Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
References Abel, R.L. 1974 A comparative theory of dispute institutions in society. Law and Society Review, 8, 217-347. 1982 The Politics of Informal Justice: Volume 1. New York: Academic Press. Abels, G. 2007 Citizen involvement in public policy-making: Does it improve democratic legitimacy and accountability? The Case of pTA. Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, 13(1), 103-116. Abelson, J., Forest, P.G., Eyles, J., Casebeer, A., Martin, E., and Mackean, G. 2007 Examining the role of context in the implementation of a deliberative public par- ticipation experiment: Results from a Canadian comparative study. Social Science & Medicine, 64(10), 2115-2128. Abelson, J., Forest, P.-G., Eyles, J., Smith, P., Martin, E., and Gauvin, F.-P. 2003 Deliberations about deliberative methods: Issues in the design and evaluation of public participation processes. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 239-251. Acheson, D. 1941 Final Report of the Attorney Generalâs Committee on Administrative Procedure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Ackerman, B., and Fishkin, J.S. 2004 Deliberation Day. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Adler, P.S., and Birkhoff, J. 2002 Building Trust: When Knowledge from Here Meets Knowledge from Away. Port- land, OR: National Policy Consensus Center. Available: http://www.keystone.org/ spp/documents/Building_trust.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations 1979 Citizen Participation in the American Federal System. Washington, DC: Author. 245
246 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Agrawal, A. 2002 Common resources and institutional sustainability. In National Research Council, The Drama of the Commons (pp. 41-85). Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. E. Ostrom, T. Dietz., N. Dolsak, P.C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E.U. Weber (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. Andresen, S., Skodvin, T., Underdal, A., and Wettestad, J. (Eds.) 2000 Science and Politics in International Environmental Regimes: Between Integrity and Involvement. New York: Manchester University Press. Applegate, J.S., and Dycus. S. 1998 Institutional controls or emperorâs clothes? Long-term stewardship on the nuclear weapons complex. The Environmental Law Reporter News & Analysis, 28(11), 10631-10652. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment 2004 Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge, Eng- land: Cambridge University Press. Argryris, C. 1982 The executive mind and double-loop learning. Organizational Dynamics, Autumn, 5-22. Arkes, H.R. 1991 Costs and benefits of judgment errors: Implications for debiasing. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 486-498. 2003 The nonuse of psychological research at two federal agencies. Psychological Science, 14, 1-6. Arnstein, S. 1969 A ladder of participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 5, 216-224. Aron, J.B. 1979 Citizen participation at government expense. Public Administration Review, 39, 477-485. Aronoff, M., and Gunter, V. 1992 Defining disaster: Local constructions for recovery in the aftermath of chemical contamination. Social Problems, 39, 345-365. 1994 A pound of cure: Facilitating participatory processes in technological hazard dis- putes. Society and Natural Resources, 7, 235-252. Arrow, K.J. 1951 Social Choice and Individual Values. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Arvai, J.L. 2003 Using risk communication to disclose the outcome of a participatory decision- making process: Effects on the perceived acceptability of risk-policy decisions. Risk Analysis, 23, 281-289. Ashford, N.A., and Rest, K.M. 1999 Public Participation in Contaminated Communities. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Develop- ment. Available: http://web.mit.edu/ctpid/www/tl/TL-pub-PPCC.html [accessed June 2008]. Association of American Geographers 2003 Global Change and Local Places: Estimating, Understanding, and Reducing Green- house Gases. New York: Cambridge University Press.
REFERENCES 247 Attorney Generalâs Commission on Administrative Procedure 1941 Final Report of the Attorney Generalâs Commission on Administrative Procedure. Washington, DC: Department of Justice. Aven, T. 2003 Foundations of Risk Analysis: A Knowledge and Decision-Oriented Perspective. Chichester, England: Wiley. Avery, M., Streibel, B.J., and Auvine, B. 1981 Building United Judgment: A Handbook for Consensus Decision Making. Madison, WI: Center for Conflict Resolution. Bacow, L.S., and Wheeler, M. 1984 Environmental Dispute Resolution. New York: Plenum Press. Baland, J., and Platteau, J. 1996 Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: Is There a Role for Rural Communities? Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Barber, B.R. 1984 Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley: University of California Press. Barke, R.P., and Jenkins-Smith, H.C. 1993 Politics and scientific expertise: Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy. Risk Analysis, 13, 425-439. Baron, J., and Hershey, J.C. 1988 Outcome bias in decision evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 569-579. Baron, J., and Spranca, M. 1997 Protected values. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 1-16. Baron, J., Hershey, J.C., and Kunreuther, H. 2000 Determinants of priority for risk reductions: The role of worry. Risk Analysis, 20, 413-427. Bartos, O.J. 1974 Process and Outcome of Negotiations. New York: Columbia University Press. Baughman, M. 1995 Mediation. In O. Renn, T. Webler, and P. Wiedemann (Eds.), Fairness and Compe- tence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating New Models for Environmental Discourse (pp. 253-266). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. Baumgartner, F., and Jones, B.D. 1993 Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Baumol, W.J. 1986 Superfairness: Applications and Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bayley, C., and French, S. 2008 Designing a participatory process for stakeholder involvement in a societal decision. Group Decision and Negotiation, 17, 195-210. Bazerman, M.H., Curhan, J.R., Moore, D.A., and Valley, K.L. 2000 Negotiation. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 279-314. Bechtel, R.B., Verdugo, V.C., and Pinheiro, J.D.Q. 1999 Environmental belief systems: United States, Brazil, and Mexico. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology, 30, 122-128. Behn, R.D., and Vaupel, J.V. 1982 Quick Analysis for Busy Decision Makers. New York: Basic Books.
248 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Beierle, T.C. 2000 The Quality of Stakeholder-Based Decisions: Lessons from Case Study Record. (Discussion paper #00-56.) Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. 2002 Democracy On-Line: An Evaluation of the National Public Dialogue on Public Involvement in EPA Decisions. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. Beierle, T.C., and Cayford, J. 2002 Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. Washing- ton, DC: Resources for the Future. Beierle, T.C., and Konisky, D.M. 1999 Public Participation in Environmental Planning in the Great Lakes Region. (Discus- sion paper #99-50.) Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. 2000 Values, conflict, and trust in participatory environmental planning. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19, 587-602. Benhabib, S. 1992 Autonomy, modernity, and community: Communitarianism and critical theory in dialogue. In A. Honneth, T. McCarthy, C. Offe, and A. Wellmer (Eds.), Cultural- Political Interventions in the Unfinished Project of Enlightenment (pp. 39-61). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bentkover, J.D., Covello, V.T., and Mumpower, J. (Eds.) 1985 Benefits Assessment: The State of the Art. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: D. Reidel. Bercovitch, J. 1984 Social Conflict and Third Parties: Strategies of Conflict Resolution. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Berkes, F. 2002 Cross-scale institutional linkages: Perspectives from the bottom up. In National Research Council, The Drama of the Commons (pp. 292-321). Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P.C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E.U. Weber (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Berkes, F., Mahon, R., McConney, P., Pollnac, R.C., and Pomeroy, R.S. 2001 Managing Small-Scale Fisheries: Alternative Directions and Methods. Ottawa: In- ternational Development Research Centre. Berry, J.B., Portney, K.E., and Thomson, K. 1993 The Rebirth of Urban Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Besley, J.C., and McComas, K.A. 2005 Framing justice: Using the concept of procedural justice to advance political com- munication research. Communication Theory, 15, 414-436. Bingham, G. 1986 Resolving Environmental Disputes: A Decade of Experience. Washington, DC: The Conservation Foundation. 2003 When the Sparks Fly: Building Consensus When the Science Is Contested. Washing- ton, DC: Resolve. Birkhoff, J., and Bingham, G. 2004 Conflict Management and Dispute Resolution. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, April, Washington, DC. Black, D.T. 1948 On the rationale of group decision making. Journal of Political Economy, 56, 23-34.
REFERENCES 249 Blackstock, K.L., Kelly, G.J., and Horsey, B.L. 2007 Developing and applying a framework to evaluate participatory research for sustain- ability. Ecological Economics, 60, 726-742. Blader, S.L., and Tyler, T.R. 2003 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ A four-component model of procedural justice: Defining the meaning of a âfairâ process. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 747-758. Bleiker, A., and Bleiker, H. 2000 Citizen Participation Handbook for Public Officials and Other Professionals Serv- ing the Public (13th ed.). Monterey, CA: Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. Blundel, R. 2004 Effective Organizational Communication. London, England: Pearson. Bobbio, N. 1987 The Future of Democracy. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. Bohm, G., and Pfister, H.R. 2000 Action tendencies and characteristics of environmental risks. Acta Psychologica, 104, 317-337. Bohman, J. 1997 Deliberative democracy and effective social freedom: Capabilities, resources, and opportunities. In J. Bohman and W. Rehg (Eds.), Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics (pp. 321-348). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Boholm, A. 1998 Comparative studies of risk perception: A review of twenty years of research. Jour- nal of Risk Research, 1(2), 135-163. Boix, C., and Posner, D.N. 1998 Social capital: Explaining its origins and effects on government performance. British Journal of Political Science, 28(4), 686-693. Bora, A., and Hausendorf, H. 2006 Participatory science governance revisited: Normative expectations versus empirical evidence. Science and Public Policy, 33, 478-488. Borcherding, K., Rohrmann, B., and Eppel, T. 1986 A psychological study on the cognitive structure of risk evaluations. In B. Brehmer, H. Jungermann, P. Lourens, and G.Sevon (Eds.), New Directions in Research on Decision Making (pp. 245-262). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: North-Holland. Bord, R.J., and OâConnor, R.E. 1997 The gender gap in environmental attitudes: The case of perceived vulnerability to risk. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 830-840. Bornstein, G. 1992 The free-rider problem in intergroup conflicts over step-level and continuous public goods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 597-606. Bourdieu, P. 1985 The forms of capital. In J.G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood. Bowles, S., and Gintis, H. 1986 Democracy and Capitalism: Property, Community, and the Contradictions of Mod- ern Social Thought. New York: Basic Books. Boyer, B., and Meidinger, E. 1985 Privatizing regulatory enforcement: A preliminary assessment of citizen suits under federal environmental laws. Buffalo Law Review, 35, 834-965.
250 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Boyte, H.C. 1980 The Backyard Revolution: Understanding the New Citizen Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 2004 Everyday Politics: Reconnecting Citizens and Public Life. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Bradbury, J. 1989 The policy implications of differing concepts of risk. Science, Technology, and Hu- man Values, 14(4), 380-399. 2005 Evaluating Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assess- ment and Decision Making, Feb. 3-5, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Available: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/hdgc/Bradbury%20Text.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Bradbury, J., and Branch, K.M. 1999 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Local Site-Specific Advisory Boards for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Programs. (PNNL-12139.) Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Available: http://www. osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/4269-c1tCdi/webviewable/4269.PDF [accessed June 2008]. Bradbury, J., Branch, K., and Malone, E. 2003 An Evaluation of DOE-EM Public Participation Programs. (Report prepared for the DOE Environmental Management Program, PNNL-14200.) Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Bradbury, J., Branch, K., Santos, S., and Chess, C. 2005 An Evaluation and Recommendations for Enhancing U.S. Army Restoration Ad- visory Boards. (Revised final report.) Fort Belvoir, VA: Department of Defense, Defense Technical Information Center. Bramwell, R., West, H., and Salmon, P. 2006 Health professionalsâ and service usersâ interpretation of screening test results: Experimental study. British Medical Journal, 333(7562), 284-286. Branch, K., and Bradbury, J. 2006 Comparison of DOE and Army advisory boards: Application of a conceptual frame- work for evaluating public participation in environmental risk decision making. Policy Studies Journal, 34(4), 723-754. Brashers, D.E. 2001 Communication and uncertainty management. Journal of Communication, 51, 477-497. Brewer, G.D 2007 Inventing the future: Scenarios, imagination, mastery and control. Sustainability Science, 2, 159-177. Breyer, S. 1993 Breaking the Vicious Circle: Toward Effective Risk Regulation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Briggs, X. de Sousa 1998 Doing democracy up-close: Culture, power, and communication in community building. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 18(1), 1-13. Brouwer, R., Powe, N., Turner, R.K., Bateman, I.J., and Langford, I.H. 1999 Public attitudes to contingent valuation and public consultation. Environmental Values, 8(3), 325-347. Brown, P. 1992 Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: Lay and professional ways of knowing. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 267-281.
REFERENCES 251 Brown, P., and Mikkelsen, E.J. 1990 No Safe Place: Toxic Waste, Leukemia, and Community Action. Berkeley: Univer- sity of California Press. Brown, P., Mayer, B., Zavetoski, S., Luebke, T., Mandlebaum, J., and McCormick, S. 2003 The politics of asthma suffering: Environmental justice and the social movement transformation of illness experience. Social Science and Medicine, 57(3), 453-464. Brown, P., McCormick, S., Mayer, B., Zavestoski, S., Morello-Frosch, R., Altman, R.G., and Senier, L. 2006 âA lab of our ownâ: Environmental causation of breast cancer and challenges to the dominant epidemiological paradigm. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 31(5), 499-536. Brown, P., Zavestoski, S., Mayer, B., McCormick, S., and Webster, P. 2002 Policy issues in environmental health disputes. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 584, 175-202. Brown, P., Zavestoski, S., McCormick, S., Mayer, B., Morello-Frosch, R., and Gasior, R. 2004 Embodied health movements: New approaches to social movements in health. So- ciology of Health and Illness, 26(1), 50-80. Brulle, R.J. 1992 JÃ¼rgen Habermas: An exegesis for human ecologists. Human Ecology Bulletin, 8(Spring/Summer), 29-40. 1994 Power, discourse, and social problems: Social problems from a rhetorical perspec- tive. Current Perspectives in Social Problems, 5, 95-121. 2000 Agency, Democracy, and Nature: The U.S. Environmental Movement from a Criti- cal Theory Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Brun, F., and Buttoud, G. 2003 The Formulation of Integrated Management Plans (IMPs) for Mountains Forests. Quaderni of the Department of Economics and Agricultural Engineering, Forestry and Environmental University of Turin. Bryan, F.M. 2004 Real Democracy: The New England Town Meeting and How It Works. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bryant, B. (Ed.) 1995 Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions. Washington, DC: Island Press. Bullard, R.D. 1990 Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Bullard, R.D., and Johnson, G.S. 2000 Environmentalism and public policy environmental justice: Grassroots activism and its impact on public policy decision making. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 555-578. Burgess, J., and Clark, J. 2006 Evaluating public and stakeholder engagement strategies in environmental gover- nance. In A.G. Peirez, S.G. Vaz, and S. Tognetti (Eds.), Interfaces Between Science and Society (Chapter 13). Sheffield, England: Greenleaf. Burgess, J., Stirling, A., Clark, J., Davies, G., Eames, M., Staley, C., and Williamson, S. 2007 Deliberative mapping: A novel analytic-deliberative methodology to support con- tested science-policy decisions. Public Understanding of Science, 16, 299-322. Burns, T.R., and Ãberhorst, R. 1988 Creative Democracy: Systematic Conflict Resolution and Policymaking in a World of High Science and Technology. New York: Praeger.
252 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Cacioppo, J.T., Petty, R.E., Feinstein, J., and Jarvis, W.B.G. 1996 Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: The life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 197-253. Caldwell, L.K. 1998 The National Environmental Policy Act: An Agenda for the Future. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Campbell, D.T. 1969 Reforms as experiments. American Psychologist, 24, 409-429. Campbell, M.C. 2003 Intractability in environmental disputes: Exploring a complex construct. Journal of Planning Literature, 17, 360-371. Campbell, S., and Currie, G. 2006 Against Beck: In defense of risk analysis. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 36(2), 149-172. Canadian Round Tables 1993 Building Consensus for a Sustainable Future: Guiding Principles (1st ed.). Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and Economy. Capella, J., Price, V., and Nir, L. 2002 Argument repertoire as a reliable and valid measure of opinion quality: Electronic dialogue in campaign 2000. Political Communication, 19, 73-93. Carnes, S.A., Schweitzer, M., Peelle, E.B., Wolfe, A.K., and Munro, J.F. 1998 Measuring the success of public participation on environmental restoration and waste management activities in the U.S. Department of Energy. Technology in So- ciety, 20(4), 385-406. Carnevale, P.J.D., and Pruitt, D.G. 1992 Negotiation and mediation. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 511-582. Carpenter, S., and Kennedy, W.J.D. 1988 Managing Public Disputes. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Carr, D.S., Selin, S.W., and Schuett, M.A. 1998 Managing public forests: Understanding the role of collaborative planning. Envi- ronmental Management, 22(5), 767-776. Cestero, B. 1999 Beyond the Hundredth Meeting: A Field Guide to Collaborative Conservation on the Westâs Public Lands. Tucson, AZ: The Sonoran Institute. Chakraborty, J., and Bosman, M.M. 2005 Measuring the digital divide in the United States: Race, income, and personal com- puter ownership. The Professional Geographer, 57(3), 395-410. Chambers, R. 1997 Whose Reality Counts?: Putting the First Last. London, England: Intermediate Technology Publications. 2005 Ideas for Development. London, England: Earthscan. Chambers, S. 1996 Reasonable Democracy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2003 Deliberative democratic theory. Annual Review of Political Science, 6, 307-326. Charnley, G. 2003 How the Risk Commission evolved from the Red Book. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9, 1213-1218. Chess, C. 2001 Organizational theory and the stages of risk communication. Risk Analysis, 21(1), 179-188.
REFERENCES 253 Chess, C., and Johnson, B.B. 2006 Organizational learning about public participation: âTiggersâ and âEeyores.â Hu- man Ecology Review, 13(2), 182-192. Chess, C., Dietz, T., and Shannon, M. 1998 Who should deliberate when? Human Ecology Review, 5, 45-48. Chess, C., Tamuz, M., and Greenberg, M. 1995 Organizational learning about environmental risk communication: The case of Rohm and Haasâ Bristol plant. Society and Natural Resources, 8, 57-66. Chilvers, J. 2005 Towards analytic-deliberative forms of risk governance in the UK? Reflections on learning in radioactive waste. Journal of Risk Research, 10(2), 197-222. 2008 Deliberating competence. Theoretical and practitioner perspectives on effective participatory appraisal practice. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 33(2), 155-185. Chrislip, D. 1994 Collaborative Leadership: How Citizens and Civic Leaders Can Make a Difference. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Clark, J., Burgess, J., and Harrison, C.M. 2000 âI struggled with this money businessâ: Respondentsâ perspectives on contingent valuation. Ecological Economics, 33(1), 45-62. Clark, W.C., Mitchell, R.B., and Cash, D.W. 2006 Evaluating the influence of global environmental assessments. In R.B. Mitchell, W.C. Clark, D.W. Cash, and N.M. Dickson (Eds.), Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence (pp. 1-28). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Clarke, J.N., and McCool, D. 1985 Staking out the Terrain: Power Differentials Among Natural Resource Management Agencies. Albany: State University of New York. Clayton, S., and Opotow, S. 2003 Justice and identity: Perspectives on what is fair. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 298-310. Clemen, R. 1996 Making Hard Decisions: An Introduction to Decision Analysis. Belmont, CA: Dux- bury Press. Cobb, S., and Rifkin, J. 1991 Practice and paradox: Deconstructing neutrality in mediation. Law and Social Inquiry, 16, 35-62. Coburn, J. 2005 Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice. Cam- bridge, MA: MIT Press. Coglianese, C. 1996 Litigating within relationships: Disputes and disturbance in the regulatory process. Law and Society Review, 30(4), 735-766. 1997 Assessing consensus: The promise and performance of negotiated rulemaking. Duke Law Journal, 46(6), 1255-1349. 1999 Limits of consensus. Environment, 41, 28-33. 2000 Is Consensus an Appropriate Basis for Regulatory Policy? (KSG Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP01-012.) Harvard University, Kennedy School of Gov- ernment, Boston, MA. Available: http://ksgnotes1.harvard.edu/Research/wpaper. nsf/rwp/RWP01-012/$File/rwp01_012_coglianese.pdf [accessed June 2008].
254 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 2003a Does consensus work? A pragmatic approach to public participation in the regula- tory process. In A. Morales (Ed.), Renascent Pragmatism: Studies in Law and Social Science (pp. 180-195). Burlington, VT: Ashgate Press. 2003b Is satisfaction success? Evaluating public participation in regulatory policymaking. In R. OâLeary and L. Bingham (Eds.), The Promise and Performance of Envi- ronmental Conflict Resolution (pp. 69-89). Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. 2003c The Internet and Public Participation in Rulemaking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Center for Business and Government. Coleman, J.S. 1957 Community Conflict. New York: Free Press. 1988 Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95-120. 1990 Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Collins, H.M., and Evans, R. 2002 The third wave of science studies: Studies of expertise and experience. Social Studies of Science, 32, 235-296. Condorcet, M.J.A.N. de C., Marquis de 1785 Essai sur lâapplication de lâanalyse Ã la probabilitÃ© des decisions rendues Ã la plura- litÃ© des voix. Paris: lâImprimerie Royale. [facsimile ed., New York: Chelsea House, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1972.] Consensus Building Institute 1999 Using Assisted Negotiation to Settle Land Use Disputes: A Guidebook for Public Officials. Washington, DC: Author. Coppock, R. 1985 Interactions between scientists and public officials: A comparison of the use of sci- ence in regulatory programs in the United States and West Germany. Policy Sciences, 18, 371-390. Cormick, G.W. 1980 The âtheoryâ and practice of environmental mediation. The Environmental Profes- sional, 2(1), 24-33. Corrigan, P., and Joyce, P. 1997 Five arguments for deliberative democracy. Political Studies, 48, 947-969. Cortner, H.J. 1996 Public Involvement and Interaction. In A.W. Ewert (Ed.), Natural Resource Manage- ment: The Human Dimension (pp. 167-180). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Cortner, H.J., and Shannon, M.A. 1993 Embedding public participation in its political context. Journal of Forestry, 91(7), 14-16. Coser, L.A. 1956 The Function of Social Conflict. New York: Free Press. Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. 1996 Are humans good intuitive statisticians after all? Rethinking some conclusions from the literature on judgment under uncertainty. Cognition, 58, 1-73. Couch, S.R., and Kroll-Smith, S. 1994 Environmental controversies, interactional resources, and rural communities: Siting versus exposure disputes. Rural Sociology, 59, 25-44. 1997 Environmental movement and expert knowledge: Evidence of a new populism. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 34(2), 185-211. Covello, V.T. 1983 The perception of technological risks: A literature review. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 23, 285-297.
REFERENCES 255 Covello, V.T., Peters, R.G., Wojtecki, J.G., and Hyde, R.C. 2001 Risk communication, the West Nile virus epidemic, and bioterrorism: Respond- ing to the communication challenges posed by the intentional or unintentional release of a pathogen in an urban setting. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 78, 382-391. Available: http://www.centerforrisk communication.com/publications.htm [accessed June 2008]. Cox, R.T. 1961 The Algebra of Probable Inference. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Cramer, J.C., Dietz, T., and Johnston, R. 1980 Social impact assessment of regional plans: A review of methods and a recom- mended process. Policy Sciences, 12, 61-82. Cramton, R.C. 1971 The why, where, and how of broadened participation in the administrative process. Georgetown Law Journal, 60, 525-550. Creighton, J.L. 1992 Involving Citizens in Community Decision Making: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: Program for Community Problem Solving, National League of Cities. 1999 How to Design a Public Participation Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Intergovernmental and Public Accountability. 2005 The Public Participation Handbook: Making Better Decisions Through Citizen Involvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cross, F.B. 1992 The risk of reliance on perceived risk. Risk Issues in Health and Safety, 3, 59-70. 1998 Facts and values in risk assessment. Reliability Engineering and Systems Safety, 59, 27-45. Crowfoot, J., and Wondolleck, J. 1990 Environmental Disputes: Community Involvement in Conflict Resolution. Washing- ton, DC: Island Press. Cupps, D.S. 1977 Emerging problems of citizen participation. Public Administration Review, 37, 478-487. Dahl, R.A. 1989 Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1998 On Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Dana, D.A. 1994 The promise of a bureaucratic solution: Breaking the vicious circle toward effective risk regulation. Boston University Law Review, 74, 365-372. Daneke, G.A. 1983 Public involvement: Why, what, how? In G.A. Daneke, M.W. Garcia, and J. Delli Priscoli (Eds.), Public Involvement and Social Impact Assessment (pp. 11-33). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Daniels, S.E., and Walker, G.B. 1997 Rethinking Public Participation in Natural Resource Management: Concepts from Pluralism and Five Emerging Approaches. Paper prepared for the Food and Agri- culture Organization Working Group on Pluralism and Sustainable Forestry and Rural Development, December 9-12, Rome, Italy. Available: http://www.mtnforum. org/oldocs/260.doc [accessed April 2008]. 2001 Working Through Environmental Conflict: The Collaborative Learning Approach. Westport, CT: Praeger.
256 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Davidson, D.J., and Freudenburg, W.R. 1996 Gender and environmental risk concerns: A review and analysis of available re- search. Environment and Behavior, 28, 302-339. Dawes, R.M., van de Kragt, A.J.C., and Orbell, J.M. 1990 Cooperation for the benefit of us: Not me, or my conscience. In J. Mansbridge (Ed.), Beyond Self-Interest (pp. 97-110). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DeKay, M., and Vaughan, E. 2005 Individual Judgment and Decision-Making Processes: Influences on Public Partici- pation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assess- ment and Decision Making, Feb. 3-5, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. DeKay, M.L., Small, M.J., Fischbeck, P.S., Farrow, R.S., Cullen, A., Kadane, J.B., Lave, L.B., Morgan, M.G., and Takemura, K. 2002 Risk-based decision analysis in support of precautionary policies. Journal of Risk Research, 5, 391-417. Delfin, F.G., and Tang, S.-Y. 2005 Elitism, pluralism, or resource dependency: Patterns of environmental philanthropy among private foundations in California. Environment and Planning A, 39(9), 2167-2186. Delli Carpini, M.X., Cook, F.L., and Jacobs, L.R. 2004 Public deliberation, discursive participation, and citizen engagement: A review of the empirical literature. Annual Review of Political Science, 7, 315-344. Delli Priscoli, J. 1983 The citizen advisory group as an integrative tool in regional water resources plan- ning. In G. Daneke, M. Garcia, and J. Delli Priscoli (Eds.), Public Involvement and Social Impact Assessment (pp. 79-87). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Deutsch, M. 1973 The Resolution of Conflict: Constructive and Destructive Processes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Dewey, J. 1923 The Public and Its Problems. New York: Henry Holt. Diani, M., and McAdam, D. (Eds.) 2003 Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action. New York: Oxford University Press. Dienel, P.C., and Renn, O. 1995 Planning cells: A gate to âfractal mediation.â In O. Renn, T. Webler, and P. Wiedemann (Eds.), Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating New Models for Environmental Discourse (pp. 117-140). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. Dietz, T. 1987 Theory and method in social impact assessment. Sociological Inquiry, 57, 54-69. 1988 Social impact assessment as applied human ecology: Integrating theory and method. In R. Borden, J. Jacobs, and G.R. Young (Eds.), Human Ecology: Research and Applications (pp. 220-227). College Park, MD: Society for Human Ecology. 1994 What should we do? Human ecology and collective decision making. Human Ecol- ogy Review, 1, 301-309. 2001 Thinking about environmental conflict. In L. Kadous (Ed.), Celebrating Scholarship (pp. 31-54). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University. 2003 What is a good decision? Criteria for environmental decision making. Human Ecol- ogy Review, 10(1), 60-67.
REFERENCES 257 Dietz, T., and Pfund, A. 1988 An impact identification method for development program evaluation. Policy ÂStudies Review, 8, 137-145. Dietz, T., and Stern, P.C. 1995 Toward realistic models of individual choice. Journal of Socio-Economics, 24, 261-279. 1998 Science, values, and biodiversity. BioScience, 48, 441-444. 2005 Further Analysis of the Democracy in Practice Database. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assess- ment and Decision Making, Feb. 3-5, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Dietz, T., Fitzgerald, A., and Shwom, R. 2005 Environmental values. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, 335-372. Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., and Stern, P.C. 2003 The struggle to govern the commons. Science, 301, 1907-1912. Dietz, T., Stern, P.C., and Dan, A. In press How deliberation effects stated willingness to pay for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions: An experiment. Submitted to Land Economics. Dietz, T., Stern, P.C., and Rycroft, R.W. 1989 Definitions of conflict and the legitimization of resources: The case of environmental risk. Sociological Forum, 4, 47-70. Dietz, T., Tanguay, J., Tuler, S., and Webler, T. 2004 Making computer models useful: An exploration of expectations by experts and local officials. Coastal Management, 32(3), 307-318. DiGiovanni, C. 1999 Domestic terrorism with chemical or biological agents: Psychiatric Aspects. Ameri- can Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1500-1505. Dingwall, R., and Greatbatch, D. 1993 Who is in charge? Rhetoric and reality in the study of mediation. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 367-385. Donohue, W. 1991 Communication, Marital Dispute and Divorce Mediation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Doppelt, B., Shinn, C., and John, D. 2002 Review of USDA Forest Service Community-Based Watershed Restoration Partner- ships. Portland, OR: Portland State University, Center for Watershed and Commu- nity Health, Mark O. Hatfield School of Government. Available: http://www.fs.fed. us/largewatershedprojects/DoppeltReport/index.html [accessed June 2008]. Downs, A. 1957 An Economic Theory of Democracy. London, England: HarperCollins. Doyle, M., and Straus, D. 1993 How to Make Meetings Work: The New Interaction Method. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Publishing Group. Dryzek, J.S. 1990 Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1994a Discursive Democracy. Politics, Policy, and Political Science (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1994b Ecology and discursive democracy: Beyond liberal capitalism and the administrative state. In M. OâConnor (Ed.), Is Capitalism Sustainable? Political Economy and the Politics of Ecology (pp. 176-197). New York: Guilford Press.
258 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Dryzek, J., and List, C. 2003 Social choice theory and deliberative democracy: A reconciliation. British Journal of Political Science, 33(1), 1-28. Dukes, E.F. 1996 Resolving Public Conflict: Transforming Community and Governance. New York: Manchester University Press. 2004 What we know about environmental conflict resolution: An analysis based on re- search. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 22(1-2), 191-220. Dukes, F., and Firehock, K. 2001 Collaboration: A Guide for Environmental Advocates. (A publication of the Uni- versity of Virginiaâs Institute for Environmental Negotiation, the Wilderness Society, and the National Audubon Society.) Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Duram, L.A., and Brown, K.G. 1998 Assessing public participation in U.S. watershed planning initiatives. Society and Natural Resources, 12(5), 455-467. Durant, R.F., Fiorino, D.J., and OâLeary, R. 2004 Environmental Governance Reconsidered: Challenges, Choices, and Opportunities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Durodie, B. 2003 The true cost of precautionary chemicals regulation. Risk Analysis, 23, 389-398. Dwyer, W.L. 1994 Seattle Audubon Society et al. v. James Lyons, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture et al. Order on Motions for Summary Judgment. RE 1994 Forest Plan, U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington at Seattle. Edwards, H.T. 1986 Alternative dispute resolution: Panacea or anathema? Harvard Law Review, 99, 668-681. Edwards, P.N., and Schneider, S.H. 2001 Self-governance and peer review in science-for-policy: The case of the IPCC Second Assessment Report. In C. Miller and P.N. Edwards (Eds.). Changing the Atmo- sphere: Expert Knowledge and Environmental Governance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Available: http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Mediarology/Mediarology. html [accessed September 2008]. Einhorn, H.J., and Hogarth, R.M. 1978 Confidence in judgment: Persistence of the illusion of validity. Psychological Review, 85, 395-416. English, M., Gibson, A., Felman, D., and Tonn, B. 1993 Stakeholder Involvement: Open Processes for Reaching Decisions About the Fu- ture Use of Contaminated Sites. Final Report to the D.O.E. Knoxville, TN, Waste Management Research and Education Institute, University of Tennessee. Epstein, S. 2000 The rationality debate from the perspective of the cognitive-experiential self-theory. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 23, 671-672. Estrella, M., and Gaventa, J. 1998 Who Counts Reality? Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation: A Literature Re- view. (IDS working paper #70.) Brighton, England: University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies. Ethridge, M.E. 1987 Procedures for citizen involvement in environmental policy: An assessment of policy effects. In J. DeSario and S. Langton (Eds.), Citizen Participation in Public Decision Making (pp. 115-132). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
REFERENCES 259 Evans, S.M., and Boyte, H.C. 1992 Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic Change in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Farrar, C., Fishkin, J.S., Green, D.P., List, C., Luskin, R.C., and Paluck, E.L. 2003 Experimenting with Deliberative Democracy: Effects on Policy Preferences and Social Choice. Paper presented at the European Consortium for Political Research General Conference, Sept., Marburg, Germany. Available: http://cdd.stanford.edu/ research/papers/2003/experimenting.pdf [accessed June 2008]. 2006 Disaggregating Deliberationâs Effects: An Experiment Within a Deliberative Poll. Center for Deliberative Democracy, Stanford University. Available: http://cdd. stanford.edu/research/papers/2006/nh-disaggregating.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Farrell, A.E., and JÃ¤ger, J. (Eds.) 2006 Assessments of Regional and Global Environmental Risks: Designing Processes for the Effective Use of Science in Decisionmaking. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. Feldman, M.S., and Khademian, A.M. 2002 To manage is to govern. Public Administration Review, 62(5), 541-554. Feldman, M.S., Khademian, A.M., Ingram, H., and Schneider, A.S. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Public Administration Re- 2006 Ways of knowing and inclusive management practices. view, 66(Supp. 1), 89-99. Felstiner, W., Abel, R., and Sarat, A. 1980- 1981 The emergence and transformation of disputes: Naming, blaming and claiming. Law and Society Review, 15(3-4), 631-654. Ferreira, M.B., Garcia-Marques, L., Sherman, S.J., and Sherman, J.W. 2006 Automatic and controlled components of judgment and decision making. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 91, 797-813. Festinger, L.B. 1957 A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Fetterman, D.M. 1994 Steps of empowerment evaluation: From California to Capetown. Evaluation and Program Planning, 17, 305-313. 1996 Empowerment evaluation: An introduction to theory and practice. In D.M. Fetterman, S.J. Kafterian, and A. Wandersman (Eds.), Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and Tools for Self-Assessment and Responsibility (pp. 3-45). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Finer, H. 1941 Administrative responsibility in democratic government. Public Administration Review, 1(4), 335-350. Fiorino, D.J. 1989 Environmental risk and democratic process: A critical review. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 14(2), 501-547. 1990 Citizen participation and environmental risk: A survey of institutional mechanisms. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 15(2), 226-243. Fischer, F. 2000 Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 2005 Participative governance as deliberative empowerment. The cultural politics of discursive space. The American Review of Public Administration, 36, 19-40. Fischer, F., and Forester, J. (Eds.) 1993 The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis and Planning. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
260 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Fischhoff, B. 1975 Hindsight â foresight: The effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncer- tainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 288-299. 1982 Debiasing. In D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, and A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgment under Un- certainty: Heuristics and Biases (pp. 422-444). New York: Cambridge University Press. 1985 Managing risk perceptions. Issues in Science and Technology, 2(1), 83-96. 1989 Risk: A guide to controversy. In National Research Council, Improving Risk Com- munication (pp. 211-319). Committee on Risk Perception and Communication. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. 1991 Value elicitation: Is there anything in there? American Psychologist, 46, 835-847. 1995 Risk perception and communication unplugged: Twenty years of process. Risk Analysis, 15(2), 137-145. 1996a Public values in risk research. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 545, 75-84. 1996b The real world: What good is it? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 232-248. Fischhoff, B., and Furby, L. 1988 Measuring values: A conceptual framework for interpreting transactions with spe- cial reference to contingent valuation of visibility. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 1, 147-184. Fischhoff, B., Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Derby, S.L., and Keeney, R.L. 1981 Acceptable Risk. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fischhoff, B., Nadai, A., and Fischhoff, I. 2001 Investing in Frankenfirms: Predicting socially unacceptable risks. The Journal of Psychology and Financial Markets, 2, 100-111. Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S., Read, S., and Combs, B. 1978 How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences, 8, 127-152. Fishburn, P. 1981 Subjective expected utility: A review of normative theories. Theory and Decision, 13, 139-199. Fisher, A. 1991 Risk communication challenges. Risk Analysis, 11, 173-179. Fisher, R. 1994 Let the People Decide. New York: Twayne. Fisher, R., and Ury, W. 1981 Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Books. Fisher, R., Ury, W., and Patton, B. 1991 Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In (2nd ed.). New York: Penguin Books. Fishkin, J.S. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform. New Haven, 1991 CT: Yale University Press. 1997 The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006 Strategies of public consultation. The Integrated Assessment Journal, 6(2), 57-72.
REFERENCES 261 Fishkin, J.S., and Luskin, R.C. 2005 Experimenting with a democratic ideal: Deliberative polling and public opinion. Acta Politica, 40, 284-298. Fleck, L.M. 2007 Can we trust âdemocratic deliberation?â Hastings Center Report, 37(4), 22-25. Florig, H.K., Morgan, M.G., Jenni, K.E., Fischoff, B., Fischbeck, P.S., and DeKay, M.L. 2001 A deliberative method for ranking risks(I): Overview and test-bed development. Risk Analysis, 21, 913-921. Floyd, D.W., Germain, R.H., and ter Horst, K. 1996 A model for assessing negotiations and mediation in forest resource conflicts. Jour- nal of Forestry, 94(5), 29-33. Flynn, J., Slovic, P., and Mertz, C.K. 1994 Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Analysis, 14, 1101-1108. Follett, M.P. 1918 The New State: Group Organization, the Solution of Popular Government. New York: Longmans, Green. 1924 Creative Experience. New York: Longmans, Green. Forester, J. 1989 Planning in the Face of Power. Berkeley: University of California Press. Forester, J., and Stitzel, D. 1989 Beyond neutrality: The possibilities of activist mediation in public sector conflicts. Negotiation Journal, 5(July), 251-264. Franklin, M.N. 2004 Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democra- cies Since 1945. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Franklin, M.N., Lyons, P., and Marsh, M. 2004 Generational basis of turnout decline in established democracies. Acta Politica, 39(2), 115-151. Frentz, I.C., Voth, D.E., Burns, S., and Sperry, C.W. 2000 Forest Service community relationship building: Recommendations. Society and Natural Resources, 13, 549-566. Frewer, L., Hunt, S., Brennan, M., Kuznesof, S., Ness, M., and Ristons, C. 2003 The views of scientific experts on how the public conceptualize uncertainty. Journal of Risk Research, 6(1), 75-85. Frisch, D., and Clemen, R.T. 1994 Beyond expected utility theory: Rethinking behavioral decision research. Psycho- logical Bulletin, 116, 46-54. Fung, A. 2005 Empowered Participation: Reinventing Urban Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2006 Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public Administration Review, 66(Supp. 1), 66-75. Fung, A., and Wright, E.O. 2001 Deepening democracy: Innovations in empowered local governance. Politics and Society, 29, 5-41. Funtowicz, S.O., and Ravetz, J.R. 1991 A new scientific methodology for global environmental issues. In R. Costanza (Ed.), Ecological Economics (pp. 137-152). New York: Columbia University Press. 1993 Science for the post-normal age. Futures, 7, 739-755.
262 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Furger, F., and Fukuyama, F. 2007 A proposal for modernizing the regulation of human biotechnologies. Hastings Center Report, 37(4), 16-20. Futrell, R. 2003 Technical adversarialism and participatory collaboration in the U.S. chemical weap- ons program. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 28, 451-482. Gaertner, S.L., Dovidio, J.F., Rust, M.C., Nier, J.A., Banker, B.S., Ward, C.M., Mottola, G.R., and Houlette, M. 1999 Reducing intergroup bias: Elements of intergroup cooperation. Journal of Personal- ity and Social Psychology, 76(3), 388-402. Gamson, W.A. 1990 The Strategy of Social Protest. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 1992 The social psychology of collective action. In A.D. Morris and C.M. Mueller (Eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory (pp. 53-76). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Gastil, J. 1993 Democracy in Small Groups. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society. 2008 Political Communication and Deliberation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gastil, J., and Levine, P. (Eds.) 2005 The Deliberative Democracy Handbook: Strategies for Effective Citizen Engage- ment in the 21st Century. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Gehrlein, W.V. 2004 Probabilities of Election Outcomes with Two Parameters: The Relative Impact of Unifying and Polarizing Candidates. Working paper, Department of Business Administration, University of Delaware. George, A.L., and Bennett, A. 2005 Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gericke, K.L., and Sullivan, J. 1994 Public participation and appeals of Forest Service plans: An empirical examination. Society and Natural Resources, 7, 125-135. Germain, R.H., Floyd, D.W., and Stehman, S.V. 2001 Public perceptions of the USDA Forest Service public participation process. Forest Policy and Economics, 3, 113-124. Geys, B. 2006 Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate level research. Electoral Studies, 25(4), 637-663. Gigerenzer, G. 1998 Ecological rationality: An adaptation for frequencies. In D.D. Cummins and C. Allen (Eds.), The Evolution of Mind (pp. 9-29). New York: Oxford University Press. Gigerenzer, G., and Hoffrage, U. 1995 How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: Frequency formats. Psy- chological Review, 102, 684-704. Gigone, D., and R. Hasti 1993 The common knowledge effect: Information sharing and group judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 959-974. Goldberg, S.B., Green, E.D., and Sander, F.E.A. 1985 Dispute Resolution. Boston, MA: Little Brown.
REFERENCES 263 Goldschmidt, R., and Renn, O. 2006 Meeting of MindsâEuropean Citizensâ Deliberation on Brain Sciences. (Final re- port of the external evaluation, vol. 5.) Stuttgart, Germany: University of Stuttgart, Social Science Department. Goldstein, K. 1999 Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America. New York: Cambridge University Press. Graham, J.D., and Wiener, J.B. 1995 Risk vs. Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Graham, S.D.N. 1996 Flight to the cyber suburbs. The Guardian, April 18, p. 2-3. Gray,Â B. 2004 Strong opposition: Frame-based resistance to collaboration. Journal of Community and Applied Psychology, 14(3), 166-176. Greenstone, D., and Peterson, P.E. 1973 Race and Authority in Urban Politics: Community Participation and the War on Poverty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Gregory, R., and McDaniels, T. 1987 Valuing environmental losses: What promise does the right measure hold? Policy Sciences, 20, 11-26. 2005 Improving environmental decision processes. In National Research Council, Deci- sion Making for the Environment: Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities (pp. 175-199). G.D. Brewer and P.C. Stern (Eds.). Panel on Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities for Environmental Decision Making. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Gregory, R., Fischhoff, B., and McDaniels, T.R. 2005 Acceptable input: Using decision analysis to guide public policy deliberations. Deci- sion Analysis, 2(1), 4. Gregory, R., Lichtenstein, S., and Slovic, P. 1993 Valuing environmental resources: A constructive approach. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 7, 177-197. Grunig, J.E., and Grunig, L.A. 1992 Models of public relations and communication. In J.E. Grunig, D.M. Dozier, W.P. Ehling, L.A. Grunig, F.C. Repper, and J. White (Eds.), Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management (pp. 285-326). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Guba, E., and Lincoln, Y. 1989 Fourth Generation Evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Gulliver, P.H. 1979 Disputes and Negotiations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press. Gutmann, A., and Thompson, D.F. 1996 Democracy and Disagreement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Habermas, J. 1970 Towards a Rational Society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. 1975 Legitimation Crisis. (T. McCarthy, Trans.) Boston, MA: Beacon Press. 1984 The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume One, Reason and the Rationaliza- tion of Society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
264 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 1987 The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume Two, Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. 1989 The public sphere: An encyclopedia article. (S. Lennox and F. Lennox, Trans.) In S.E. Bronner and D. MacKay Kellner (Eds.), Critical Theory and Society: A Reader (pp. 136-144). London, England: Routledge. 1991 Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. 1996 Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and De- mocracy. (W. Rehg, Trans.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hagendijk, R., and Irwin, A. 2006 Public deliberation and governance: Engaging with science and technology in con- temporary Europe. Minerva, 44, 167-184. Hajer, M. 1997 Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Hajer, M., and Wagenaar, H. 2003 Deliberative Policy Analysis: Understanding Governance in the Network Society. Boston, MA: Cambridge University Press. Haklay, M.E. 2002 Public environmental information: Understanding requirements and patterns of likely public use. Area, 34(1), 17-28. 2003 Public access to environmental information: Past, present and future. Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 27(2), 163-180. Halfacre, A.C., Matheny, A.R., and Rosenbaum, W.A. 2000 Regulating contested local hazards: Is constructive dialogue possible among partici- pants in community risk management? Policy Studies Journal, 28, 648-667. Halpern, R. 1995 Rebuilding the Inner City. New York: Columbia University Press. Halvorsen, K.E. 2003 Assessing the effects of public participation. Public Administration Review, 63, 535-543. Hamlett, P.W., and Cobb, M.D. 2006 Potential solutions to public deliberation problems: Structured deliberations and polarization cascades. Policy Studies Journal, 34(4), 629-648. Hammond, J., Keeney, R., and Raiffa, H. 1999 Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Decisions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Hammond, K.R., Harvey, L.O., Jr., and Hastie, R. 1992 Making better use of scientific knowledge: Separating truth from justice. Psychologi- cal Science, 33(2), 80-87. Harrison, C., and Haklay, M. 2002 The potential of public participation geographic information systems in U.K. envi- ronmental planning: Appraisals by active publics. Journal of Environmental Plan- ning and Management, 45(6), 841-863. Harter, P.J. 2000 Assessing the assessors: The actual performance of negotiated rulemaking. New York University Environmental Law Journal, 9, 32-59. Available: http://www.law. nyu.edu/journals/envtllaw/issues/vol9/1/v9n1a2.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Hastie, R., Penrod, S.D., and Pennington, N. 1983 Inside the Jury. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
REFERENCES 265 Healey, P. 2006 Collaborative Planning: Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies (2nd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillian. Heclo, H. 1978 Issue networks and the executive establishment. In A. King (Ed.), The New Ameri- can Political System. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute. Held, D. 1987 Models of Democracy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1996 Models of Democracy (2nd ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Henry S. Cole Associates 1996 Learning from Success: Health Agency Efforts to Improve Community Involvement in Communities Affected by Hazardous Waste Sites. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Hershey, J.C., and Baron, J. 1992 Judgment by outcomes: When is it justified? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 53, 89-93. Hetherington, M.J. 2004 Why Trust Matters: Declining Political Trust and the Demise of American Liberal- ism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Hibbing, J.R., and Theiss-Moore, E. 2001 Process preferences and American politics: What the people want government to be. American Political Science Review, 95, 145-153. Holloway, H., Norwood, A., Fullerton, C., Engel, C., and Ursano, R. 1997 The threat of biological weapons: Prophylaxis and mitigation of psychological and social consequences. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 425-427. Hoos, I. 1973 Systems techniques for managing society: A critique. Public Administration Review, 33(2), 157-164. Horlick-Jones, T., Rowe, G., and Walls, J. 2007 Citizen engagement processes as information systems: The role of knowledge and the concept of translation quality. Public Understanding of Science, 16, 259-278. Howard, R.A. 1966 Decision analysis: Applied decision theory. In D.B. Hertz and J. Melese (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Operational Research. New York: Wiley-Interscience. (Reprinted in 1989.) 1968 The foundations of decision analysis. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics, SSC-4(3), 211-219. Howard, R.A., Matheson, J.E., and North, D.W. 1972 The decision to seed hurricanes. Science, 176, 1191-1202. Available: http://www. northworks.net/hurricanes.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Howarth, R.B., and Wilson, M.A. 2006 A theoretical approach to deliberative valuation: Aggregation by mutual consent. Land Economics, 82(1), 00781-007816. Imperial, M.T. 1998 Analyzing institutional arrangements for ecosystem-based management: Lessons from the Rhode Island Salt Ponds SAM Plan. Coastal Management, 27(1), 31-56. 2005 Using collaboration as a governance strategy: Lessons from six watershed manage- ment programs. Administration & Society, 37(3), 281-320. Ingram, H., and Smith, S.R. (Eds.) 1993 Public Policy for Democracy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
266 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Insko, C.A., Schopler, J., Drigotas, S.M., Graetz, K.A., Kennedy, J., Cox, C., and Bornstein, G. 1993 The role of communication in interindividual-intergroup discontinuity. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 37(1), 108-138. Institute for Environmental Negotiation 2001 Collaboration: A Guide for Environmental Advocates. (A publication of the Uni- versity of Virginiaâs Institute for Environmental Negotiation, the Wilderness Society, and the National Audubon Society, June.) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report. Available: http://ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/ [accessed June 2008]. International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) 2006 Public Participation Toolbox. Available: http://www.iap2.org/associations/4748/ files/06Dec_Toolbox.pdf [accessed June 2008]. International Finance Corporation 2006 Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Busi- ness in Emerging Markets. Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.ifc. org/ifcext/enviro.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/p_Stakeholder Engagement_Full/$FILE/ IFC_StakeholderEngagement.pdf [accessed June 2008]. International Risk Governance Council 2005 Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach. (White Paper No. 1.) Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Irwin, A. 1995 Citizen Science: A Study of People, Expertise, and Sustainable Development. Lon- don, England: Routledge. Iyengar, S., Luskin, R.C., and Fishkin, J.S. 2003 Facilitating informed public opinion: Evidence from face-to-face and online deliberative polls. In Annual Meeting of the American Political Science As- sociation, Philadelphia, PA. Available: http://pcl.stanford.edu/common/docs/ research/iyengar/2003/facilitating.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Jackson, S.E. 1992 Team composition in organizational settings: Issues in managing an increasingly di- verse work force. In S. Worchel, W. Wood, and J.A. Simpson (Eds.), Group Process and Productivity (pp. 138-173). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Jaeger, C.C., Renn, O., Rosa, E.A., and Webler, T. 2001 Risk, Uncertainty and Rational Action. London, England: Earthscan. Janis, I.L. 1972 Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign Policy Decisions and Fiascos. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin. Janis, I.L., and Mann, L. 1977 Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment. New York: Free Press. Jasanoff, S. 1996 The dilemma of environmental democracy. Issues in Science & Technology, 13, 63-70. 2005 Designs on Nature: Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States. Princ- eton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Jasanoff, S., and Martello, M.L. (Eds.) 2004 Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jaynes, E.T. 2003 Theory of Probability: The Logic of Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
REFERENCES 267 Jeffreys, H. 1961 Theory of Probability (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Jenni, K.E., Merkhofer, M.W., and Williams, C. 1995 The rise and fall of a risk-based priority system: Lessons from DOEâs Environmental Restoration Priority System. Risk Analysis, 15, 397-410. Johnson, B.B. 2003 Further notes on public response to uncertainty in risks and science. Risk Analysis, 23, 781-789 [also see erratum, Risk Analysis (2004), 24, 781]. Johnson, B.B., and Slovic, P. 1995 Presenting uncertainty in health risk assessment: Initial studies of its effects on risk perception and trust. Risk Analysis, 15, 485-494. 1998 Lay views on uncertainty in environmental health risk assessment. Journal of Risk Research, 1, 261-279. Johnson, K.N., Swanson, F., Herring, M., and Greene, S. 1999 Bioregional Assessments: Science at the Crossroads of Management and Policy. Washington, DC: Island Press. Joss, S. 2005 Lost in translation? Challenges for participatory governance of science and tech- nology. In A. Bogner and H. Torgersen (Eds.), Wozu Experten? Ambivalenzen der ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Beziehung von Wissenschaft und Politik (pp. 197-219). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften. Jostad, P.M., McAvoy, L.H., and McDonald, D. 1996 Native American land ethics: Implications for natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources, 9, 564-581. Kahneman, D. 2003 A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist, 58, 697-720. Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., and Tversky, A. (Eds.) 1982 Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge Univer- sity Press. Kalof, L., Dietz, T., Guagnano, G.A., and Stern, P.C. 2002 Race, gender, and environmentalism: The atypical values and beliefs of white men. Race, Gender & Class, 9(2), 1-19. Kameda, T., Ohtsubo, Y., and Takezawa, M. 1997 Centrality in sociocognitive networks and social influence: An illustration in a group decision-making context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 296-309. Kamenstein, D.S. 1996 Persuasion in a toxic community: Rhetorical aspects of public meetings. Human Organization, 55(4), 458-464. Kaner, S. 2007 Facilitatorâs Guide to Participatory Decision Making. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kasemir, B., Jager, J., Jaeger, C., and Gardner, M.T. (Eds.) 2003 Public Participation in Sustainability Science. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Kaufman, A.S. 1960 Human nature and participatory democracy. In C.J. Friedrich (Ed.), Responsibil- ity: NOMOS III (pp. 266-289). New York: Liberal Arts Press. (Reprinted in W.E. Connolly (Ed.), 1969, The Bias of Pluralism. New York: Atherton.) Keeney, R.L. 1980 Equity and public risk. Operations Research, 28, 527-534.
268 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 1992 Value-Focused Thinking: A Path to Creative Decision Making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1996 The role of values in risk management. In H. Kunreuther and P. Slovic (Eds.), Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Special Issue: Challenges in Risk Assessment and Risk Management (pp. 126-134). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Keller, R.L., and Sarin, R.K. 1988 Equity in social risk: Some empirical observations. Risk Analysis, 8, 135-146. Kellogg, W.A., and Mathur, A. 2003 Environmental justice and information technologies: Overcoming the information- a Â ccess paradox in urban communities. Public Administration Review, 63(5), 573-585. Kelly, J.R., and Karau, S.J. 1999 Group decision making: The effects of initial preferences and time pressure. Person- ality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1342-1354. Kemmis, D. 2002 Scienceâs role in natural resource decisions. Issues in Science and Technology 18(Summer), 31-34. Kerwin, C., and Langbein, L. 1995 An Evaluation of Negotiated Rulemaking at the Environmental Protection Agency, Phase I. Washington, DC: Administrative Conference of the United States. King, C.S., Feltey, K.M., and OâNeil Susel, B. 1998 The question of participation: Toward authentic public participation in public ad- ministration. Public Administration Review, 58(4), 317-326. Kinney, P.L, Northridge, M.E., Chew, G.L., Groming, E., Joseph, E., Correa, J.C., Prakash, S., Goldstein, I., and The Reducing Indoor Allergens Study Team 2002 On the front lines: An environmental asthma intervention in New York City. Ameri- can Journal of Public Health, 92, 24-26. Kinzig, A., Starrett, D., Arrow, K., Aniyar, S., Bolin, B., Dasgupta, P., Ehrlich, P., Folke, C., Hanneman, M., Heal, G., Hoel, M., Jansson, B.-O., Jansson, A., Kautsky, N., Levin, S., Lubchencko, J., May, R.M., MÃ¤ler, K., Pacala, S.W., Schneider, S.H., Siniscalco, D., and Walker, B. 2003 Coping with uncertainty: A call for a new science-policy forum. Ambio, 32(5), 330-335. Klein, G. 1996 The effect of acute stressors on decision-making. In J.E. Driskall and E. Salas (Eds.), Stress and Human Performance (pp. 49-88). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kleinhesselink, R.R., and Rosa, E.A. 1991 Cognitive representation of risk perceptions: A comparison of Japan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22(1), 11-28. Knack, S. 2002 Social capital and the quality of government: Evidence from the states. American Journal of Political Science, 46(4), 772-785. Knight, J., and Johnson, J. 1994 Aggregation and deliberation: On the possibility of democratic legitimacy. Political Theory, 22(2, May), 277-296. Knopman, D.S., Susman, M.M., and Landy, M.K. 1999 Civic environmentalism: Tackling tough land-use problems with innovative gover- nance. Environment, 41(10), 24-32. Kolb, D.M. 1994 When Talk Works: Profiles of Mediators. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
REFERENCES 269 Koontz, T.M., and Thomas, C.W.Â 2006Â What do we know and need to know about the environmental outcomes of col- laborative management? Public Administration Review, 66(6), 109-119. Koopmans, R. 1996 New social movements and changes in political participation in Western Europe. European Politics, 19(1), 28-50. Kraft, M.E 2000 Environmental policy in Congress: From consensus to gridlock. In N.J. Vig and M.E. Kraft (Eds.), Environmental Policy (4th ed.).Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press. Kramer, R. 1969 Participation of the Poor: Comparative Community Case Studies in the War on Poverty. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kraus, N., Malmforms, T., and Slovic, P. 1992 Intuitive toxicology: Expert and lay judgments of chemical risks. Risk Analysis, 12, 215-232. Kriesberg, L. 1973 The Sociology of Social Conflicts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1982 Social Conflicts. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Kroll-Smith, J.S., and Couch, S.R. 1991 As if exposure to toxins were not enough: The social and cultural system as a sec- ondary stressor. Environmental Health Perspectives, 95, 61-66. 1993 Technological hazards: Social responses as traumatic stressors. In J.P. Wilson and B. Raphael (Eds.), International Handbook of Traumatic Stress Syndromes (pp. 79-91). New York: Plenum Press. Kruger, L.E., and Shannon, M.A. 2000 Getting to know ourselves and our places through participation in civic social assessÂ ment. Society and Natural Resources, 13, 461-478. Kruglanski, A.W., and Webster, D.M. 1996 Motivated closing the mind: âSeizingâ and âfreezing.â Psychological Review, 103(2), 263-283. Kruglanski, A.W., Bar-Tal, D., and Klar, Y. 1993 A social-cognitive theory of conflict. In K.S. Larsen (Ed.), Conflict and Social Psy- chology (pp. 45-57). London, England: Sage. Kruglanski, A.W., Webster, D.M., and Klem, A. 1993 Motivated resistance and openness to persuasion in the presence or absence of prior information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 861-876. Krutilla, J., and Haigh, J. 1978 An integrated approach to national forest management. Environmental Law, 8, 373-415. Kuhn, K.M. 2000 Message format and audience values: Interactive effects of uncertainty information and environmental attitudes on perceived risk. Journal of Environmental Psychol- ogy, 20, 41-51. Kunreuther, H., and Slovic, P. 1996 Science, values and risk. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 545(1), 116-125. Laird, F.N. 1993 Participatory analysis, democracy, and technological decision making. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 18, 341-361.
270 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Lampe, D., and Kaplan, M. 1999 Resolving Land-Use Conflicts Through Mediation: Challenges and Opportunities. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Landy, M. 1993 Public policy and citizenship. In H. Ingram and S. Rathgeb Smith (Eds.), Public Policy for Democracy (pp. 19-44). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Langbein, L.I. 2005 Negotiated and Conventional Rulemaking at EPA: A Comparative Case Analysis. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, January, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Langford, I.H., Georgiou, S., Bateman, I.J., Day, R.J., and Turner, R.K. 2000 Public perceptions of health risks from polluted coastal bathing waters: A mixed methodological analysis using cultural theory. Risk Analysis, 20, 691-704. Langton, S. 1978 Citizen participation in America: Current reflections on state of the art. In S. Langton (Ed.), Citizen Participation in America (pp. 1-12). Lanham, MD: Lexing- ton Books. Larsen, L., Harlan, S.L., Bolin, B., Hackett, E.J., Hope, D., Kirby, A., Nelson, A., Rex, T.R., and Wolf, S. 2004 Bonding and bridging: Understanding the relationship between social capital and civic action. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24(1), 64-77. Lauber, B.T., and Knuth, B.A. 1999 Measuring fairness in citizen participation: A case study of moose management. Society and Natural Resources, 11, 19-37. Lawrence, R.L., and Deagen, D.A. 2001 Choosing public participation methods for natural resources. A context specific guide. Society & Natural Resources, 14, 859-874. Available: http://remotesensing. montana.edu/pdfs/lawrenceDeagen2001.pdf [accessed August 2008]. Lax, D.A., and Sebenius, J.K. 1986 The Manager as Negotiator: Bargaining for Cooperation and Competitive Gain. New York: Free Press. Lazarus, R. 1991 Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press. Lazo, J.K., Kinnell, J.C., and Fisher, A. 2000 Expert and layperson perceptions of ecosystem risk. Risk Analysis, 20, 179-193. Leach, W.D. 2002 Surveying diverse stakeholder groups. Society and Natural Resource, 15(7), 641-649. 2005 Public Involvement in the USDA Forest Service Policy Making: A Literature Review. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, January, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Available: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/hdgc/ Tab%20_10%20Public%20Involvement.pdf [accessed August 2008]. 2006 Public involvement in USDA Forest Service policymaking: A literature review. Jour- nal of Forestry, 104(1), 43-49. Leach, W.D., and Pelkey, N.W. 2001 Making watershed partnerships work: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Water Resources Management & Planning, 127, 378-385.
REFERENCES 271 Leach, W.D., and Reza, K.S. 2004 The Collaborative Capacity of American Tribes: Sovereignty, History, and Culture in Watershed Management. Draft manuscript, Center for Collaborative Policy Cali- fornia State University, Sacramento. Leach, W.D., Pelkey, N.W., and Sabatier, P. 2002 Stakeholder partnerships as an emergent form of collaborative policymaking: Evalu- ation criteria applied to watershed management in California and Washington. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 21(4), 645-670. Leach, W.D., Sabatier, P.A., and Quinn, J.F. 2005 Watershed Partnershipsâ Pursuit and Neglect of Scientific Monitoring. Draft manu- script, Center for Collaborative Policy California State University, Sacramento. Leighninger, M. 2006 The Next Form of Democracy: How Expert Rule Is Giving Way to Shared Gov- ernance . . . and Why Politics Will Never Be the Same. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. Lemos, M.C., and Morehouse, B.J. 2005 The co-production of science and policy in integrated climate assessments. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 15, 57-68. Lerner, J.S., and Tetlock, P.E. 1999 Accounting for the effects of accountability. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 255-275. 2003 Bridging individual, interpersonal, and institutional approaches to judgment and decision making: The impact of accountability on cognitive bias. In S. Schneider and J. Shanteau (Eds.), Emerging Perspectives on Judgment and Decision Research (pp. 431-457). New York: Cambridge University Press. Leventhal, G.S. 1980 What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships. In K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, and R. Willis (Eds.), Social Â xchange: Advances in Theory and Research (pp. 27-55). New York: Plenum E Press. Levine, A. 1982 Love Canal: Science, Politics, and People. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Levine, J.M., and Moreland, R.L. 1998 Small groups. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, and G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (vol. 2, 4th ed., pp. 415-469). New York: McGraw-Hill. Levins, R. 1966 The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist, 54, 421-431. Levitt, B., and March, J.G. 1988 Organizational Learning. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 319-340. Lewicki, R.J., and Litterer, J.A. 1985 Negotiation. Homewood, IL: R.D. Irwin. Lewicki, R.J., Gray, B., and Elliot, M. 2003 Making Sense of Intractible Environmental Conflicts: Concepts and Cases. Wash- ington, DC: Island Press. Liberatore, A., and Funtowicz, S. 2003 Democratising expertise, expertising democracy: What does this mean, and why bother? Science and Public Policy, 30(3), 146-150. Lijphart, A. 1994 Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945- 1990. New York: Oxford University Press.
272 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 1997 Unequal participation: Democracyâs unresolved dilemma. American Political Science Review, 91, 1-14. Lin, N. 2001 Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Lind, E.A., and Tyler, T.R. 1988 The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum Press. Linnerooth-Bayer, J., and Fitzgerald, K.B. 1996 Conflicting views on fair siting processes: Evidence from Austria and the U.S. Risk: Health, Safety and Environment, 7, 119-134. List, C. 2001 Mission Impossible? The Problem of Democratic Aggregation in the Face of Arrowâs Theorem. Doctorate of Philosophy thesis, University of Oxford. 2006 The discursive dilemma and public reason. Ethics, 116, 362-402. List, C., Luskin, R.C., Fishkin, J.S., and McLean, I. 2006 Deliberation, Single-Peakedness, and the Possibility of Meaningful Democracy: Evidence from Deliberative Polls. London School of Economics, England. Avail- able: http://personal.lse.ac.uk/list/PDF-files/DeliberationPaper.pdf [accessed August 2008]. Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., Alberti, M., Folke, C., Moran, E., Pell, A.N., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., Lubchencko, J., Ostrom, E., Ouyang, Z., Provencher, W., Redman, C.L., Schneider, S.H., and Taylor, W.W. 2007a Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science, 317, 1513-1516. Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., Folke, C., Alberti, M., Redman, C.L., Schneider, S.H., Ostrom, E., Pell, A.N., Lubchencko, J., Taylor, W.W., Ouyang, Z., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., and Provencher, W. 2007b Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio, 36, 639-649. Loewenstein, G.F., Weber, E.U., Hsee, C.K., and Welch, E.S. 2001 Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 267-286. LÃ¶fstedt, R. 1999 The role of trust in the North Blackforest: An evaluation of a citizen panel project. Risk: Health, Safety and Environment, 10, 7-30. Lopes, L.L. 1983 Some thoughts on the psychological concept of risk. Journal of Experimental Psy- chology: Human Perception and Performance, 9, 137-144. LourenÃ§o, R.P., and Costa, J.P. 2007 Incorporating citizensâ views in local policy decision making processes. Decision Support Systems, 43, 1499-1511. Lubell, M. 2000 Cognitive conflict and consensus building in the National Estuary Program. Ameri- can Behavioral Scientist, 44, 629-648. 2002 Environmental activism as collective action. Environment and Behavior, 34(4), 431-454. 2004a Collaborative watershed management: A view from the grassroots. Policy Studies Journal, 32, 341-361. 2004b Resolving conflict and building cooperation in the National Estuary Program. En- vironmental Management, 33, 677-691. Lubell, M., and Leach, W.D. 2005 Watershed Partnerships: Evaluating a Collaborative Form of Public Participation. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, Feb. 3-4, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
REFERENCES 273 Lubell, M., Schneider, M., Scholz, J.T., and Mete, M. 2002 Watershed partnerships and the emergence of collective action institutions. Ameri- can Journal of Political Science, 46(1), 148-163. Lynn, F.M. 1990 Public participation in risk management decisions: The right to define, the right to know, and the right to act. Risk Issues in Health and Safety, 1, 95-101. Lynn, F.M., and Kartez, J.D. 1995 The redemption of citizen advisory committees: A perspective from critical theory. In O. Renn, T. Webler, and P. Wiedemann (Eds.), Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating New Models for Environmental Discourse (pp. 87-102). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. 1998 Science and nonscience concerning human-caused climate warming. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 23, 83-105. Macedo, S. 1999 Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagreement. New York: Oxford University Press. Mahlman, J.D. 1998 Science and nonscience concerning human-caused climate warming. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 23, 83-105. Mansbridge, J. 1983 Beyond Adversary Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. March, J.G., and Olsen, J.P. 1995 Democratic Governance. New York: Free Press. Markus, G.B. 2002 Institutional and Individual Origins of Civic Engagement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August, Boston, MA. Markus, G.B., Chess, C., and Shannon, M.A. 2005 Political Perspectives on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, Feb. 3-5, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Marshall, B.K., and Picou, J.S. 2008 Post-normal science, the precautionary principle, and worst cases: Managing scien- tific uncertainty in the 21st Century. Submitted to Sociological Inquiry. Martin, S.P., and Robinson, J.P. 2007 The income digital divide: Trends and predictions for levels of Internet use. Social Problems, 54(1), 1-22. Marwell, G., and Oliver, P.E. 1993 The Critical Mass in Collective Action: A Micro-Social Theory. New York: Cam- bridge University Press. Mather, L., and Yngvesson, B. 1980- 1981 Language, audience, and the transformation of disputes. Law and Society Review, 15(3-4). McCloskey, M. 1996 The skeptic: Collaboration has its limits. High Country News, May 13. McComas, K.A., Trumbo, C.W., and Besley, J.C. 2007 Public meetings about suspected cancer clusters: The impact of voice, interactional justice, and risk perception on attendeesâ attitudes in six communities. Journal of Health Communication, 12, 527-549.
274 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION McCormick, S. 2006 The Brazilian anti-dam movement: Knowledge contestation as communicative ac- tion. Organization and Environment, 19(30), 321-346. 2007a Democratizing science movements: A new framework for contestation. Social Stud- ies of Science, 37, 1-15. 2007b Governing hydroelectric dams in Brazil. Journal of Latin American Studies, 39(2), 227-261. McCormick, S., Brody, J., Brown, P., and Polk, R. 2004 Public involvement in breast cancer research: An analysis and model for future research. International Journal of Health Services, 34(4), 625-646. McCormick, S., Brown, P., and Zavestoski, S. 2004 The personal is scientific, the scientific is political: The public paradigm of the en- vironmental breast cancer movement. Sociological Forum, 18(4), 545-576. McDaniels, T. 1996 The structured value referendum: Eliciting preferences for environmental policy alternatives. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 15, 227-251. 1998 Ten propositions for untangling descriptive and prescriptive lessons in risk percep- tion findings. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 59, 129-134. McDaniels, T.L., Axelrod, L.J., and Slovic, P. 1995 Characterizing perception of ecological risk. Risk Analysis, 15(5), 575-588. 1996 Perceived ecological risks of global change: A psychometric comparison of causes and consequences. Global Environmental Change, 6(2), 159-171. McDaniels, T.L., Axelrod, L.J., Cavanagh, N.S., and Slovic, P. 1997 Perception of ecological risk to water environments. Risk Analysis, 17(3), 341-352. McKeown, R., Hopkins, C.A., and Chrystalbridge, M. 2002 Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit (version 2). Available: http://www. esdtoolkit.org/about.htm [accessed June 2008]. McKeown, T. 2004 Case studies and the limits of the quantitative worldview. In H.E. Brady and D. Collier (Eds.), Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards (pp. 139-167). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Mendelberg, T. 2002 The deliberative citizen: Theory and evidence. In M.X. Delli Carpini, L. Huddy, and R. Shapiro (Eds.), Research in Micropolitics: Political Decision Making, Delibera- tion, and Participation (vol. 6, pp. 159-193). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Mesquita, B., and Frijda, N.H. 1992 Cultural variations in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 179-204. Metzger, E.S., and Lendvay, J.M. 2006 Seeking environmental justice through public participation: A community-based water quality assessment in Bayview Hunters Point. Environmental Practice, 8, 104-114. Mikula, G., Scherer, K.R., and Athenstaedt, U. 1998 The role of injustice in the elicitation of differential emotional reactions. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 769-783. Miles, S., and Frewer, L. 2003 Public perception of scientific uncertainty in relation to food hazards. Journal of Risk Research, 6(3), 267-283. Miller, C.E. 1989 The social psychological effects of group decision rules. In P. Paulus (Ed.), Psy- chology of Group Influence (pp. 327-355). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
REFERENCES 275 Miller, D. 1992 Deliberative democracy and social choice. Political Studies, 40(Special Issue), 54-67. Miller, J.G. 1999 Cultural psychology: Implications for basic psychological theory. Psychological Science, 10, 85-91. Mitchell, R.B., Clark, W.C., and Cash, D.W. 2006 Information and influence. In R.B. Mitchell, W.C. Clark, D.W. Cash, and N.M. Dickson (Eds.), Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence (Chapter 11, pp. 307-338). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mitchell, R.B., Clark, W.C., Cash, D.W., and Dickson, N.M. (Eds.) 2006 Global Environmental Assessments: Information and Influence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Modavi, N. 1996 Mediation of environmental conflicts in Hawaii: Win-win or co-optation? Sociologi- cal Perspectives, 39(2), 301-316. Moore, C. 1986 The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Moore, S.A. 1996 Defining âsuccessfulâ environmental dispute resolution: Case studies from public land planning in the United States and Australia. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 16, 151-169. Morgan, K.M., DeKay, M.L., Fischbeck, P.S., Morgan, M.G., Fischoff, B., and Florig, H.K. 2001 A deliberative method for ranking risks(II): Evaluation of validity and agreement among risk managers. Risk Analysis, 21(5), 923-938. Morgan, M.G., and Henrion, M. 1990 Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk and Policy Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press. Morgan, M.G., and Keith, D.W. 1995 Subjective judgments by climate experts. Environmental Science and Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A. Morgan, M.G., Cantor, R., Clark, W.C., Fisher, A., Jacoby, H.D., Janetos, A.C., Kinzig, A.P., Melillo, J., Street, R.B., and Wilbanks, T.J. 2005 Learning from the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change Impacts. Environ- mental Science and Technology, 39(23), 9023-9032. Moroe, K.R. 2001 Morality and sense of self: The importance of identity and categorization for moral action. American Journal or Political Science, 45(3), 491-507. Morone, J.A. 1990 The Democratic Wish: Popular Participation and the Limits of American Govern- ment. New York: Basic Books. Morone, J.A., and Kilbreth, E.H. 2003 Power to the people? Restoring citizen participation. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 28(2, 3), 271-288. Moscovici, S., and Zavalloni, M. 1969 The group as a polarizer of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12, 125-135.
276 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Moser, S.C. 2005 Impacts of Climate Change in the United States. The First U.S. National Assess- ment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change: A Guide Through the Process. Available: http://www.climatehotmap.org/impacts/assessment. html [accessed June 2008]. Moss, R., and Schneider, S.H. 2000 Uncertainties in the IPCC TAR: Recommendations to lead authors for more consis- tent assessment and reporting. In R. Pachauri, T. Taniguchi, and K. Tanaka (Eds.), Guidance Papers on the Cross-Cutting Issues of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC (pp. 33-51). Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization. Mossberger, K., Tolbert, C., and Stansbury, M. 2003 Virtual Inequality: Beyond the Digital Divide. Washington, DC: Georgetown Uni- versity Press. Mouffe, C. 1999 Deliberative democracy or agonistic pluralism? Social Research, 66, 745-758. Moynihan, D.P. 1969 Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding: Community Action in the War on Poverty. New York: Free Press. Murphree, D.W., Wright, S.A., and Ebaugh, H.R. 1996 Toxic waste siting and community resistance: How cooptation of local citizen op- position failed. Sociological Perspectives, 39(4), 447-463. Murphree, M.W. 1991 Communities as Resource Management Institutions. (Gatekeeper series #36.) L Â ondon, England: International Institute for Environment and Development. Avail- able: http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/G01147.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Mutz, D.C. 2002a The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political participation. American Journal of Political Science, 46(4), 838-855. 2002b Cross-cutting social networks: Testing democratic theory in practice. American Political Science Review, 96(1), 111-126. Myers, D.G., and Lamm, H. 1976 The group polarization phenomenon. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 602-662. National Academy of Engineering 2004 Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Quantitative Risk Through Diligence. J.R. Phimister, V.M. Bier, and H.C. Kunreuther (Eds.). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Environmental Justice Advisory Committee 1996 The Model Plan for Public Participation. (EPA #300-K-00-001.) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Park Service Division of Park Planning and Special Studies 1997 National Parks and Their Neighbors: Lessons from the Field on Building Partner- ships with Local Communities. Tucson, AZ: Sonoran Institute. National Research Council 1983 Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1986 Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management. Panel on Common Property Resource Management. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
REFERENCES 277 1989 Improving Risk Communication. Committee on Risk Perception and Communica- tion, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1994 Science and Judgment of Risk Assessment. Committee on Risk Assessment of Haz- ardous Air Pollutants, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1996 Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. P.C. Stern and H.V. Fineberg (Eds.). Committee on Risk Characterization, Commission on Be- havioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1999a Making Climate Forecasts Matter. P.C. Stern and W.E. Easterling (Eds.). Panel on the Human Dimensions of Seasonal-to-Interannual Climate Variability, Commis- sion on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1999b Perspectives on Biodiversity: Valuing Its Role in an Everchanging World. Committee on Noneconomic and Economic Value of Biodiversity. Board on Biology, Commis- sion on Life Sciences.Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2000 Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges. Committee on Disposition of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Geological Isolation. Board on Radioactive Waste Management, Division on Earth and Life Studies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2002a The Drama of the Commons. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. E. Ostï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ rom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P. C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E. Weber (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciencs and Education. Washington, DC: National ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Academy Press. 2002b Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations. Com- mittee on Estimating the Health-Risk-Reduction Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations. Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2003 One Step at a Time: The Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High- Level Radioactive Waste. Committee on Principles and Operational Strategies for Staged Repository Systems. Board on Radioactive Waste Management, Division on Earth and Life Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2004 Valuing Ecosystem Services: Towards Better Environmental Decision-Making. Com- mittee on Assessing and Valuing the Services of Aquatic and Related Terrestrial Eco- systems. Water Science and Technology Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2005a Decision Making for the Environment: Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities. G.D. Brewer and P.C. Stern (Eds.). Panel on Social and Behavioral Sci- ence Research Priorities for Environmental Decision Making. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2005b Thinking Strategically: The Appropriate Use of Metrics for the Climate Change Science Program. Committee on Metrics for Global Change Research. Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2007a Analysis of Global Change Assessments: Lessons Learned. Committee on Analysis of Global Change Assessments. Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Divi- sion on Earth and Life Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
278 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 2007b Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget. Committee to Review the OMB Risk Assessment Bul- letin. Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2007c Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making. Committee on Models in the Regulatory Decision Process. Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2008 Research and Networks for Decision Support in the NOAA Sectoral Applications Research Program. Panel on Design Issues for the NOAA Sector Applications Research Program. H.L. Ingram and P.C. Stern (Eds.). Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Newton, K. 1997 Social capital and democracy. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(5), 575-586. Nicholson, M. 1991 Negotiation, agreement and conflict resolution: The role of rational approaches and their criticism. In R. VÃ¤yrynen (Ed.), New Directions in Conflict Theory: Conflict Resolution and Conflict Transformation (Chapter 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Niemeyer, S., and Spash, C. 2001 Environmental valuation analysis, public deliberation, and their pragmatic synthe- sis: A critical appraisal. Environment and Planning, 19, 567-585. Niemi, R.G. 1969 Majority decision-making with partial unidimensionality. American Political Science Review, 63(2, June), 488-497. Nonet, P. 1980 The legitimation of purposive decisions. California Law Review, 68, 263-300. Nordenstam, B., and Vaughan, E. 1991 Farmworkers and pesticide exposure: Perceived risk and self-protective behavior. In B.J. Garrick and W.C. Gekler (Eds.), The Analysis, Communication and Perception of Risk. New York: Plenum Press. North, D.W. 1968 A tutorial introduction to decision theory. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics, 4, 105-115. 1995 Limitations, definitions, principles, and methods of risk analysis. Scientific and Technical Review, Office International des Epizooties, 14(4), 913-923. 2003 Reflections on the Red/mis-read book, 20 years after. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9(5), 1145-1154. North, D.W., and Balson, W.E. 1985 Risk assessment and acid rain policy: A decision framework that includes uncer- tainty. In P. Mandelbaum (Ed.), Acid Rain: Economic Assessment. New York: Plenum Press. North, D.W., and Merkhofer, M.W. 1976 A methodology for analyzing emission control strategies. Computers and Opera- tions Research, 3, 185-207. North, D.W., and Renn, O. 2005 Decision Analytic Tools and Participatory Decision Processes. Paper prepared for the Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Mak- ing, March, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
REFERENCES 279 North, D.W., Selker, F., and Guardino, T. 2002 The value of research on health effects of ingested inorganic arsenic. In D.J. Paustenbach (Ed.), Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Nye, J.S., Jr., Zelikow, P.D., and King, D.C. (Eds.). 1997 Why People Donât Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. OâConner, K.M. 1994 Negotiation Teams: The Impact of Accountability in Representation Structure on Negotiator Cognition and Performance. Eugene, OR: International Association of Conflict Management. Office of Management and Budget and Presidentâs Council on Environmental Quality 2005 Memorandum on Environmental Conflict Resolution. Available: http://www.white house.gov/ceq/joint-statement.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Office of Technology Assessment 1992 Public involvement in forest planning. In Forest Service Planning: Accommodating Uses, Producing Outputs, and Sustaining Ecosystems (Ch. 5, pp. 77-108). Darby, PA: Diane. Okrent, D. 1998 Risk perception and risk management: On knowledge, resource allocation and equity. Reliability Engineering and Systems Safety, 59, 17-25. OâLeary, R., and Bingham, L.B. 2003 The Promise and Performance of Environmental Conflict Resolution. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future Press. OâLeary, R.R., and Summers, S. 2001 Lessons learned from two decades of alternative dispute resolution programs and processes at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Public Administration Re- view, 61, 682-692. Olson, M. 1965 The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1984 Participatory Pluralism: Political Participation and Influence in the United States and Sweden. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. Omenn, G.S. 2003 On the significance of âThe Red Bookâ in the evolution of risk assessment and risk management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9, 1155-1167. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development 2001 Engaging Citizens in Policy-making: Information, Consultation and Public Partici- pation. (OECD Public Management Policy Brief, PUMA Policy Brief No. 10.) Avail- able: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/24/34/2384040.pdf [accessed June 2008]. OâRourke, D., and Macey, G. 2003 Community environmental policing: Assessing new strategies of public participa- tion in environmental regulation. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22(30), 383-414. Available: http://nature.berkeley.edu/orourke/PDF/CEP-JPAM.pdf [accessed August 2008]. Osterman, P. 2002 Gathering Power. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Ostrom, E. 1990 Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1998 A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action, American Political Science Review, 92(1), 1-22.
280 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION OâToole, L.J., and Meier, K.J. 2004 Desperately seeking Selznick: Cooptation and the dark side of public management in networks. Public Administration Review, 64(6), 681-693. Ozawa, C.P. 1991 Recasting Science: Consensual Procedures in Public Policy Making. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Parkinson, J. 2006 Deliberating in the Real World: Problems of Legitimacy in Deliberative Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press. Passy, F. 2003 Social networks matter. But how? In M. Diani and D. McAdam (Eds.), Social Movements and Networks: Rational Approaches to Collective Action (pp. 21-48). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Pateman, C. 1970 Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Patil, S.R., and Frey, H.C. 2004 Comparison of sensitivity analysis methods based on applications to a food safety risk assessment model. Risk Analysis, 24(3), 573-586. Payne, J.W., Bettman, J.R., and Johnson, E.J. 1992 Behavioral decision research: A constructive processing perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 87-131. Payne, J.W., Bettman, J.R., and Schkade, D.A. 1999 Measuring constructed preferences: Towards a building code. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 19, 243-270. Peelle, E., Schweitzer, M., Munro, J., Carnes, S., and Wolfe, A. 1996 Factors Favorable to Public Participation Success. (Paper prepared for the U.S. DepartÂment of Energy.) Presented at the Annual Conference of the National As- sociation of Environmental Professionals: Practical Environmental Directions: A Changing Agenda, June 2-6, Houston, TX. Available: http://www.osti.gov/Â energycitations/servlets/purl/228492-EoYgiS/webviewable/228492.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Pellizoni, L. 2001 The myth of the best argument: Power deliberation and reasons. British Journal of Sociology, 51(1), 59-86. 2003 Uncertainty and participatory democracy. Environmental Values, 12, 195-224. Pellow, D.N. 1999 Framing emerging environmental movement tactics: Mobilizing consensus, demo- bilizing conflict. Sociological Forum, 14, 659-683. 2002 Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Perri 6 1996 The morality of managing risk: Paternalism, prevention and precaution, and the limits of proceduralism. Journal of Risk Research, 3(2), 135-165. Available: http://www.hsmc.bham.ac.uk/staff/staffdetails/6p/pdfs/P6%20Morality%20of%20 managing%20risk.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Perry, J.L. 2000 Bringing society in: Toward a theory of public-service motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(2), 471-489. Peters, E., and Slovic, P. 1996 The role of affect and worldviews as orienting dispositions in the perception and ac- ceptance of nuclear power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1427-1453.
REFERENCES 281 Peterson, C., and Stunkard, A.J. 1989 Personal control and health promotion. Social Science and Medicine, 28, 819-828. Pidgeon, N.F., Poortinga, W., Rowe, G., Horlick-Jones, T., Walls, J., and OâRiordan, T. 2005 Using surveys in public participation processes for risk decision making: The case of the 2003 British GM nation? Public Debate. Risk Analysis, 25(2), 467-479. Pierce Colfer, C.J. 2005 The Complex Forest: Communities, Uncertainty, and Adaptive Collaborative Man- agement. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. Pierson, P. 2000 Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics. American Political Science Review, 94(2), 251-267. Pinkerton, E. 1994 Local fisheries co-management: A review of international experiences and their im- plications for British Columbia salmon management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51(10), 2363-2378. Piven, F.F., and Cloward, R.A. 1971 Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare. New York: Pantheon Books. Plumlee, J.P., Starling, J.D., and Kramer, K.W. 1985 Citizen participation in water quality planning. Administration & Society, 16(4), 455-473. Policy Consensus Initiative 1999 A Practical Guide to Consensus. Portland, OR: Author. Pomeroy, R.S., and Rivera-Guieb, R. 2006 Fishery Co-Management: A Practical Handbook. Wallingford, England: CABI. Posavac, E.J. 1991 Program Evaluation: Methods and Case Studies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Powell, Bingham, G., Jr. 1986 American voter turnout in comparative perspective. American Political Science Review, 80(1), 17-43. Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management 1997a Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (vol. 1, final report). Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.riskworld.com/Nreports/1997/risk- rpt/pdf/EPAJAN.PDF [accessed June 2008]. 1997b Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making (vol. 2, final report). Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.riskworld.com/ Nreports/1997/risk-rpt/volume2/pdf/v2epa.PDF [accessed June 2008]. Price, V., and Capella, J. 2001 Online deliberation and its influence: The electronic dialogue project in campaign 2000. IT and Society, 1(1), 303-328. Available: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ siqss/itandsociety/v01i01/v01i01a20.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Price, V., Goldthwaite, D., Cappella, J.N., and Romantan, A. 2003 Online Discussion, Civic Engagement, and Social Trust. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual Pre-APSA Conference on Political Communication, Conference on Mass Communication and Civil Engagement, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Price, V., Nir, L., and Cappella, J. 2002 Does disagreement contribute to more deliberative opinion? Political Communica- tion, 19, 95-112.
282 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Pritzker, D.M., and Dalton, D.S. 1990 Negotiated Rulemaking Sourcebook. Washington, DC: Administrative Conference of the United States. Proctor, J.D. 1998 Environmental values and popular conflict over environmental management: A comparative analysis of public comments on the Clinton forest plan. Environmental Management, 22, 347-358. Pruitt, D., and Carnevale, P.J. 1993 Negotiation in Social Conflict. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole. Pruitt, D., and Rubin, J. 1986 Social Conflict: Escalation, Stalemate, and Settlement. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pultzer, E., Maney, A., and OâConnor, R.E. 1998 Ideology and elitesâ perceptions of the safety of new technologies. American Journal of Political Science, 42, 190-209. Putnam, R.D. 1993 Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princ- eton University Press. 2000 Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster. Pyle, W. 2005 Collective Action and Post-Communist Enterprise: The Economic Logic of ÂRussiaâs Business Associations. (WDI Working Paper #794.) Ann Arbor, MI: William D Â avidson Institute. Quinn, R.E., and Rohrbaugh, J.W. 1983 A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: Towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. Management Science, 29(3), 363-377. Ragin, C.C. 1987 The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley: University of California Press. Ragin, C.C., and Becker, H.S. (Eds.) 1992 What Is a Case?: Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry. New York: Cam- bridge University Press. Raiffa, H. 1968 Decision Analysis: Introductory Lectures on Choices Under Uncertainty. Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley. 1994 The Art and Science of Negotiation (12th ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. 2005 The Art and Science of Negotiation: How to Resolve Conflicts and Get the Best out of Bargaining. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2007 Negotiation Analysis: The Science and Art of Collaborative Decision Making. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Rauschmayer, F., and Wittmer, H. 2006 Evaluating deliberative and analytical methods for the resolution of environmental conflicts. Land Use Policy, 23, 108-122. Raven, B.H., and Rubin, J.Z. 1983 Social Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. Rawls, J. 1971 A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap. Reagan, M., and Fedor-Thurman, V. 1987 Public participation: Reflections on the California energy policy experience. In J. DeSario and S. Langton (Eds.), Citizen Participation in Public Decision Making (pp. 89-113). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
REFERENCES 283 Reid, W.V., Mooney, H.A., Cropper, A., Capistrano, D., Carpenter, S.R., Chopra, K., Dasgupta, P., Dietz, T., Duraiappah, A.K., Hassan, R., Kasperson, R., Leemans, R., May, R.M., McMichael, T., Pingali, P., Samper, C., Sholes, R., Watson, R.T., Zakri, A.H., Shidong, Z., Ash, N.J., Bennett, E., Kumar, P., Lee, M.J., Raudsepp-Hearne, C., Simons, H., Thonell, J., and Zurek, M.B. 2005 Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. Renn, O. 1999 A model for an analytic-deliberative process in risk management. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 3049-3055. 2004 The challenge of integrating deliberation and expertise: Participation and discourse in risk management. In T.L. McDaniels and M.J. Small (Eds.), Risk Analysis and So- ciety: An Interdisciplinary Characterization of the Field (pp. 289-366). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 2005 Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach. Geneva, Switzerland: Interna- tional Risk Governance Council. 2008 Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World. London, England: Earthscan. Renn, O., and Schweizer, P. In press New models of citizen participation in Germany and France. In O. Gabriel (Ed.), Political Governance Revisited: A Comparative Approach. Bordeaux, France: Law- rence Erlbaum Associates. Renn, O., and Walker, K. 2008 Lessons learned and a way forward. In O. Renn and K. Walker (Eds.), Global Risk Governance. Concept and Practice of Using the IRGC Framework (pp. 331-367). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. Renn, O., Webler, T., and Wiedemann, P. (Eds.) 1995 Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating Models for Environ- mental Discourse. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. Renn, O., Webler, T., Rakel, H., Johnson, B., and Dienel, P. 1993 A three-step procedure for public participation in decision making. Policy Sciences, 26, 189-214. Revkin, A.C. 2004 Bushâs science aide rejects claims of distorted facts. New York Times (April 3), p. A9. Rich, R.C., Edelstein, M., Hallman, W.K., and Wandersman, A.H. 1995 Citizen participation and empowerment: The case of local environmental hazards. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 657-675. Richardson, H.S. 2002 Democratic Autonomy: Public Reasoning about the Ends of Policy. New York: Oxford University Press. Rittel, H.W.J., and Webber, M.M. 1973 Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155-169. Rivera, F.G., and Erlich, J.L. 1998 Community Organizing in a Diverse Society (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Rivers, L.I. 2006 Risk Perception and Decision-Making in Minority and Marginalized Communities. Columbus: Ohio State University. Rivers, L.I., and Arvai, J. 2007 Win some, lose some: The effect of chronic losses on decision making under risk. Journal of Risk Research, 10(8), 1085-1099.
284 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Roberts, N. 2004 Public deliberation in an age of direct citizen participation. American Review of Public Administration, 34(4), 315-353. Roch, I. 1997 Evaluation der 3. Phase des BÃ¼rgerbeteiligungsverfahrens in der Region Nord- schwarzwald. (Research Report No. 71.) Stuttgart, Germany: Akademie fÃ¼r TechnikfolgenabschÃ¤tzung. Rohrmann, B. 1992 The evaluation of risk communication effectiveness. Acta Psychologica, 81, 169-192. 1999 Risk Perception Research: Review and Documentation. (Studies in Risk Communi- cation No. 68.) Juelich, Germany: Research Center Juelich-MUT. Rohrmann, B., and Renn, O. 2000 Introduction. In O. Renn and B. Rohrmann (Eds.), Cross-Cultural Risk Perception (pp. 5-32). Boston, MA: Kluwer. Rosa, E. 1998 Meta-theoretical foundations for post-normal risk. Journal of Risk Research, 1, 15-44. Rosa, E.A., Matsuda, N., and Kleinhesselink, R.R. 2000 The cognitive architecture of risk: Pancultural unity or cultural shaping? In O. Renn and B. Rohrmann (Eds.), Comparative Risk Perception (pp. 185-210). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. Rosa, E.A., Renn, O., and McCright, A. 2007 The Risk Society: Theoretical Frames and Management Challenges of Post- Modernity. Department of Sociology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. Rose-Ackerman, S. 1994 Consensus versus incentives: A skeptical look at regulatory negotiation. Duke Law Journal, 43(6), 1206-1220, Twenty-Fifth Annual Administrative Law Issue. Rosenbaum, N. 1978 Citizen participation and democratic theory. In S. Langton (Ed.), Citizen Participa- tion in America (pp. 43-54). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Rosener, J.B. 1981 User-oriented evaluation: A new way to view citizen participation. Journal of Ap- plied Behavioral Studies, 17, 583-596. 1982 Making bureaucracy responsive: A study of the impacts of citizen participation and staff recommendations on regulatory decision making, Public Administration Review, 42, 339-345. Rosenstone, S.J., and Hansen, J.M. 1993 Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan. Ross, M.H. 1993 The Management of Conflict: Interpretations and Interests in Comparative Perspec- tive. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Rossi, J. 1997 Participation run amok: The costs of mass participation for deliberative agency decision making. Northwestern University Law Review, 92, 173-249. Rowe, G., and Frewer, L.J. 2000 Public participation methods: A framework for evaluation. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 25(1), 3-29. Available: http://sth.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/25/1/3 [accessed June 2008]. 2004 Evaluating public-participation exercises: A research agenda. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 29(4), 512-556.
REFERENCES 285 Rowe, G., Marsh, R., and Frewer, L.J. 2004 Evaluation of a deliberative conference. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 29(1), 88-121. Saaty, T.L. 1990 Multicriteria Decision Making: The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Planning Priority Setting, Resource Allocation. Berlin, Germany: RWS. Sabatier, P.A., and Jenkins-Smith, H. (Eds.) 1993 Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Sabatier, P.A., and Weible, C.M. 2007 The advocacy coalition framework: Innovation and clarification. In P.A. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the Policy Process (pp. 189-222). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Sabatier, P.A., Focht, W., Lubell, M., Trachtenberg, Z., Vedlitz, A., and Matlock, M. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Swimming Upstream: Collaborative Approaches to Watershed Management. Cam- 2005 bridge, MA: MIT Press. Sabel, C.F., Fung, A., and Karkkainen, B.C. 2000 Beyond Backyard Environmentalism. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Saegert, S., Thompson, J.P., and Warren, M.R. 2002 Social Capital and Poor Communities. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Sager, T. 1994 Communicative Planning Theory. Aldershot, England: Avebury. Salisbury, R. 1969 An exchange theory of interest groups. Midwest Journal of Political Science, 13(1), 1-32. Sally, D. 1995 Conversation and cooperation in social dilemmas: A meta-analysis of experiments from 1958 to 1992. Rationality and Society, 7, 58-92. Sampson, R.J., Raudenbush, S., and Earls, F. 1997 Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multi-level study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918-924. Sanders, L. 1997 Against deliberation. Political Theory, 25(3), 347-376. Saunders, H.H. 1999 A Public Peace Process: Sustained Dialogue to Transform Ethnic and Racial Con- flicts. New York: St. Martinâs Press. Savage, L.J. 1954 The Foundations of Statistics. New York: Wiley. Scherer, K.R. 1997 The role of culture in emotion-antecedent appraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 902-922. Schier, S.E. 2000 By Invitation Only: The Rise of Exclusive Politics in the United States. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Schkade, D., Sunstein, C.R., and Kahneman, D. 2000 Deliberating about dollars: The severity shift. Columbia Law Review, 100, 1139-1175. Schlozman, K.L., and Tierney, J. 1986 Organized Interests and American Democracy. New York: Harper and Row. Schneider, A., and Ingram, H. 1997 Policy Design for Democracy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
286 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Schneider, M., Scholz, J.T., Lubell, M., Mindruta, D., and Edwardsen, M. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 2003 Building consensual institutions: Networks and the National Estuary Program. American Journal of Political Science, 47, 143-158. Schoenbrod, D. 1983 Limits and dangers of environmental mediation: A review essay. New York Univer- sity Law Review, 58(December), 1453-1476. Schudson, M. 1997 Why conversation is not the soul of democracy. Critical Studies of Mass Commu- nication, 14, 297-309. Schuett, M., Selin, S., and Carr, D. 2001 Making it work: Keys to successful collaboration in natural resource management. Environmental Management, 27(4), 587-593. Schultz-Hardt, S., Frey, D., Luthgens, C., and Moscovici, S. 2000 Biased information search in group decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 655-669. Schuman, S. 2005 The IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation: Best Practices from the Leading Orga- nization in Facilitation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schumpeter, J.A. 1942 Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper and Row. Schwartz, R. 2002 The Skilled Facilitator. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schwarz, M., and Thompson, M. 1990 Divided We Stand: Re-defining Politics, Technology and Social Choice. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Sclove, R. 1995 Democracy and Technology. New York: Guilford Press. Scott, W.R. 1992 Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: P Â rentice-Hall. Selin, S., and Chavez, D. 1994 Characteristics of successful tourism partnerships: A multiple case study design (characteristics of successful tourism partnerships). Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 12(2), 51-62. Selin, S., and Myers, N. 1995 Correlates of partnership effectiveness: The coalition for unified recreation in East- ern Sierra. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 13(4), 37-46. Selin, S., Schuett, M., and Carr, D. 2000 Modeling stakeholder perceptions of collaboration initiative effectiveness. Society and Natural Resources, 13, 735-745. Selznick, P.A. 1949 TVA and the Grassroots: A Study in the Sociology of Formal Organization. ÂBerkeley: University of California Press. Sen, A. 1999 Development as Freedom. New York: Random House. Shah, D.V., Domke, D., and Wackman, D.B. 1996 To thine own self be true: Values, framing and voter decision making strategies. Communications Research, 23, 509-560. Shannon, M.A. 1987 Forest planning: Learning with people. In M.L. Miller, R.P. Gale, and P.J. Brown (Eds.), Social Science in Natural Resource Management Systems (pp. 233-252). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
REFERENCES 287 1991 Building Public Decisions: Learning Through Planning. Washington, DC: Office of Technology Assessment. 2003 The Northwest Forest Plan as a learning process: A call for new institutions bridging science and politics. In K. Arabase and J. Bowersox (Eds.), Forest Futures: Science, Politics and Policy for the Next Century (pp. 256-279). New York: Rowman and Littlefield. Shannon, M.A., and Antypas, A.R. 1996 Civic science is democracy in action. Northwest Science, 70(1), 66-69. Shannon, P., and Walker, P. 2006 Partnerships and Control: Lessons from a Research Program into Strategies for Deliberative Governance. Refereed paper presented to the Governments and Com- munities in Partnership Conference, Centre for Public Policy, September, University of Melbourne. Shapiro, I. 1996 Elements of democratic justice. Political Theory, 24(4), 579-619. 1999 Enough of deliberation: Politics is about interests and power. In S. Macedo (Ed.), Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagreement (pp. 28-38). New York: Oxford University Press. 2003 The State of Democratic Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Sherington, M.V. 1997 Participatory research methods: Implementation, effectiveness, and institutional context. Agricultural Systems, 55(2), 195-216. Shindler, B., and Neburka, J. 1997 Public participation in forest planning: 8 attributes of success. Journal of Forestry, 95(1), 17-19. Shutkin, W.A. 2000 The Land That Could Be: Environmentalism and Democracy in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Siegel-Jacobs, K., and Yates, J.F. 1996 Effects of procedural and outcome accountability on judgment quality. Organiza- tional and Human Decision Processes, 65, 1-17. Siegrist, M., Earle, T.C., and Gutscher, H. (Eds.) 2007 Trust in Cooperative Risk Management: Uncertainty and Skepticism in the Public Mind. London, England: Earthscan. Silva, C.L., Jenkins-Smith, H.C., and Barke, R.P. 2007 Reconciling scientistsâ beliefs about radiation risks and social norms: Explaining preferred radiation protection standards. Risk Analysis, 27(3), 755-773. Simmel, G. 1955 Conflict. In K.H. Wolff (Ed.), Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations (pp. 3-17). New York: Free Press. Simonson, I., and Staw, B.M. 1992 Deescalation strategies: A comparison of techniques for reducing commitment to losing courses of action. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 419-426. Sirianni, C., and Friedland, L. 2001 Civic Innovation in America. Berkeley: University of California Press. SjÃ¶berg, L. 1999 Risk perception in Western Europe. Ambio, 28, 543-549. Skocpol, T. 1996 Unraveling from above. American Prospect, 25, 20-25. Slimak, M.W., and Dietz, T. 2006 Personal values, beliefs and ecological risk perception. Risk Analysis, 26, 1689-1705.
288 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Slovic, P. 1987 Perception of risk. Science, 236, 280-285. 1992 Perception of risk: Reflections on the psychometric paradigm. In D. Golding and S. Krimsky (Eds.), Theories of Risk (pp. 117-152). London, England: Praeger. 1995 The construction of preference. American Psychologist, 50, 364-371. 1999 Trust, emotion, sex, politics, and science: Surveying the risk-assessment battlefield. Risk Analysis, 19, 689-701. 2000 The Perception of Risk. London, England: Earthscan. Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., and Lichtenstein, S. 1979 Rating the risks. Environment, 21, 14-20, 30, 36-39. 1980 Facts vs. fears: Understanding perceived risk. In R. Schwing and W.A. Albers (Eds.), Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe is Safe Enough? New York: Plenum Press. 1985 Characterizing perceived risk. In R.W. Kates, C. Hohenemser, and J.X. Kasperson (Eds.), Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology (pp. 91-125). Boul- der, CO: Westview Press. 1986 The psychometric study of risk perception. In V.T. Covello, J. Menkes, and J. Mumpower (Eds.), Risk Evaluation and Management (pp. 3-24). New York: Praeger. Slovic, P., Kraus, N., Lappe, H., and Major, L. 1991 Risk perception of prescription drugs: Report on a survey in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 82, S15-S20. Slovic, P., Malmfors, T., Krewski, D., Mertz, C.K., Neil, N., and Bartlett, S. 1995 Intuitive toxicology. II. Expert and lay judgments of chemical risks in Canada. Risk Analysis, 15, 661-675. Smith, V.K., and Desvouges, W.H. 1986 Measuring Water Quality Benefits. Boston, MA: Kluwer. Snow, D.A., Rochford, E.B., Jr., Worden, S.K., and Benford, R.D. 1986 Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation. Ameri- can Sociological Review, 51, 464-481. Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution 1992 Competencies for Mediators of Complex Public Disputes. Washington, DC: Author. Sommarstrom, S., and Huntington, C. 1999 An Evaluation of Selected Watershed Councils in the Pacific Northwest and North- ern California. (Report prepared for Trout Unlimited and Pacific Rivers Council.) Eugene, OR: Pacific Rivers Council. Spetzler, C.S., and StaÃ«l von Holstein, C.-A. 1975 Probability Encoding in Decision Analysis. Management Science, 22, 340-352. SPIDR 1997 Best Practices for Government Agencies: Guidelines for Using Collabora- tive Agreement-Seeking Processes. Report and Recommendations of the SPIDR E Â nvironment/Public Disputes Sector Critical Issues Committee, adopted by the SPIDR Board, January. Washington, DC: Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolu- tion. Available: http://law.gsu.edu/cncr/pdf/papers/BestPracticesforGovtAgenices.pdf [accessed September 2008]. Stanovich, K.E., and West, R.F. 2000 Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? [with commentaries]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645-726. Starr, C. 1969 Societal benefit versus technological risk. Science, 236, 280-285.
REFERENCES 289 Steelman, T., and Ascher, W. 1997 Public involvement methods in natural resource policy making: Advantages, disad- vantages and tradeoffs. Policy Sciences, 30, 71-90. Sterman, J.D., and Sweeney, L.B. 2002 Cloudy skies: Assessing public understanding of global warming. Systems Dynamics Review, 18, 207-240. Stern, P.C. 1991 Learning through conflict: A realistic approach to risk communication. Policy Sci- ences, 24, 99-119. 2003 Toward a Conceptual Framework for the Public Participation Study. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, April, National Academy of Sciences, Washing- ton, DC. 2005a Deliberative methods for understanding environmental systems. BioScience, 55, 976-982. 2005b Implications of Research on Small-Group Processes for Environmental Public Participation. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, February. Avail- able: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/hdgc/Tab%20_14%20Implications.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Stern, P.C., and Druckman, D. 2000 Evaluating interventions in history: The case of international conflict resolution. International Studies Review, 2(1), 33-63. Stern, P.C., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G.A., and Kalof, L. 1999 A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case for environ- mentalism. Human Ecology Review, 6, 81-97. Stern, P.C., Dietz, T., and Black, J.S. 1986 Support for environmental protection: The role of moral norms. Population and Environment, 8, 204-222. Stern, P.C., Dietz, T., and Ostrom, E. 2002 Research on the commons: Lessons for environmental resource managers. Environ- mental Practice, 4(2), 61-64. Stewart, J., Kendall, E., and Coote, A. 1994 Citizen Juries. London, England: Institute for Public Research. Stewart, R. 1975 The reformation of American administrative law. Harvard Law Review, 88, 1667-1813. Stewart, T.R., Dennis, R.L., and Ely, D.W. 1984 Citizen participation and judgment in policy analysis: A case of urban air quality policy. Policy Sciences, 17, 67â87. Stirling, A. 2004 Opening up or closing down: Analysis, participation and power in the social ap- praisal of technology. In M. Leach, I. Scoones, and B. Wynne (Eds.). Science and Citizens: Globalization and the Challenge of Engagement. London, England: Zed Books. 2006 Analysis, participation and power: Justification and closure in participatory multi- criteria analysis. Land Use Policy, 23, 95-107. 2008 âOpening upâ and âclosing downâ: Power, participation, and pluralism in the social appraisal of technology. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 33(2), 262-294. Stone, D. 2002 Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. New York: Norton.
290 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Strange, J.H. 1972 Citizen participation in community action and Model Cities Programs. Public Ad- ministration Review, 32, 655-669. Sunstein, C.R. 1997 Free Markets and Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press. 2001 Designing Democracy: What Constitutions Do. Oxford, England: Oxford Univer- sity Press. 2003 The law of group polarization. In J.S. Fishkin and P. Laslett (Eds.), Debating De- liberative Democracy (pp. 80-101). Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2006 Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge. Oxford, England: Oxford Uni- versity Press. Susskind, L.E., and Cruikshank, J. 1987 Breaking the Impasse: Consensual Approaches to Resolving Public Disputes. New York: Basic Books. Susskind, L.E., and Field, P. 1996 Dealing with an Angry Public: The Mutual Gains Approach to Resolving Disputes. New York: The Free Press. Susskind, L.E., Bacow, L., and Wheeler, M. 1983 Resolving Environmental Regulatory Disputes. Cambridge, England: Schenkman. Susskind, L.E., McKearnan, S., Thomas-Larmer, J., and the Consensus Building Institute 1999 Negotiating Environmental Agreements: How to Avoid Escalating Confrontation, Needless Costs, and Unnecessary Litigation. New York: Island Press. Susskind, L.E., Thomas-Larmer, J., and Levy, P. 1999 The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agree- ment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. SvedsÃ¤ter, H. 2003 Economic valuation of the environment: How citizens make sense of contingent valuation questions. Land Economics, 79, 88-109. Sweeney, R.L. 2004 Environmental Risk Decision-Making: Risk Professionals and Their Use of Ana- lytic-Deliberative Processes. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University. Syme, G.J., and Sadler, B.S. 1994 Evaluation of public involvement in water resources planning. Evaluation Review, 18, 523-542. Tani, S.N. 1978 Decision Analysis of the Synthetic Fuel Commercialization Program. National Computer Conference Proceedings, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 47, 23-29. (Reprinted in R.A. Howard and J.E. Matheson (Eds.), Readings on the Principles and Applications of Decision Analysis. Menlo Park, CA: Strategic Decisions Group.) Tarrow, S. 1998 Power in Movement. New York: Cambridge University Press. Taylor, D.E. 2000 The rise of the environmental justice paradigm: Injustice framing and the so- cial construction of environmental discourses. American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 508-580. Taylor, M., and Singleton, S. 1993 The communal resource: Transaction costs and the solution of collective action problems. Politics and Society, 21, 195-214. Tetlock, P.E., and Belkin, A. (Eds.) 1996 Counterfactual Thought Experiments in World Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
REFERENCES 291 Thibaut, J., and Walker, L. 1975 Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Thomas, J.C. 1995 Public Participation in Public Decisions: New Skills and Strategies for Public Man- agers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Thompson, L., and Gonzalez, R. 1997 Environmental disputes. In M. Bazerman, D.M. Messick, and K.A. Wade-Benzadi (Eds.), Environmental Ethics and Behavior (pp. 75-103). San Francisco: New Lex- ington Press. Triandis, H. 2000 Culture and conflict. International Journal of Psychology, 35, 145-152. Tuler, S. 2003 Relationships Between Process, Context, and Outcomes: Review of Findings from Multi-Case Study Literature (Nâ¥5). Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, April, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Tuler, S., and Webler, T. 1995 Process evaluation for discursive decision making in environmental and risk policy. Human Ecological Review, 2, 62-74. 1999 Voices from the forest: Participants and planners evaluate a public policy making process. Society and Natural Resources, 12(5), 437-453. Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. 1972 Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124-1131. 1981 The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453-458. Tversky, A., Slovic, P., and Kahneman, D. 1990 The causes of preference reversal. American Economic Review, 80, 204-217. Tyler, T.R. 2000 Social justice: Outcome and procedure. International Journal of Psychology, 35(2), 117-125. Tyler, T.R., and Blader, S. 2000 Cooperation in Groups: Procedural Justice, Social Identity, and Behavioral Engage- ment. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. Tyler, T.R., and Lynd, E.A. 1992 A relational model of authority in groups. Advances in Experimental Social Psychol- ogy, 25, 115-191. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe 1998 Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. Aarhus, Denmark: Author. http://www. unece.org/env/pp/documents/cep43e.pdf [accessed June 2008]. U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management 1998 Winning for the Public: A Strategy for Licensing and Relicensing Dams. Washing- ton, DC: Author. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1986 Guidelines for carcinogenic risk assessment. (EPA/630/R-00/004.) Federal Register, 51(185), 33992-34003. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/raf/car2sab/guidelines_ 1986.pdf [accessed June 2008]. 1992 Community Relations in Superfund: A Handbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. 1998 Stakeholder Involvement Action Plan. Washington, DC: Author.
292 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 2000a Engaging the American People: A Review of EPAâs Public Participation Policy and Regulations with Recommendations for Action. (EPA 240-R-00-005.) Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.epa.gov/stakeholders/pdf/eap_report.pdf [ac- cessed June 2008]. 2000b Guide on Consultation and Collaboration with Indian Tribal Governments and the Public Participation of Indigenous Groups and Tribal Members in Environmen- tal Decision Making. (Prepared by the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council Indigenous Peoples Subcommittee.) Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.lm.doe.gov/env_justice/pdf/ips_consultation_guide.pdf [accessed June 2008]. 2001 Stakeholder Involvement & Public Participation at the U.S. EPA: Lessons Learned, Barriers, & Innovative Approaches. (EPA-100-R-00-040.) Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.epa.gov/stakeholders/pdf/sipp.pdf [accessed June 2008]. 2005 Guidelines for carcinogenic risk assessment. (EPA/630/P-03/001B.) Federal Register, 70(66), 17765-17817. Available: http://www.epa.gov/IRIS/cancer032505.pdf [ac- cessed June 2008]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board 2001 Improved Science-Based Environmental Stakeholder Processes. (EPA-SAB-EC- COM-01-006.) Washington, DC: Author. Available: http://www.epa.gov/sab/pdf/ eccm01006.pdf [accessed June 2008]. U.S. National Assessment Synthesis Team 2000 Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Cli- mate Variability and Change. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. U.S.D.A. Forest Service 1997 Sustaining the Peopleâs Lands: Recommendations for Stewardship of the National Forests and Grasslands into the Next Century. Washington, DC: Author. 2000 Collaborative Stewardship Within the Forest Service: Findings and Recommenda- tions from the National Collaborative Stewardship Team. Available: http://www. partnershipresourcecenter.org/resources/publications/docs/Report_National_ Collaborative_Stewardship_Team.doc [accessed June 2008]. 2002 The Process Predicament: How Statutory, Regulatory, and Administrative Factors Affect National Forest Management. Washington, DC: Author. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Inventory and Monitoring Institute and Business Genetics 2001 Report Abstract: Reflecting Complexity & Impact of Laws on a USDA Forest Service Project. Fort Collins, CO: Author. U.S.D.A. Office of General Counsel Natural Resources Division 2002 Overview of Forest Planning and Project Level Decision Making. Washington, DC: Author. Van Asselt, M.B.A. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Perspectives on Uncertainty and Risk. Boston, MA: Kluwer. 2000 Van de Wetering, S.B. 2006 The Legal Framework for Cooperative Conversation. (Collaborative Governance Report #1.) Missoula: Public Policy Research Institute, University of Montana. Van den Belt, M. 2004 Mediating Modeling: A Systems Dynamics Approach to Environmental Consensus Building. Washington, DC: Island Press. Van den Bos, K. 2001 Uncertainty management: The influence of uncertainty salience on reactions to perceived procedural fairness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 931-941.
REFERENCES 293 Van den Bos, K., and Lind, E.A. 2002 Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 1-60. van den Daele, W. 1992 Scientific evidence and the regulation of technical risks: Twenty years of demytholo- gizing the experts. In N. Stehr and R.V. Ericson (Eds.), The Culture and Power of Knowledge. Inquiries into Contemporary Societies (pp. 323-340). Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter. Van Horn, C.E. 1988 Breaking the Environmental Gridlock. New Brunswick, NJ: The Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University. Vaughan, E. 1993 Individual and cultural differences in adaptation to environmental risks. American Psychologist, 48, 673-680. Vaughan, E., and Nordenstam, B. 1991 The perception of environmental risks among ethnically diverse groups in the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22, 29-60. Vaughan, E., and Seifert, M. 1992 Variability in the framing of risk issues. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 119-135. Ventriss, C., and Kuentzel, W. 2005 Critical theory and the role of citizen involvement in environmental decision mak- ing: A re-examination. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 8(4), 519-539. Available: http://www.uvm.edu/envnr/welcome/gradpages/pdf_files/ Ventriss_Kuentzel.pdf [accessed August 2008]. Verba, S., and Nie, N.H. 1972 Participation in America. New York: Harper and Row. Verba, S., Schlozman, K., and Brady, H. 1994 Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Har- vard University Press. Verba, S., Schlozman, K.L., Brady, H.E., and Nie, N.H. 1993 Race, ethnicity, and political resources: Participation in the United States. British Journal of Political Science, 23, 453-497. Viscusi, W.K. 1998 Rational Risk Policy. The 1996 Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures. New York: Oxford University Press. von Winterfeldt, D., and Edwards, W. 1986 Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Uni- versity Press. Vorwerk, V., and KÃ¤mper, E. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Evaluation der 3. Phase des BÃ¼rgerbeteiligungsverfahrens in der Region Nord- 1997 schwarzwald. (ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Working Report No. 70.) Stuttgart, Germany: Center of Technology Assessment. Wade, R. 1994 Village Republics: Economic Conditions for Collective Action in South India. San Francisco: ICP Press. (Original work published in 1988, Cambridge University Press.) Walinsky, A. 1969 Review: Daniel Moynihanâs Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding: Community Action in the War on Poverty. New York Times, October 5. Available: http://www. nytimes.com/books/98/10/04/specials/moynihan-community.html [accessed August 2008].
294 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Waller, T. 1995 Knowledge, power and environmental policy: Expertise, the lay public and water management in the Western United States. The Environmental Professional, 7, 153-166. Wallsten, T.S., and Budescu, D.V. 1983 Encoding subjective probabilities: A psychological and psychometric review. Man- agement Science, 29, 151-173. Walters, L.C., Aydelotte, J., and Miller, J. 2000 Putting more public in policy analysis. Public Administration Review, 60(4), 349-359. Walters, L.C., Balint, P.J., Desai, A., and Stewart, R.E. 2003 Risk and Uncertainty in Management of the Sierra Nevada National Forests. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region. Available: http://126.96.36.199/ search?q=cache:nUmyDULYquYJ:gunston.doit.gmu.edu/snfpa_risk/Finalreport. doc+Risk+and+Uncertainty+in+Management+of+the+Sierra+Nevada+National+ Forests&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us [accessed September 2008]. Walton, R., and McKersie, R. 1965 A Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiations. New York: McGraw-Hill. Warren, M. 1992 Democratic theory and self-transformation. American Political Science Review, 86, 8-23. Warren, M.E., and Pearse, H. 2008 Designing Deliberative Democracy: The British Columbia Citizensâ Assembly. New York: Cambridge University Press Warren, M.R. 2001 Dry Bones Rattling: Community Building to Revitalize American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Watson, M., Bulkeley, H., and Hudson, R. 2004 Vertical and Horizontal Integration in the Governance of UK Municipal Waste Policy. Paper presented at the IDHP Berlin Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Greening of Policies: Interlinkages and Policy Integration, Dec. 3-4, Freie UniversitÃ¤t, Berlin. Weber, E.P. 2003 Bringing Society Back In: Grassroots Ecosystem Management, Accountability, and Sustainable Communities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Weber, E.U., and Hsee, C. 1998 Cross-cultural differences in risk perception but cross-cultural similarities in at- titudes towards perceived risk. Management Science, 44, 1205-1217. Webler, T. 1995 âRightâ discourse in citizen participation: An evaluative yardstick. In O. Renn, T. Webler, and P. Wiedemann (Eds.), Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating Models for Environmental Discourse (pp. 33-84). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. 1999 The craft and theory of public participation: A dialectical process. Journal of Risk Research, 2(1), 55-71. Webler, T., and Renn, O. 1995 A brief primer on participation: Philosophy and practice. Iï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ n O. Renn, T. Webler, and P. Wiedemann (Eds.). Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating Models for Environmental Discourse (pp. 17-33). Boston, MAï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ : Kluwer Academic.
REFERENCES 295 Webler, T., and Tuler, S. 2008 Organizing a deliberative participatory process: What does the science say? In S. Odugbemi and T. Jacobson (Eds.), Governance Reform Under Real-World Condi- tions: Citizens, Stakeholders, and Voice (pp. 125-160). Washington, DC: World Bank. Webler, T., Rakel, H., Renn, O., and Johnson, B. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Risk Analysis, 15, 1995 Eliciting and classifying concerns: A methodological critique. 421-436. Webler, T., Tuler, S., and Krueger, R. 2001 What is a good public participation process? Five perspectives from the public. Environmental Management, 27(3), 435-450. Wehr, P. 1979 Conflict Regulation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Weidner, H. 1993 Mediation as a Policy for Resolving Environmental Disputes with Special References to Germany. (ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Manuscript of the Series âMediationsverfahren im Umweltschutz.â) Berlin, Germany: Science Center. Welp, M., and Stoll-Kleemann, S. 2006 Integrative theory of reflexive dialogues. In S. Stoll-Kleemann and M. Welp (Eds.), Stakeholder Dialogues in Natural Resources Management: Theory and Practice (pp. 43-78). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Welp, M., de la Vega-Leinert, A.C., Stoll-Kleemann, S., and Furstenau, C. 2007 Science-based stakeholder dialogues in climate change research. In S. Stoll-Klemmann and M. Welp (Eds.), Stakeholder Dialogues in Natural Resources Management (pp. 213-240). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Wengert, N. 1976 Citizen participation: Practice in search of a theory. Natural Resources Journal, 16(1), 23-40. Western Center for Environmental Decision-Making 1997 Public Involvement in Comparative Risk Projects: Principles and Best Practices: A Sourcebook for Project Managers. Boulder, CO: Meridian West Institute. Wilbanks, T.J. 2003 Geographic scaling issues in integrated assessments of climate change. In J. Rotmans and D. Rothman (Eds.), Scaling Issues in Integrated Assessment (pp. 5-34). Linne, the Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger. 2006 Stakeholder involvement in local smart growth: Needs and challenges. In M. Ruth (Ed.), Smart Growth and Climate Change: Regional Development, Infrastructure and Adaptation. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Williams, B.A., and Matheny, A.R. 1995 Democracy, Dialogue, and Environmental Disputes. New Haven, CT: Yale Univer- sity Press. Williams, E., and Ellefson, P. 1996 Natural Resource Partnerships: Factors Leading to Cooperative Success in the Man- agement of Landscape Level Ecosystems Involving Mixed Ownership. (Staff Paper Series Number 113.) St. Paul: Department of Forest Resources, College of Natural Resources and the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota. Willis, H.H., and DeKay, M.L. 2007 The roles of group membership, beliefs, and norms in ecological risk perception. Risk Analysis, 27(5), 1365-1380.
296 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Willis, H.H., DeKay, M.L., Fischhoff, B., and Morgan, M.G. 2005 Aggregate, disaggregate, and hybrid analyses of ecological risk perceptions. Risk Analysis, 25, 405-428. Willis, H.H., DeKay, M.L., Morgan, M.G., Florig, H.K., and Fishbeck, P.S. 2004 Ecological risk ranking: Development and evaluation of a method for improv- ing public participation in environmental decision making. Risk Analysis, 24, 363-378. Wilson, J. 2002 Scientific uncertainty, complex systems, and the design of common-pool institu- tions. In National Research Council, The Drama of the Commons (pp. 327-359). Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P.C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E. Weber (Eds.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Winquist, J.R., and Larson, J.R., Jr. 1998 Information polling: When it impacts group decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 371-377. Wittenbaum, G.M., Hubbell, A.P., and Zuckerman, C. 1999 Mutual enhancement toward an understanding of the collective preference for shared information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 967-978. Wondolleck, J.M. 1988 Public Lands Conflict and Resolution: Managing National Forest Disputes. New York: Plenum Press. Wondolleck, J.M., and Ryan, C.M. 1999 What hat do I wear now?: An examination of agency roles in collaborative pro- cesses. Negotiation Journal, 15(2), 117-134. Wondolleck, J.M., and Yaffee, S.L. 1994 Building Bridges Across Agency Boundaries: In Search of Excellence in the United States Forest Service. (Research report to the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.) 1997 Sustaining the Success of Collaborative Partnerships: Revisiting the Building Bridges Cases. (Research report submitted to the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station.) Available: http://www.snre.umich.edu/ecomgt/collaboration/ Sustaining_Success.pdf [accessed June 2008]. 2000 Making Collaboration Work: Lessons from Innovation in Natural Resource Man- agement. Washington, DC: Island Press. Woolcock, M. 1998 Social capital and economic development: Towards theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27(2), 151-208. World Bank 1996 World Bank Participation Sourcebook. Washington, DC: Author. Wynne, B. 1989 Sheepfarming after Chernobyl: A case study in communicating scientific informa- tion. Environment, 31(2), 10-15, 33-39. 1992 Uncertainty and environmental learning. Global Environmental Change, 2, 111-127. 1995 Public understanding of science. In S. Jasanoff, G.E. Markle, J.C. Petersen, and T. Pinch (Eds.), Handbook of Science and Technology Studies (pp. 361-388). London, England: Sage.
REFERENCES 297 2005 Risk as Globalising âDemocratic Discourseâ: Framing Subjects and Citizens. In M. Leach, I. Scoones, and B. Wynne (Eds.), Science and Citizens (pp. 66-82). London, England: Zed Books. Yaffee, S.L., Wondolleck, J.M., and Lippman, S. 1997 Factors That Promote and Constrain Bridging: A Summary and Analysis of the Literature. Ecosystem Management Initiative, School of Natural Resources and En- vironment, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Available: http://www.snre.umich. edu/ecomgt/collaboration/Factors_that_Promote_and_Contrain_Bridging.pdf [ac- cessed June 2008]. Yang, K., and Callahan, K. 2007 Citizen involvement efforts and bureaucratic responsiveness: Participatory values, stakeholder pressures, and administrative practicality. Public Administration Re- view, 67(2), 249-264. Yearley, S. 2000 Making systematic sense of public discontents with expert knowledge: Two analytic approaches and a case study. Public Understanding of Science, 9, 105-122. Yosie, T.F., and Herbst, T.D. 1998 Using Stakeholder Processes in Environmental Decisionmaking: An Evaluation of Lessons Learned, Key Issues, and Future Challenge. Washington, DC: Ruder Finn. Available: http://gdrc.org/decision/nr98ab01.pdf [accessed June 2008]. Yost, N.C. 1979 New NEPA regulations stress cooperation rather than conflict. Environmental Consensus, 2(l), March. Young, I.M. 2000 Inclusion and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press. Young, O.R. 2002 The Institutional Dimensions of Environmental Change: Fit, Interplay, and Scale. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Young, P. 1993 Equity in Theory and Practice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Zarger, R. 2003 Practitioner Perspectives on Successful Public Participation in Environmental Deci- sions. Paper prepared for the National Research Council Panel on Public Participa- tion in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making, May, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Zavestoski, S., McCormick, S., and Brown, P. 2004 Gender, embodiment, and disease: Environmental breast cancer activistsâ challenges to science, the biomedical model, and policy. Science as Culture, 13(4), 563-586. Zeckhauser, R., and Viscusi, K.W. 1996 The risk management dilemma. In H. Kunreuther and P. Slovic (Eds.), Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Special Issue, Challenges in Risk Assessment and Risk Management (pp. 144-155). Thousand Oaks: Sage.