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6 Organizational Measures and Decision Support Systems for Preventing and Responding to Terrorist Acts at Potentially Hazardous Facilities, on Transportation Systems, and in Locations Where Large Numbers of People Congregate* A. Yu. Kudrin, Director, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Civil Defense and Emergency Situations (ICDES) (Federal Center); A. I. Zaporozhets, Deputy Director for Research, ICDES; and S. A. Kachanov, Deputy Director, ICDES Terrorism is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon that is social in nature and, in some instances, has a political aim. Terrorists attempt to exert political pressure on government leaders, attract world public attention to certain prob- lems, demand the liberation of arrested supporters of extremist groups and the end of persecution of terrorist organizations and their leaders by law enforcement agencies, advance economic demands, and so forth. As a rule, terrorists commit individual acts of an intentionally provoca- tive nature, which may include threats of murder or the assassination of state and political figures; the seizure of hostages or potentially hazardous facilities; bombings; or the release of poisons, radioactive substances, or biologically active agents. This will lead to deaths among members of the public who happen to be at the site of the attack and will harm the economy and the prestige of the state. Terrorist acts at potentially hazardous facilitiesâenterprises working with chemicals, radioactive materials, or explosives; hydrotechnical structures; unique tall buildings; subways, surface rail, and air transport facilities; and places where large numbers of people congregate, such as concert halls, stadiums, apartment *Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins. 46
ORGANIZATIONAL MEASURES AND DECISION SUPPORT 47 buildings, and so forth (hereafter referred to as facilities)âpresent a great danger to personnel and the public and cause substantial economic damage. Terrorist acts at enterprises could be carried out by striking (destroying) a tank or pipeline holding catastrophically hazardous chemicals, a nuclear reactor, or a storage vessel containing highly flammable liquid. An explosion at a chemical-hazard facility could cause destruction over an area of up to 30 square kilometers, with the number of injured victims possibly reaching 60,000 and up to 5,000 fatalities. Destruction of an atomic reactor could contaminate up to 1,200 square kilome- ters, with the number of casualties in this situation possibly reaching 10,000. If a terrorist strike against a hydrotechnical structure were to occur, we might expect cities or towns to be flooded and buildings to be destroyed by the resulting surge of water. The land area submerged could reach about 1,000 square kilome- ters, with the number of victims possibly reaching 120,000. In places where large numbers of people gather, terrorists could use ex- plosives, dangerous chemicals (including poisons), radioactive substances, and biologically active agents. The suddenness of a terrorist act, the rapid spread of the impact factors, the deaths of many people, the ensuing panic, and peopleâs sense of being unpro- tected create a powerful psychological blow to society. Therefore, prompt re- sponse to a terrorist threat or act is an important factor in preserving the lives and health of people subjected to such attacks. Many organizations of various types have been involved in studies on preventing and eliminating the consequences of terrorist acts. The Russian Ministry for Civil Defense Affairs, Emergencies, and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM) is responsible for emergency rescue and other urgent efforts involved in eliminating the conse- quences of terrorist acts. A unified state system for emergency situation prevention and response has been created and is operating in Russia. Within the boundaries of specific juris- dictions, administrative agencies specially empowered to handle issues related to protecting the public and area from emergency situations, depending on the circumstances and scope of the predicted or actual situation, establish one of the following operating regimes for the subsystems of the unified state system for emergency management: â¢ Standard daily operating regime: during normal production activities in the absence of any predictions of possible terrorist acts â¢ Increased readiness regime: when possible terrorist acts are predicted at a facility â¢ Emergency regime: when a terrorist act has been committed at a facility Basic measures involved in the standard daily operating regime are as follows:
48 COUNTERING TERRORISM â¢ Situational observation and monitoring at facilities and adjacent areas by facility staff and law enforcement personnel â¢ Organization and implementation of training for local government and law enforcement personnel, facility staff, the public, and emergency rescue per- sonnel in means of protection and appropriate actions to be taken at a facility, on a transport system, and in open spaces if a terrorist act is committed â¢ Planning, organization, and implementation of training exercises on emergency warnings, protection of people against the effects of impact factors, and reduction of losses and damage from a terrorist act â¢ Participation in the development and implementation of organizational and engineering-technical measures to ensure more stable operations of facilities and transport systems in an emergency resulting from a terrorist act â¢ Creation and augmentation of stores of emergency supplies and monitor- ing of the usability of individual protective gear; medical supplies for individual protection; and equipment needed for communications, public notification, and chemical, radiation, and biological surveillance and monitoring â¢ Organization of matters regarding the interactions of special emergency response subunits with EMERCOM, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Communications, the Federal Security Service, the Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development, the Ministry of Defense, and other Russian ministries and departments â¢ Cooperation with local government agencies and officials specially au- thorized to deal with combating terrorist acts in order to select sites for decon- tamination stations for equipment and clothing, sanitary washing stations, and accumulators (observation stations) for eliminating the consequences of terrorist acts at facilities that involve the use of dangerous chemicals (poisons), radioactive substances, and biologically active agents â¢ Training of personnel from EMERCOM specialized subunits and facility staff on actions to eliminate the consequences of terrorist acts, including victim assistance and use of technical means for containment, special processing tech- niques using equipment, and sanitary processing of individuals â¢ Other matters aimed at preventing losses and reducing damage from a terrorist act in accordance with the specific characteristics of operations at each particular facility Basic measures involved in the increased readiness regime are as follows: â¢ Assumption by the appropriate emergency commission of direct opera- tional command of the emergency management system subunit functioning at the site of the terrorist act; formation of operations groups at the local level to ascertain the situation at the site of the terrorist act; and provision of effective assistance to facility staff and law enforcement personnel in dealing with the emergency
ORGANIZATIONAL MEASURES AND DECISION SUPPORT 49 â¢ Communication of the threat (prediction) of an emergency situation to the appropriate Russian Federation ministry, department, or organization with jurisdiction â¢ Notification of facility staff and law enforcement personnel at the facility about the terrorist act â¢ Testing of operational communications and clarification of interactions between the appropriate emergency commission and the EMERCOM crisis man- agement center â¢ Augmentation of security and dispatch services at the facility â¢ Increased observation of the situation at the facility and in adjacent areas â¢ Distribution of individual respiratory protective gear to be kept at the ready by facility staff and law enforcement personnel â¢ Preparation of portable and mobile devices for chemical, radiation, and biological surveillance and monitoring for use if needed â¢ Placement of EMERCOM personnel and resources at the appropriate level of readiness; clarification of plans for their actions Basic measures involved in the emergency regime are as follows: â¢ Clarification of the situation in the zone where the terrorist act occurred â¢ Notification of officials specially authorized for involvement in combat- ing terrorist acts, facility staff, and law enforcement personnel that a terrorist act has been committed â¢ Conduct of overall survey (chemical, radiation, or biological, as needed) and monitoring efforts to establish whether explosives, hazardous chemicals (poi- sons), or biologically active agents were used; establishment of perimeter of zone impacted by explosives, affected by chemicals (poisons) or biological agents, or contaminated by radioactive substances â¢ Evacuation of the public from the danger zone â¢ Distribution of individual protective gear to victims (if necessary) â¢ Provision of initial medical and paramedical assistance to victims â¢ Execution of measures to eliminate the source of the emergency â¢ Execution of measures to decontaminate the area; specially process indi- vidual protective gear, uniforms, and equipment; and provide sanitary processing for personnel involved in containing and eliminating the consequences of terrorist acts in which dangerous chemicals (poisons), radioactive substances, or biologi- cally active agents were used Based on an analysis of likely threats that could lead to emergency situations, individualized security systems must be developed for industrial enterprises, unique tall buildings, facilities where large numbers of people gather, and subway
50 COUNTERING TERRORISM stations. Such systems should take into account natural, technogenic, biological, social, and terrorist factors that could cause emergency situations. Such security systems include both organizational and technical measures. Organizational mea- sures provide plans for the actions of personnel, residents, and facility visitors both in regular day-to-day activities and during emergencies, threats of terrorist acts, and such acts themselves. They are laid out in the appropriate regulatory technical documents. Plans for rescuing and evacuating people and eliminating the source of the emergency should be developed in a timely fashion through training exercises and courses. Technical measures are developed with the aim of supporting the normal functioning of a facility under its regular daily operating regime, during threats, and during actual emergencies. These measures are implemented using engi- neering and technical means: design and structural elements; barriers; blocking devices and mechanisms; security, fire alarm, and warning systems; systems for monitoring and management of facility security and critical operations; loud- speakers and other means of notification; video observation systems; means and systems for facility access control and management; environmental monitoring equipment; and so forth. All facilities must be prepared for an emergency. To achieve this, measures are taken to improve the facilityâs level of protection. The list of measures could be augmented and revised depending on the facilityâs function. Critically important points are identified in the design stage. When the facility is in operation, access to these points is limited and they are constantly monitored. Such points include structural elements that, if destroyed, would lead to destruction of the entire facility, as well as technological systems and equip- ment that, if affected by an accident, could lead to an emergency situation. Physi- cal protection boundaries are organized and equipped with monitoring rooms, alarm systems, controlled access points, and inspection points for vehicles and individuals. The necessary badges or access cards are distributed to staff. An accounting is made of residents and visitors. Regulatory technical documents on actions to be taken in an emergency and systems for communications with supervisory agencies and fire and rescue personnel are developed and forwarded to those responsible for implementation. Special attention is devoted to seeking and detecting unauthorized persons and objects, finding them in a timely manner, and handing them over to law enforcement personnel or specialists. Personal cars and trucks with compressed gas-powered engines are prohibited on the grounds of the facility. The number of persons involved in facility access control and monitoring is increased. As for preventing and eliminating the consequences of emergency situations at facilities, much attention is currently being focused on automated systems used there. The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Civil Defense and Emer- gency Situations (ICDES) has developed an original technology and the neces- sary regulatory and methodological base for creating automated interconnected
ORGANIZATIONAL MEASURES AND DECISION SUPPORT 51 security and utility systems and structured systems for monitoring and managing engineering systems at buildings and structures. The technology that has been developed makes it possible to prevent or significantly reduce the consequences of emergency situations caused by critical utility failures; the sudden collapse of structural elements of buildings and other structures; fires; explosions; increased levels of hazardous chemicals, radiation, or biologically active substances; or terrorist acts. The programmatic and technical solutions that have been developed make it possible to â¢ support the operations of all security and critical utility systems accord- ing to previously determined algorithms in emergency situations, including those caused by terrorist acts; â¢ facilitate the uninterrupted, remote, real-time, automated processing of information on the status of critical utility and security systems and engineer- ing-technical elements at facilities and automatically transmit the necessary data on the parameters of the emergency in an established format to the necessary response service; and â¢ facilitate long-distance management of critical utility and security sys- tems at facilities from a remote control center in the city in emergency situations, including those caused by terrorist acts. Preliminary calculations indicate that the creation of this system would re- duce the number of emergency situations in buildings and structures by at least 20 percent and would cut materials losses by more than 15 percent. To prevent the sudden collapse of buildings and structures, the institute has developed a technology for remote monitoring of engineered technical elements. Two parameters are monitored: (1) individual fluctuation periods (frequencies) of barrier elements and (2) displacements (vertical, horizontal, and twisting). The data obtained are then automatically processed mathematically, resulting in out- put on the condition of the structural elements of the facility (normal, increased attention, or alarm). The results of the monitoring are automatically transmitted to the necessary response services. With the aim of preparing scientifically grounded recommendations on ac- tions to be taken in emergency situations, including those caused by terrorist acts, the Center for Decision Support in Emergency Situations has been cre- ated at ICDES. The center has the necessary software allowing it to determine automatically the scope of a given emergency and to prepare the necessary rec- ommendations on rescue and other urgent efforts to save people and minimize material damages. The software was created on the basis of existing packages and well-proven methodologies. Measures to prevent and respond to emergen- cies are being prepared not only on the basis of theoretical tasks but also using accumulated knowledge bases such as previous experience in carrying out such
52 COUNTERING TERRORISM efforts, new methods and technologies for eliminating the consequences of vari- ous types of emergencies, data on new emergency rescue tools and their avail- ability, and so forth. Specialists from other ministries and departments could be involved in pre- paring recommendations, including by means of videoconferencing. The centerâs preparation of timely, scientifically grounded recommendations on preventing and responding to various types of emergency situations makes it possible to reduce substantially the likelihood of a disaster at facilities and to save significantly more people and reduce the costs of rescue efforts if such situations do occur, including those caused by terrorist acts.