permit the settling and collection of soil material trans- ported by overland and rill runoff flows Basins and watersheds Areas of drainage in which all collected water ultimately drains through a single exit point. Ba- sins differ from watersheds only in the percep- tion of their size: basins are usually considered to be much larger, composed of many watersheds. Within a watershed or basin, water moves both on and below the surface. Topographic âhighsâ prevent surface water from crossing from one watershed (aquifer) to another.
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 279 Biodegradation The biologically mediated conversion of a com- pound to simpler products. Bioremediation Exploiting the metabolic activity of microorgan- isms to transform or destroy contaminants. Carbonate A rock formed primarily from carbonate miner- als, such as limestone and dolomite. CERP Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program. Chlorinated solvent One that contains at least one chlorine atom. Typically, these compounds are used to dissolve substances that do not dissolve easily in water. Because they are used for a wide variety of pur- posesâfrom manufacturing, to degreasing, to dry cleaningâchlorinated solvents are common groundwater contaminants. Colloid A particle that has a diameter in the range of 10-8 to 10-5m. The small size of colloids tends to keep them in suspension for long periods. Complexation A reaction in which a metal ion and one or more anionic ligands chemically bond. Complexes of- ten prevent the precipitation of metals. Confined aquifer An aquifer bounded above and below by units of distinctly lower hydraulic conductivity in which the pore water pressure is greater than atmos- pheric pressure. An unconfined aquifer is not bounded above and is the uppermost aquifer. Conjunctive use Combining the use of both surface and ground- water to minimize the undesirable physical, envi- ronmental, and economic effects of each. Consumptive Use Use of water that renders it no longer available because it has been evaporated, transpired by plants, incorporated into products or crops, con- sumed by people or livestock, or otherwise re- moved from water supplies.
280 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER CSMAT Controlled source audio-frequency magneto- telluric Cumulative recovery Ratio of the cumulative volume of freshwater efficiency injected minus the volume of unrecovered fresh water divided by the cumulative volume fresh water injected. CZ Confinement zone. Darcy's Law A formula used to describe fluid flow in the sub- surface. The law states that the velocity of flow through a porous medium is directly proportional to the hydraulic gradient (assuming that the flow is laminar and inertial forces can be neglected). Denitrification The conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas by mi- croorganisms. Denitrification can be an impor- tant process in the subsurface, because when oxygen is absent, denitrifying bacteria can use nitrate to degrade hazardous compounds in the same way that they would ordinarily use oxygen. Density The mass per unit volume of a substance. Desorption The release of sorbed molecules from solid into solution (the reverse of sorption). Diffusion Contaminant movement caused by the random motion of molecules. Contaminants diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of low con- centration. Disinfection by-products A range of organic and inorganic products result- ing from the reaction of disinfecting oxidants with natural aquatic organic material reductants in water systems. The number and nature of all products are not precisely known at present, and vary with type of disinfectant employed. Some of the chlorination by-products are mutagenic and some are suspected animal carcinogens. Dispersion The spreading and mixing of chemical constitu- ents in groundwater. Dispersion is caused by dif- fusion and mixing due to microscopic variations
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 281 in velocities within and between pores as well as by macroscopic velocity variations among zones of differing hydraulic conductivity. Dissolution The process by which solid- or nonaqueous- phase liquid components of a contaminant dis- solve in infiltration water and form a groundwa- ter contaminant plume. The duration of remedia- tion measures (either cleanup or long-term con- tainment) is determined by the rate of dissolution that can be achieved in the field and the mass of soluble contaminants. DOC Dissolved organic carbon. Drawdown Lowering of the water table or potentiometric surface as a result of pumping. Dry well Synonymous with vadose zone well. Enteric viruses Members of a large group of viruses character- ized by the fact that they replicate in the intesti- nal tract and are therefore present in fecal mate- rial. EPMA Electron probe microanalysis. ERT Earth resistivity tomography. Evapotranspiration The sum of evaporation and transpiration from a unit land area. Also see consumptive use. Fractured media Large subsurface rocks or clay formations that are mostly solid but contain cracks that can transmit or store water. GGL-D Gamma-gamma log. GPR Ground-penetrating radar. GR Gamma-ray log. Groundwater That part of the subsurface water that is in the saturated zone.
282 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Ground water overdraft The withdrawal of groundwater through wells, (or mining) resulting in a lowering of the ground water table at a rate faster than the rate at which the ground water table can be recharged. GWR Groundwater replenishment. Halogenated compound A compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a halogen atom, such as fluorine, chlorine, or bromine. Examples include chlorinated solvents (such as 1,1,1- trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetra- chloroethylene), which have been widely used in cleaning and degreasing operations in some fu- migant pesticides. Many halogenated compounds are DNAPLs. Head The pressure of a fluid on a given area, at a given point caused by the height of the fluid surface above the point. Also, water-level elevation in a well, or elevation to which the water of a flowing artesian well will rise in a pipe extended high enough to stop the flow. Heterogeneity Pertaining to an aquifer, variation in the value of one (or more) measurable properties in space. A synonym is nonuniform. Homogeneity Refers to subsurface media that are relatively uniform. Humic substance A macromolecular organic substance formed from the decomposition of plant or animal mate- rial. Hydraulic barrier A barrier to flow caused by system hydraulics, such as a line of ground water discharge caused by extraction wells. Hydraulic conductivity (K) The coefficient of proportionality between the flow rate (specific discharge) of water through a permeable medium in response to a hydraulic gradient. The density and kinematic viscosity of the water affect the hydraulic conductivity. It has dimensions of L/T. K is a function of both the
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 283 permeable medium and the fluid moving through it. It is related to the intrinsic permeability (k): K= k(Ïg/Âµ), where Ï represents the fluid density and Âµ repre- sents the dynamic viscosity. Hydraulic gradient Difference in hydraulic head between two points divided by the distance between the points. HFO Hydrous ferrous oxide. Hydrophilic âWater lovingâ; refers to compounds that are highly water soluble. Hydrophobic âWater fearingâ; refers to substances that are relatively insoluble in water. Igneous rock A rock that solidified from molten material. "Ig- neous" is one of the three categories (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) into which all rocks are divided. Infiltration The flow of water downward from the land sur- face into and through the upper soil layers. Infiltration Basin Synonymous with recharge basin. Infiltration rate Generally, the rate at which a soil under speci- fied conditions can absorb falling rain or melting snow; in recharge, the rate at which water drains into the ground when a recharge basin is flooded, expressed as of water per unit time. Injection well Well used for emplacing fluids into the subsur- face. Intrinsic permeability A measure of the relative ease with which a po- rous medium can transmit a liquid under a poten- tial gradient. Intrinsic permeability is a property of the medium and is dependent on the shape and size of the openings through which the liquid moves.
284 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Ion A molecule that has a positive or negative elec- tric charge. Ion exchange The exchange of ions between a solution and a solid while maintaining charge balance. Through ion exchange, charged molecules that are natu- rally part of the subsurface soil may be replaced by contaminant molecules. Irrigation The application of water to soil for crop produc- tion or for turf, shrubbery, or wildlife food and habitat. Intended to provide water requirements of plants not satisfied by rainfall. Leakance The ratio of vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) to the thickness of the confining unit or aquitard. Lithology A description of the rocks beneath the ground at a site. LL Conductively focused-current logs. Managed (or management Intentional banking and treatment of water in of) Aquifer Recharge (MAR) aquifers (synonymous with AR). MUS may be considered a subset within MAR. Maximum contaminant The maximum amount of a compound allowed level (MCL) in drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act. MCLs are set by considering both health ef- fects of the compound and technical feasibility of removing the compound from the water supply. Maximum contaminant Nonenforceable health goal established under the levels goal (MCLG) Safe Drinking Water Act intended to protect against known and anticipated adverse human health effects with an adequate margin of safety. Technical feasibility is not considered in setting MCLGs. Method detection limit The constituent concentration that, when proc- essed through a complete method, produces a signal with a 99 percent probability that it is dif- ferent from a blank.
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 285 Metamorphic rock A rock created from preexisting rocks in re- sponse to changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, or chemical environment. MLL Micro-focused logs. Monitoring well A tube or pipe, open to the atmosphere at the top and to water at the bottom, used for taking groundwater samples. MUS Managed Underground Storage. NGW Native groundwater. NNL Neutron log. Numerical model A model whose solution must be approximated by varying the values of controlling parameters and using computers to solve approximate forms of the model's governing equations. Oxidation reaction The transfer of electrons away from one com- pound to another.. Oxidation reactions are im- portant in the destruction of contaminants. They may occur spontaneously when the appropriate chemicals are mixed, or they may be catalyzed by microorganisms. For example, when mi- crobes degrade organic compounds, they may transfer electrons away from the compound, converting the compound to carbon dioxide and deriving energy from the electron transfer proc- ess. Pathogen A disease-causing microorganism. Permeability The coefficient of proportionality between the flow rate (specific discharge) of a fluid through a permeable medium in response to the hydraulic gradient (driving force); k is a characteristic solely of the medium. The dimensions of k are L2. The relation to hydraulic conductivity is given in Hydraulic conductivity.
286 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Phreatophyte A deep-rooted plant that obtains its water from the water table or the layer of soil just above it. Plume A zone containing predominantly dissolved con- taminants and sorbed contaminants in equilib- rium with the dissolved contaminants. A plume usually will originate from the contaminant source areas and extend downgradient for some distance, depending on site hydrogeologic and chemical conditions. Polychlorinated biphenyl A type of contaminant built from two benzene (PCB) rings and chlorine atoms. PCBs are very stable, resisting both chemical and biological degrada- tion, and are toxic to many species. At one time, they were used commonly in electrical trans- formers as heat insulators. Polycyclic aromatic A compound built from two or more benzene hydrocarbon (PAH) rings. Sources of PAHs include fossil fuels and incomplete combustion of organic matter (in auto engines, incinerators, and even forest fires). Pore A small space between the grains of sand, soil, or rock in the subsurface. Groundwater is stored and transmitted in pores. Porosity The ratio of the volume of void spaces (Vv) con- tained within a volume of rock, sediment, or soil, to the total volume Vt (rock, sediment or soil par- ticle volume + void space volume) (porosity = Vv/Vt). The effective porosity represents voids spaces through which water or other fluids flow in a rock or sediment. It excludes isolated or dead-end pores and the volume within pores oc- cupied by water adsorbed on minerals. Primary porosity is the space between grains created when a rock or sediment was formed. Secondary porosity is caused by fracture or weathering in a rock or sediment after it has been formed. Porous medium A subsurface zone composed of small rocks or sand particles with pores that can transmit or store water.
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 287 Potable reuse, direct Occurs when there is a piped connection of water reclaimed from wastewater to a potable water supply distribution system or a water treatment plant. Potable reuse, indirect Planned indirect potable reuse occurs when wastewater effluent is discharged to a water source with the intent of subsequently reusing the water rather than as a means of disposal. Unplanned indirect potable reuse occurs when a water supply is withdrawn for potable purposes from a natural surface or underground water source that is fed in part by the discharge of a wastewater effluent. The wastewater effluent is discharged to the water source as a means of dis- posal and subsequent reuse of the effluent is a byproduct of the disposal plan. Potable water Water that has been treated to be or is naturally suitable for drinking. Potentiometric surface The height of rise of the water due to hydrostatic pressure when the constraint of the confining layer is removed. Sometimes referred to as the piezometric surface. Prior Appropriation A concept in water law under which a right is determined by such a procedure as having the earliest priority date. QA/QC Quality assurance/quality control. ORE Operational recovery efficiency. Recharge area An area in which water infiltrates the ground and (groundwater) reaches the zone of saturation. Recharge basin (or pond) A surface facility, often a large pond, used to increase the infiltration of surface water into a groundwater basin. Basins require the presence of permeable soils or sediments at or near the land surface and an unconfined aquifer beneath.
288 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Recharge The replenishment of water beneath the earth's surface, usually through percolation through soils or connection to surface water bodies. Recharge Well A well used to recharge water directly to either a confined or an unconfined aquifer. Reclaimed water Wastewater made fit for reuse for potable or nonpotable purposes. Redox potential The distribution of oxidized and reduced species in a solution at equilibrium. Redox potential is important for predicting the likelihood that met- als will precipitate from ground water upon pumping, for estimating the capacity of microor- ganisms Reduction reaction The transfer of electrons to one compound from another (also see Oxidation reaction). Oxida- tion-reduction reactions are important in the de- struction of contaminants. They may occur spon- taneously, when the appropriate chemicals are combined, or they may be catalyzed by microor- ganisms. For example, when microbes degrade organic compounds, they may transfer electrons from the compound to oxygen, converting the oxygen to water. Residence time The average amount of time a fluid spends dur- ing transport through a unit volume of subsur- face or a laboratory vessel. Retardation The movement of a solute through a geologic medium at a velocity lower than that of the groundwater. Retardation is caused by sorption and other phenomena that separate a fraction of the solute mass from the bulk groundwater. Reverse osmosis A highly efficient removal process for inorganic ions, salts, some organic compounds, and in some designs, microbiological contaminants. Reverse osmosis resembles the membrane filtra- tion process in that it involves the application of a high feed water pressure to force water through semipermeable membrane. In osmotic processes,
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 289 water spontaneously passes through semiperme- able membrane from a dilute solution to a con- centrated solution in order to equilibrate concen- trations. Reverse osmosis is produced by exert- ing enough pressure on a concentrated solution to reverse this flow and push the water from the concentrated solution to the more dilute one. The result is clear permeate water and a brackish re- ject concentrate. Reynolds number Expressed as follows: R = Ïvd/Âµ Where Ï is the density of water (mass/volume), v is the specific discharge (length/time), d is a rep- resentative grain diameter for the porous media (often taken as the 30% passing size from a grain size analysis using sieves - units of length), and Âµ is the dynamic viscosity of the water (mass/(length x time). Runoff That part of the precipitation that moves from the land to surface water bodies. RW recharged water. Safe Drinking Water Act The law, passed in 1974, that required the setting (SDWA) of standards to protect the public from exposure to contaminants in drinking water. Salinization To become impregnated with salt; concentration of dissolved salts in water or soil water. An envi- ronmental impact of irrigation that can be man- aged but not eliminated. Saturated zone That part of the earth's crust beneath the regional water table in which all voids, large and small, are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric. Secondary porosity The porosity developed in a rock formation after its deposition or emplacement, either through natural processes of dissolution or stress distor- tion, or artificially through acidization or the me- chanical injection of coarse sand
290 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Sedimentary rock A rock created from the consolidation of loose sediment that has accumulated in layers. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) Treated sewage effluent, known as reclaimed water, is intermittently infiltrated through infil- tration ponds to facilitate nutrient and pathogen removal during passage through the unsaturated zone for recovery by wells after residence in the aquifer. Sorption A process that removes solutes from the fluid phase and concentrates them on the solid phase of a medium. SP Spontaneous potential. Specific capacity An expression of the productivity of a well. Ob- tained by dividing the rate of discharge of water from the well by the drawdown of the water level in the well. It has dimensions of L3/TâL. It should be described on the basis of the number of hours of pumping prior to the time the draw- down measurement is made. Specific storage The volume of water that a unit volume of porous medium releases from storage under a unit decline in hydraulic head (Freeze and Cherry) (while it still remains fully saturated). It has dimensions of inverse length, [L-1]. It describes storage in confined aquifers. Specific yield The term used to describe storage in unconfined aquifers. âIt is defined as the volume of water that an unconfined aquifer releases from storage per unit surface area of aquifer per unit decline in the water tableâ (Freeze and Cherry, p. 61). Spreading basin Synonymous with Recharge basin. Storativity The product of specific storage and aquifer thickness, defines the volume of water released from storage per unit decline in hydraulic head in the aquifer, per unit surface area of the aquifer
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 291 Stormwater runoff Water resulting from precipitation which either infiltrates into the ground, impounds/puddles, or runs freely from the surface, or is captured by storm drainage, a combined sewer, and to a lim- ited degree, by sanitary sewer facilities. Sulfate reduction The conversion of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide by microorganisms. Because they can degrade haz- ardous compounds without using oxygen, sul- fate-reducing bacteria can be important players in the subsurface, where the oxygen supply is of- ten limited. Surface spreading Recharging water at the surface through recharge basins, ponds, pits, trenches, constructed wet- lands, or other systems. Surface tension The tension at the surface between a liquid and its own vapor. Surficial aquifer An aquifer that is near the earth's surface, in the most recent of geologic deposits. SW Source water. TDEM Time-domain electromagnetic. TDS Total dissolved solids. Tertiary treatment The treatment of wastewater beyond the secon- dary or biological stage. The term normally im- plies the removal of nutrients, such as phospho- rus and nitrogen, and of a high percentage of suspended solids. It is now commonly replaced by the term âadvanced waste treatment.â TM Temperature log. TOC Total organic carbon. Transmissivity The rate at which water is transmitted through a unit width of an aquifer under a unit hydraulic gradient. In a confined aquifer, it is equal to the product of the hydraulic conductivity and the aq-
292 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER uifer thickness. It is a function of properties of the liquid, the porous media, as well as the per- meability and thickness of the aquifer. It pro- vides a measure of capability of the entire thick- ness of an aquifer to transmit water. TSV Target storage volume. TW Transitional water. UIC Underground Injection Control. Unconfined aquifer See confined aquifer. Underground storage and Similar to MUS; any type of project whose recovery (USR) purpose is the artificial recharge, underground storage, and recovery of project water. Unsaturated zone The zone between the land surface and the re- gional water table. Generally, water in this zone is under less than atmospheric pressure, and some of the voids may contain air or other gases at atmospheric pressure. Beneath flooded areas or in perched water bodies the water pressure lo- cally may be greater than atmospheric. Vadose zone See unsaturated zone. Vadose zone well A well constructed in the interval between the land surface and the top of the static water level and designed to optimize infiltration of water. Volatile organic compound An organic chemical that volatilizes (evaporates) (VOC) relatively easily when exposed to air. Wastewater Water that carries waste from homes, businesses, and industries; a mixture of water and dissolved or suspended solids. Water quality The chemical, physical, and biological condition of water related to a beneficial use. Water resource The supply of ground- and surface water in a given area.
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY 293 Water table The âtopâ of the subsurface zone that is saturated with groundwater. More precisely, it is the sur- face in an aquifer at which pore water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. Water Withdrawal Water removed from ground or surface water sources for use. Watershed A geographic region (area of land) within which precipitation drains into a particular river, drain- age system or body of water that has one specific delivery point. Water-table aquifer An aquifer in which the water table forms the upper boundary. WTP Wastewater Treatment Plant. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arizona Department of Water Resources. 2001. Underground Storage and Re- covery Regulations, State of New Mexico., Available online at http://www.ose.state.nm.us/ doing-business/ground-water-regs/ground- water-regs.html. de Marsily, G. 1986. Quantitative Hydrogeology. Burlington, MA: Academic Press. Dillon, P. 2005. Future management of aquifer recharge. Hydrogeology Journal 13:313â316. DOI 10.1007/s10040-004-0413-6. Fetter, C. W. 2001. Applied Hydrogeology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Freeze, R. A., and J. A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. New York: Prentice-Hall Lohman, S. W., et al. 1972 Definitions of Selected Ground-Water Termsâ Revisions and Conceptual Refinements, U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 1988. Municipal Water District of Orange County. 1994. Available on-line at http://www.mwdoc.com/glossary.htm; NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 1996. A New Era for Irrigation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. NRC. 1997. Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
294 PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER NRC. 1998. Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water. Washington, DC: National Acad- emies Press. Well Abandonment Handbook. Available on-line at http://www.azwater.gov /dwr/Content/Find_by_Program/Wells/WellAbandonmentHandbook5.pdf. WRIA Watershed Management Project., Available online at http://www. wria1project .wsu.edu/watershedplan/WMP_Master_Glossary.pdf.