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Glenn Schweitzer, Editor Committee on the U.S.-Iran Workshop on Science and Technology and the Future Development of Societies Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESSâ 500 Fifth Street, N.W.â Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:â 978-0-309-11927-6 International Standard Book Number-10:â 0-309-11927-8 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eur- asia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a man- date that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr.Â Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON THE U.S.-IRAN WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETIES George Bugliarello, Chair, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic University David R. Challoner, Vice President for Health Affairs, Emeritus, University of Florida Michael T. Clegg, Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Program Director, The National Academies A. Chelsea Sharber, Senior Program Associate, The National Academies Elizabeth D. Keller, Mirzayan Science Policy Graduate Fellow, The National Academies Merc Fox, Senior Program Assistant, The National Academies
Preface I n June 2006, seventeen scientists and educators selected by the National Academies, the Academy of Sciences of Iran, and the AcadÃ©mie des ÂSciences of France held a workshop at the estate of the Fondation des Treilles in T Â outour, France, to discuss issues concerning the role of science in the develop- ment of modern societies. This location was an idyllic setting for relaxed conver- sations, while simplifying travel and visa arrangements for the participants. The three academies had organized a related workshop on food safety and security, global energy transitions, and education issues at the estate in 2003; the success of that workshop was a strong incentive to return to Toutour. This report includes the presentations made at the workshop and summa- rizes the discussions that followed the presentations. The statements made in the enclosed papers are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent positions of the National Academies. Unfortunately, three of the Iranian specialists and one American specialist who were scheduled to participate were unable to travel to France. However, they provided the papers that they intended to present. These papers are included in the appendixes of the report. An important observation of the participants was that the topics that were addressed, particularly the inclusion of science-oriented themes throughout the K-12 education curriculum, warranted more detailed discussions between ÂIranian and Western colleagues. The National Academies are currently exploring oppor- tunities to continue such discussions in Iran, and this report provides useful background for the further development of interactions of Western scientists and educators with Iranian specialists. vii
viii PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of such an indepen- dent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the insti- tution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of selected papers: R. Stephen Berry, University of Chicago; James Childress, University of Virginia; Denis Gray, North Carolina State University; Janet Hustler, Â Synopsys, Inc.; Richard McCray, University of Colorado at Boulder; Wilhelmine Miller, George Washington University; and Andrew Schrank, University of New Mexico. Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors and the institution. George Bugliarello Chair, National Research Council Committee on the U.S.-Iran Workshop on Science and Technology and the Future Development of Societies Glenn E. Schweitzer Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council
Contents SCIENCE AND SOCIETY ISSUES The Role of Communications and Scientific Thinking 3 Barbara Schaal Knowledge, Validation, and Transfer: Science, Communication, and Economic Development 5 John Enderby The Morality of Exact Sciences 10 Yousef Sobouti Science and Society Issues: Summary of Discussion 14 Norman Neureiter THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPMENT Women in Academic Science and Engineering in the United States: Challenges and Opportunities 19 Geraldine Richmond Trends in Basic Sciences in Contemporary Iran: Growth and Structure of Mainstream Basic Sciences 24 Shapour Etemad and Yousef Sobouti ix
CONTENTS The Role of Science and Engineering in Development: Summary of Discussion 31 Michael Fischer OBSTACLES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO DEVELOPMENT Technology for Health: Are There Any Limits? Economic, Ethical, and Overall Societal Implications 37 Kenneth Shine Addressing Water Security: The Role of Science and Technology 39 Henry Vaux Obstacles and Opportunities in the Application of Science and Technology to Development: Summary of Discussion 45 Geraldine Richmond SCIENTIFIC THINKING OF DECISION MAKERS How to Promote Scientific Thinking Amongst Decision Makers 49 Alimohammad Kardan MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE The Role of International Scientific and Technical Cooperation in National Economic Development 55 Norman Neureiter The Role of Chemistry and Biology in the Future Development of Iran 61 Mojtaba Shamsipur Management and Utilization of Scientific Knowledge: Summary of Discussion 75 Henry Vaux SCIENCE, SOCIETY, AND EDUCATION About the Relation of School Teachers with Science 81 Yves QuÃ©rÃ© Promotion of Health Education in Primary Schools 84 BÃ©atrice Descamps-Latscha
CONTENTS xi Science, Society, and Education: Summary of Discussion 92 Barbara Schaal and Henry Vaux APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda: International Workshop on Science and Technology and the Future Development of Societies 97 B Workshop Participants 101 C Science, Technology, and SocietyâThe Tightening Circle 103 George Bugliarello D Current Issues on the Utilization of Scientific Findings 112 Hassan Zohoor E Ethics in Engineering as a Prerequisite for Technological Development of Societies 117 Mehdi Bahadori and Mahmood Yaghoubi F Science and Society 125 Reza Davari Ardakani