Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Appendix C Russiaâs Counterterrorism Strategy Valentin A. Sobolev, Deputy Secretary, Security Council of the Russian Federation MAIN THREATS TO INTERNATIONAL SECURITY â¢ Regional crises and conflicts â¢ Terrorism and various forms of political and religious extremism â¢ Separatism â¢ Illegal drug trade â¢ Environmental and technogenic disasters â¢ Threats of the spread of weapons of mass destruction â¢ Organized crime CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRORISM IN 2005 â¢ Increased rates of growth in the number of terrorist acts (according to U.S. data, more than 10,000 terrorist acts have been committed worldwide in the past three decades) â¢ Rise in the level of organization (during the twentieth century, terror- ism developed from a lone terrorist model to transnational terrorist organizations such as al Qaeda) â¢ Improved material-technical and financial support (from the dag- ger and pistol to colossal bombings and the possible use of weapons of mass 227
228 COUNTERING TERRORISM destruction, from meager financial resources to funding streams totaling in the millions) â¢ Increased scope of terrorist activity (from single locations of crimes to the seizure of entire cities, countries, and regions) â¢ Increased severity of consequences and number of casualties â¢ Expanded social base of terrorism â¢ Increased number of trained fighters equipped at the highest technical level CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN TERRORISM IN 2007 â¢ Expanded geography and internationalization: More than 50 coun- tries have experienced the consequences of terrorist acts, including Iraq, India, Indonesia, Colombia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Israel, Great Britain, and Egypt. â¢ Increased danger to society: The number of acts carried out by suicide attackers (shahids) has increased fivefold in the past 3 years. In 2006 alone, more than 15,000 terrorist acts were carried out worldwide, killing or injuring more than 90,000 people. â¢ Expanded social base and involvement of significant masses of the population in extremist activities: This leads to the creation of a broader infra- structure for terrorist organizations and brings the ethnonational factor to bear, which in turn creates a significant degree of uncertainty about potential sources of the terrorist threat and forms and means of operation by terrorists. â¢ Rise in linkages between terrorism and the ethnoreligious factor: Primarily this refers to the aim of certain branches of Islam to create individuals who are psychologically prepared to commit violent acts âin the name of Allahâ to achieve political goals, such as overthrowing unfavorable secular regimes and establishing a government according to Islamic doctrines. â¢ Increased level of organization and unification of terrorist organiza- tions both within individual countries and on an international level: Terrorists are creating a system of control with unified leading entities that plan their ac- tions. Terrorist groups that are similar in their ideological, political, nationalistic, religious, and separatist positions are holding councils and meetings, bringing together the leaders of the largest groups. â¢ Formation of three threatening hotbeds for the spread of terrorism in the world: These regions where armed conflicts are prevalent include âPales- tine-Israel,â Iraq, and Afghanistan. â¢ Trend toward the expansion by jihadists of their supply, funding, and personnel bases beyond the bounds of the Muslim world: Latin America is gradually becoming a promising source from which the Islamic fighters may augment their ranks. This trend will continue, according to the predictions of Western experts in 2007. In addition to the Middle East and Western Europe, we
International Terrorism Terrorist Bandit groups Partisan Armed rebel organizations brigades forces Social Base Ideological Base Economic Base Organized crime Goals Means Profitability of terrorist Socially Protest activity dissatisfied groups citizens Crime Legitimization of violence Clients Factors Shaping Terrorism (Actualization of Contradictions) Criminalization Xenophobia Separatism Extremism Interfaith and Social Cultural International interethnic stratification marginalization contradictions contradictions FIGURE C-1â International terrorism. 229 Fig C-1.eps landscape
230 COUNTERING TERRORISM should expect increased activity by jihadists in Bosnia, Kosovo, India, Bangla- desh, Indonesia, Australia, the Philippines, the Fergana Valley, and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peopleâs Republic of China. â¢ Continuing material and financial support for terrorism: The main source of financing for terrorism today comes from control of the drug trade, racketeering, prostitution, arms trade, contraband, gambling, and so forth. â¢ Use of modern technologies by terrorists: Terrorists are striving to gain access to weapons of mass destruction and their components. We must or- ganize efforts to counter nuclear terrorism, cyberterrorism, ecoterrorism, agroter- rorism, and radiological terrorism. â¢ Increased ties between terrorism and the drug trade: Terrorism is increasingly active in the so-called instability belt, which extends from the Philip- pines and Indonesia through the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, the Caucasus, and the Middle East up to the Serbian border of Kosovo. The flow of drugs from Afghanistan has become global in nature. It may be stated that the efforts of the international community and the Afghan authorities to counter the production and illegal trade of narcotics are still not having the necessary effect. Success in the struggle against terrorism is unimaginable without a clear and universally accepted international strategy. Governmental and social structures, official networks, and the media must join forces. The foundation for such an endeavor was laid by Resolution 1373 and other decisions by the United Nations Security Council, but additional efforts are currently needed. The main elements of Russiaâs strategy for international cooperation to coun- ter international terrorism and extremism include the following: â¢ The United Nations â¢ The Group of Eight (G8) â¢ Expanded contacts and cooperation on antiterrorism with the North At- lantic Treaty Organization (NATO), within the framework of the Russia-NATO Council â¢ Enhanced regional antiterrorist cooperation with nearby countries, pri- marily through the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization â¢ Establishment of cooperation on countering new challenges and threats with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the Asian Regional Forum Figure C-1 illustrates the new transnational ideology and practice of asym- metric violent resolution of contradictions on a global level.