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6 The Environmental Policy of the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) and Priority Objectives for its Implementation* Aleksandr M. Agapov, Rosatom, and Leonid A. Bolshov, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Nuclear Safety Institute Literally before our eyes, issues of ecology and environmental protection have gone from general declarations and activities by enthusiasts to the ratifica- tion of modern norms under Russian and international law (see Box 6-1). The path of sustainable development adopted by the global community en- tails not only political decisions but also partnership relations between the public and industry, the basis for which lies in the voluntary commitments of industry according to the values set forth in the Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environ- ment and Development (1992) and the Declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002. Coming to the forefront is the concept of environmental security, which is defined as a condition under which the natural environment and the vitally important interests of humanity are protected from possible negative effects of economic and other activities, extreme situations of a natural or technogenic nature, and their consequences. The vitally important interests of humanity are a broad concept, including high quality of life, the health of present and future generations, the presence of favorable envi- ronmental conditions, the preservation of biodiversity, the availability of natural resources for current and future generations, and so forth. â *Translated from the Russian by Kelly Robbins. 17
18 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS BOX 6-1 Development of the Concept of Environmental Security 1960-1975 assage of the first environmental protection laws P (United States, Western Europe) 1992 Rio de Janeiro Conference; concept of sustainable development 1996 First international standards, ISO series 14000 2002 Russian Federal Law on Environmental Protection ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY EFFORTS REGARDING THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR INDUSTRY More than any other industry both in Russia and worldwide, the nuclear industry senses the heightened interest of both the public and ecology specialists in ensuring environmental security. We often encounter harsh and not always constructive criticism. In this regard, this is an extremely appropriate time for an objective and open discussion of our achievements and unresolved problems. The activities of our enterprises have traditionally been associated exclu- sively with radiation effects on people and nature. It should be noted that pro- tecting people and the natural environment against radiation associated with the use of nuclear power is not a new task but rather an inalienable aspect of the activities of nuclear power enterprises over the course of many decades. Sci- entists and specialists from the State Research CenterâInstitute of Biophysics, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Radiology of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and the Medical Radiological Re- search Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) have made a significant contribution to ensuring radiation safety and resolving problems associated with radioecology and radiation medicine. We note that further steps toward strengthening the regulation of human radiation exposure limits must be weighed carefully. Furthermore, we believe that environmental security issues must be addressed comprehensively and systematically, taking into account all risk factors to which people today are subjected. The task of ensuring environmental security has two limiting conditions. On the one hand, we, like all other industries, have limited resources. On the other hand, legislatively enhanced environmental limitations could lead to calls to halt the operation of certain facilities. RELEVANT RUSSIAN LEGISLATION Developing and implementing effective and practical environmental secu- rity solutions is a complex task. However, accomplishing this task is essential
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 19 for further development of the industry, the prospects for which were clearly defined with the adoption of the Federal Targeted Program for the Development of the Russian Nuclear Power Industry Complex for 2007-2010 and up to 2015 (Government Resolution No. 605, October 6, 2006), which calls for acceler- ated development of nuclear power generating capacity in order to promote the countryâs energy security. Russian President Vladimir Putin has repeatedly noted the undoubted need to resolve questions related to the safety of nuclear power and the nuclear industry in general. In late 2003, President Putin approved the Principles of State Policy on Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Russian Federation through 2010 (Pr-2196, December 4, 2003), which defines the goal, priority objectives, basic principles, and tasks of state policy on nuclear and radiation safety in Russia, as well as objectives for targeted program planning and management in this area. A great deal of attention has traditionally been focused on environmental security in our industry. In 2003 the fundamental document entitled âPrinciples of the Environmental Policy of the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom)â was developed and approved (ratified by Decree No. 67 of the Russian Minister of Atomic Energy, February 19, 2003). On April 5, 2005, a revised version of this document was approved by Decree No. 170 of the head of the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom). Its current title is âPrinciples of the Environmental Policy of Rosatom.â This document defines priority objectives and urgent mea- sures to be taken in various areas. The next step must be the making of individual environmental protection commitments by enterprises, taking into account the specifics of their activities on the basis of the principles formulated in the Ro- satom environmental policy document. At this time, we can cite certain results of activities carried out on these objectives, including the following: â¢ Organizational and programmatic decisions of the Rosatom Board on the formation of departmental-targeted programs and radioactive waste management systems, problems of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Mayak Production As- sociation, development of an infrastructure for spent nuclear fuel management, comprehensive dismantlement of nuclear-powered submarines, decommissioning of facilities presenting nuclear and radiation hazards, and cooperation with the public â¢ Practical work by enterprises to develop and implement environmental protection measures â¢ Development and approval of initial special environmental programs â¢ Widespread initiation of international cooperation on comprehensive dismantlement and rehabilitation of shore technical bases at the Far Eastern Ra- dioactive Waste Management Enterprise (DalRAO) and the Northern Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise (SevRAO)
20 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS â¢ Expansion and augmentation of the scientific base of documentary evi- dence on the environmental safety of nuclear technologies â¢ Organizational decisions on improving the system for managing envi- ronmental security and nature protection activities The agencyâs current structure and management functions are oriented to- wards efficiently achieving the strategic goals of Rosatom, one of the most fun- damental of which is ensuring the safe and secure use of nuclear energy. Most of Rosatomâs divisions deal to a varying extent with ensuring safety, coordinating the activities of enterprises under their control, or dealing with industry-wide matters. Ensuring the safe operation of nuclear- and radiation-hazard facilities and precluding the possibility of serious accidents is a mandatory condition without adherence to which any considerations of the environmental safety of nuclear technology would be significantly devalued. No less important is the constant readiness of the industry to operate under extreme conditions. Qualitative ad- vances have been made in this regard since the late 1990s. The Scientific Coordination Council on Environmental Protection was cre- ated in 2005 to promote relevant scientific research and development of organi- zational and technical measures for the implementation of environmental policy. The council has been assigned the tasks of making scientific methodological recommendations and measures to develop the Industry-Wide System for En- vironmental Protection Management, as well as plans and practical measures to implement the Principles of the Environmental Policy of Rosatom. One effort that must be an important aspect of the councilâs activities is its effort to introduce at Rosatom enterprises national and international standards on environmental protection, rational resource use, environmental safety, and environmental man- agement, primarily ISO series 14000 standards. CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY SITUATION IN THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR INDUSTRY The present situation in the industry is characterized by Rosatom enterprises generally demonstrating a high level of environmental safety in accordance with the requirements of existing legislation. The main task in the industry is main- taining the level of environmental safety that has been achieved and constantly improving it in compliance with ISO standards. At the same time, problems have accumulated over decades with regard to spent nuclear fuel and radioac- tive wastes, the decommissioning of nuclear- and radiation-hazard facilities, and radioactive contamination of the environment. The current nuclear and radiation safety situation in the country is character- ized by three key factors:
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 21 1. The need to improve and develop state systems for ensuring and moni- toring nuclear and radiation safety in the energy sector that are appropriate for the existing tasks and development plans in the nuclear power industry 2. The presence of facilities in the military-industrial complex that present nuclear and radiation hazards and do not meet current nuclear and radiation safety requirements (our ânuclear heritageâ) and that present a national security threat 3. The recognition of the need to resolve accumulated problems at the state level and the impermissibility of putting them off any further In recent years, organizations have spent more than 20 billion rubles of their own funds annually to ensure the safety of facilities presenting nuclear and radia- tion hazards, including facilities in the military-industrial complex. However, the measures being taken are of an urgent, accident-response nature. In order to address the accumulated problems in an effective and coordi- nated manner, the Federal Targeted Program for Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 to 2015 has been developed. The concept for this program was approved by Order No. 484-r of the government of the Russian Federation on April 19, 2007. Implementation of this program will facilitate achievement of priority ob- jectives in creating fundamental elements of the infrastructure to manage spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes and to eliminate problems associated with past activities, including the following: â¢ Removing from operation and (or) dismantling decommissioned facili- ties presenting nuclear and radiation hazards and ensuring that they are left in safe condition (including removal and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes) â¢ Renovating facilities for the management of accumulated radioactive wastes and eliminating some repositories for solid and liquid radioactive wastes â¢ Decommissioning facilities of the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport that present nuclear and radiation hazards and carrying out a set of ef- forts to manage spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes â¢ Removing accumulated volumes of spent nuclear fuel from research reactors and renovating systems for the physical protection of facilities presenting nuclear and radiation hazards â¢ Rehabilitating radiation-contaminated facilities and sites A no less important condition for achieving the goal of nuclear and radia- tion safety lies in the reliable operation of systems for accounting, control, and physical protection of nuclear materials, radioactive substances, and radioactive wastes and in facilitation of the regime for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, prevention of unauthorized use of ionizing radiation sources, and monitoring of the radiation situation, exposure doses received by the population, and so forth.
22 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS DATA ON RESULTS OF NUCLEAR INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY EFFORTS The nuclear industry needs to focus constant efforts on compiling scientific documentation regarding the level of safety that has been achieved, including that of environmental safety. For more than 30 years, issues related to environmental protection at industry enterprises have been analyzed and summarized by the industry department of environmental protection at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology. On the whole, the environmental protection indicators of our production facilities are at a good level. Emissions and discharges of radionuclides are substantially lower than established legal limits. The exception is the Mayak Production Associationâits problems require a special and comprehensive approach for resolution. For many years, Rosatom has generally been achieving good indicators in its environmental protection activities. Nuclear industry enterprises contribute only about 0.5 percent of all industrial emissions of chemical contaminants and about 3 percent of all discharges of polluted wastewater. This is one of the best figures among all industrial sectors (only the communications industry is better). An important task is developing and improving the base of scientific evi- dence on environmental security matters. Efforts to produce a comprehensive analysis of environmental risks in regions where our enterprises are located are extremely useful in this regard. Including factors of a nonradiation-related nature in this risk factor analysis will make it possible to determine real environmental protection priorities at the regional level. Interesting and important work in this area has been done by scientists from the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute, the Rus- sian Research CenterâKurchatov Institute, and the State Science CenterâInsti- tute of Biophysics. Research on the comparative analysis of radiation and chemical risks con- ducted at the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute in cooperation with the RAMS A.N. Sysin Scientific Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hy- giene has shown that nuclear technologies have an extremely insignificant impact on the health of the population. In regions where nuclear industry enterprises are located, radiation risks are at a level of 10â7-10â6, and in regions where nuclear power plants are located these risks are 10â7-10â8 (see Figure 6-1). These levels are two to four orders of magnitude lower than the risks associated with chemical pollution of the environment. As a comparison, the risks to the health of the population associated with the operations of a coal-fired power plant are up to 10â3 annually (see Figure 6-2). â Risks in this paper are the annual risks of cancer to an individual. These are the acceptable excess upper bound annual cancer risks to an individual. Acceptable exposure levels for known or suspected carcinogens are generally concentration levels that represent an excess upper bound lifetime cancer risk to an individual of between 10â4 and 10â6 using information on the relationship between dose and response. In the international literature, these risks are usually presented as lifetime risks.âEd.
Data from the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute Data from the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute City of Krasnoturinsk Annual individual risk: 4 .0 Â·10 -4 City of Nizhny Tagil Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant Annual individual risk: Annual individual radiation risks of a 4.4Â·10 - 4 technogenic nature: 3.0 Â· 10-7 Aerosol gas emissions: 2.4Â· 10-7 Discharges into bodies of water: 6.0Â·10-8 City of Kamensk-Uralsky City of Yekaterinburg Annual individual risks due Annual individual risk: to the 1957 accident: 2.8Â·10 - 4 < 1Â·10 -5 - Risks not related to radiation - Radiation risks 23 FIGURE 6-1â Regions of assessed risk in Sverdlovsk Oblast. Figure 6-1.eps Partial bitmap image
24 Data from the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute Data from the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant Annual individual radiation risks of a Reftinsk Power Plant technogenic nature: 3.0Â·10 - 7 Annual individual chemical Aerosol gas emissions: 2 .4Â·10 - 7 risks: 1.0 Â·10 - 3 Discharges into bodies Annual population risk: 117 of water: 6.0Â· 10 - 8 additional deaths Asbest Asbest - Risks not related to radiation - Radiation risks FIGURE 6-2â Risks to the health of the population living in regions near nuclear and coal-fired power plants in Sverdlovsk Oblast. Figure 6-2.eps Partial bitmap image
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 25 Among the industryâs accumulated and not yet fully resolved problems are radioactive wastes and, in particular, the problems of the Mayak Production As- sociation. However, positive strides have been made even at this very problematic enterprise. In 2005-2007 a wide range of work has been carried out to ensure the safety of the industrial reservoirs at Mayak. We note that on the initiative of Rosatom and within the framework of existing legislation, an interagency group of specialists has drafted a âTechnical Regulation on the Safety of the Techa Reservoir Cascade.â Further development of this draft regulation will make it possible to put in place a much-needed legitimate regulatory-legal basis for the safe operation of this reservoir cascade. CREATION OF A UNIFIED STATE SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT Creating an effective radioactive waste management system is a fundamental condition for the further development of nuclear power and the nuclear industry in general (see Box 6-2). At present, the need has arisen to create a unified state system for radioactive waste management based on the organizations of Rosatom and under the agencyâs control. Such a system will make it possible to ensure safer management of radioactive wastes at all stages in the life cycle. An important step in this effort must be the adoption of a radioactive waste management doctrine that would create a scientifically based and clearly defined vision for securing radioactive wastes over the long term. Significant efforts are BOX 6-2 From the Decisions of the Rosatom Board âOn the Formation of a State System for Radioactive Waste Management,â April 6, 2005 â¢ repare for presentation to the Government of the Russian Federation recom- P mendations on working with other interested federal executive branch agen- cies the Russian government acts on â ffirming the doctrine on radioactive waste management in the Russian A Federation â efining a list of facilities for the creation of regional sites for the long-term D storage and ultimate isolation of radioactive wastes â dentifying sources and procedures for financing radioactive waste man- I agement efforts â¢ rganize a Russia-wide inventory of radioactive wastes as of December 31, O 2005
26 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS required to develop recommendations on organizational and financial mecha- nisms for the operation of a unified state system covering radioactive waste man- agement activities. The problems of the nuclear heritage must be addressed comprehensively and at the state level. However, the realities of life are such that we have dealt with them primarily independently, so as to facilitate ongoing enterprise op- erations and prospects for their development. The recent change and even the breakthrough in terms of state attention to the problems of the nuclear heritage are largely associated with the adoption and implementation of the Federal Targeted Program for Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Security for 2008 to 2015. THE SPECIAL PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR-POWERED SUBMARINES Issues regarding nuclear and radiation safety associated with the comprehen- sive dismantlement of nuclear-powered submarines hold a special position. This is a major activity directly aimed at ensuring long-term environmental security. Recent and previous years have been characterized by the rapid expansion of international cooperation under both the Global Partnership and numerous bilateral agreements. In the aim of coordinating work being carried out under the framework of international cooperation, the first Strategic Master Plan for the Comprehensive Dismantlement of Nuclear-Powered Submarines in Northwestern Russiaâa plan of urgent measuresâwas prepared in 2004 through joint efforts with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In 2007, plans are being completed for the second stage of work, SMP-2. Led by RAS Acade- mician A. A. Sarkisov and RAS Corresponding Member L. A. Bolshov, these wide-ranging and complex efforts involve the active participation of scientists from the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute, the Russian Research CenterâKurchatov Institute, and the N. A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET), as well as specialists from the enterprises of other inter- ested agencies. In 1998 the government of the Russian Federation assigned the task of comprehensive dismantlement of nuclear-powered submarines to the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy. Table 6-1 presents information on the current status of such submarines removed from naval service. Plans call for dismantling all nuclear-powered submarines removed from military service by 2010. More than 50 billion rubles will be required to finance programmatic measures under the Strategic Master Plan through 2010 (see the list of tasks in Box 6-3). It is expected that more than 30 billion rubles of the funds required will come from international technical assistance. Issues Associated with Nuclear Power Production Ensuring environmental security associated with the use of nuclear power is an important element in Rosatomâs system of strategic priorities. It is one of the
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 27 TABLE 6-1â Data on the Status of Nuclear-Powered Submarines Removed from Naval Service as of February 1, 2007 Northern Pacific Submarines Total Region Region Removed from service 198 120 78 Dismantled 148 97 51 Currently being dismantled 23 10 13 Awaiting dismantlement 24 12 12 Special resolution required (submarines in critical condition) 3 1 2 fundamental conditions for the sustainable development of the nuclear industry in the twenty-first century. The limited nature of hydrocarbon fuel resources raises the question of how to meet the worldâs energy demands. Given the shortage of cheap natural gas in the country and the negative environmental impacts of coal- fired power plants, developing nuclear power under the condition that we shift to a closed nuclear fuel cycle (which will ensure nuclear fuel supplies for thousands of years) is the most environmentally safe way to ensure a sustainable energy supply for Russia. As a point of information, the production of power at nuclear power plants saves more than 40 billion m3 of natural gas each year. Nevertheless, enterprises and Rosatom inevitably must address complex problems of maintaining and consolidating their positions on the Russian and world markets for energy technologies and nuclear technologies. All competi- tive mechanisms are in play when commercial projects are carried out, including relying on public opinion on matters of the ecological impacts of products and BOX 6-3 Comprehensive Dismantlement of Nuclear- Powered Submarines: Tasks through 2010 â¢ ismantle 83 submarines, 2 surface ships with nuclear power blocs, and 16 D nuclear technical service ships â¢ nload, transport, and reprocess 100 t of spent nuclear fuel U â¢ Safely maintain all comprehensive dismantlement sites â¢ Isolate 2 submarines in critical condition in Primorsky Krai â¢ uild facilities for long-term onshore storage: 190 reactor section blocs in B Murmansk Oblast and Primorsky Krai â¢ eprocess 30,000 t of solid radioactive wastes and 12,000 m3 of liquid radio- R active wastes â¢ ehabilitate spent fuel and radioactive waste repositories as well as contami- R nated sites at 3 shore technical bases
28 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS the processes for their production. Along with the basic positive content involved, ecology, like âdemocratizationâ and âhuman rights,â has become a powerful tool to be used in the competitive struggle of local elites, various energy technologies, countries, and groups of countries. The clearest example is the Kyoto Protocol, which excludes nuclear energy from the flexibility mechanisms, despite its absolutely obvious potential role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This artifact must be corrected. Meanwhile, this does not hinder the active use of the environmental advantages of nuclear power in Russia. According to Article 2 of the protocol, policies and measures aimed at allowing each signatory party to fulfill its protocol obligations are de- veloped and implemented independently by each party in accordance with its own national conditions. Further development of nuclear power in Russia will promote a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and increased opportunities for trade in emissions quotas. In this regard, it is essential to establish Rosatomâs policy on the right of the nuclear power industry to a share of the Russian quota, as well as rules for the trade in quotas on the domestic market. THE CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT A characteristic feature of the modern approach to ensuring environmental security is the management of environmental quality (see Figure 6-3). Modern environmental quality management systems grew out of quality assurance sys- tems and have become integral and effective tools regulated by international standards such as the ISO-14001 series and others. They currently offer a wide range of proven solutions and procedures. In particular, a strategic approach to ensuring environmental security at enterprises is implemented by means of risk assessment and risk management both under normal operations and when ac- cidents occur. In recent years, the industry has substantially stepped up its efforts to train specialists on the requirements of ISO-14000 standards. Such courses are con- ducted by the Atomenergo Interagency Institute for Qualification Improvement in cooperation with the RAS Nuclear Safety Institute and the State Central Institute for Qualification Improvement. The experience of the Nuclear Safety Institute in organizing (jointly with the U.S. Department of Energy) the planning and presentation of courses to introduce ISO-14001 series standards has shown that there is real interest at Rosatom enterprises in establishing modern systems for enterprise management and certification, as well as real potential for their implementation. Among the enterprises in the industry, there are leaders that have already created modern environmental management systems. A number of enterprises have implemented systems meeting international ISO-14000 standards and have certified them with independent certification organizations. These include the fol-
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 29 ? Initial environmental assessment ? Environmental policy â¢ Ecological aspects and environmental impacts â¢ Analysis by â¢ Legislative and other requirements management n pla tio â¢ Targeted and planned rec nn â¢ Targeted and planned cor ing environmental indicators environmental indicators â¢ Audit â¢ Environmental management â¢ Environmental management programs programs Continuous â¢ Structure and responsibility â¢ Registered data Improvement â¢ Training, information, and competence â¢ Communication ion ve tat rif n â¢ Documentation ic â¢ Problems, corrections, me at ple io preventive actions im n â¢ Documentation management â¢ Operations management â¢ Monitoring and â¢ Emergency preparedness and response measurement FIGURE 6-3â Model environmental management system. Figure 6-3.eps lowing enterprises of the TVEL Corporation: the Chepetsk Mechanical Plant, the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant, and the Machine-Building Plant. The Rosenergoatom Concern is making active efforts in this regard, hav- ing developed and adopted a Program of Work on Environmental Management Systems Certification at the concern and its subsidiary nuclear power plants in accordance with ISO-14000 requirements. In early 2005 the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant received the first certificate of compliance. There are also problem- atic enterprises in the industry, primarily those that are âhostagesâ to serious past problems; however, all must move forward on addressing current and inherited environmental problems. In noting the initial successes on introduction of the ISO-14001 standards, it must be mentioned that an environmental management system is a process, not an event. An effective system is a âlivingâ entity, evaluating and correcting activities and aimed at their constant improvement. ISO-14001 series standards call for the formulation and approval of enter- prise environmental policies. The adoption of the Principles of the Environmental Policy of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (2003) and its new version, Principles of the Environmental Policy of Rosatom (2005), represented a correct and important step in ensuring the development of the industry. In particular, practical implementation of environmental policy will make it possible to avoid situations associated with new and, on the world market, mandatory require- ments, which if not met would undermine the competitiveness of the products of
30 CLEANING UP SITES CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS Russian nuclear fuel cycle enterprises. It is characteristic and completely natural that the export-oriented enterprises of the TVEL Corporation and the Rosener- goatom Concern are among the leaders in instituting modern environmental man- agement systems. In their environmental policy statements they clearly highlight the priority placed on ensuring security and protecting the environment. It would be expedient to begin preparing Rosatom enterprises for certifica- tion to appropriate international standards now, without waiting for the comple- tion of the industry restructuring process. To facilitate the procedure for certifying environmental management plans at individual enterprises, a packet of materials on standards from the current series has been prepared, along with practical rec- ommendations on implementation of certification procedures. INFORMATION POLICY AND PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS Information policy on environmental matters is especially important for the further development of the industry. We must work to ensure that public percep- tion of the environmental impacts of our enterprises corresponds with reality. Having convincing proof and scientific evidence of environmental safety in the eyes of the public, including at the level of the average taxpayer and voter, is no less important than actually ensuring environmental security itself. In very recent history there have been a significant number of examples of the effects of negative public opinion regarding nuclear activities in the form of rejections of nuclear power at the state level. Public reports on environmental matters are an effective type of information activity. For this reason, we annually publish open industry reports on safety that present the current situation, existing problems, and environmental protection measures taken; analyze activities; and cover the search for new ways of ensuring all aspects of environmental security. We see such types of voluntarily published reports as a means of demonstrating to a broad range of interested parties our practical adherence to principles of openness, environmentally safe operations, and sustainable development. The Web sites of Rosatom, the Rosenergoatom Concern, and other enter- prises present a great volume of data on natural resource utilization and environ- mental protection issues. However, simply presenting information alone does not make it possible to achieve the agencyâs ultimate information policy goals. We need even more active work by enterprises, cooperation with the regions, and informational materials designed for the general public. We must learn to operate effectively under information crisis conditions and in the face of provocations. The recent public affairs-related events surrounding the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (specifically, the events of Sunday, May 20, 2007), when the popu- lation was alarmed by false information circulated in the region about an emer- gency release at the plant, showed that we are still unprepared to react quickly to such provocations. This is despite our industry, more than any other, understand-
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 31 ing the danger of such informational attacks and the scope of their associated socio-psychological consequences for the public. In regions where enterprises us- ing nuclear technologies are located, the creation of information centers capable of online interaction with the population should obviously be viewed as an urgent task for the industry with regard to the public affairs aspects of environmental security. FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR INDUSTRY Regarding future prospects, in our opinion the process that has begun in the industry to convert enterprises to joint-stock companies must not lead to a reduc- tion in the level of environmental security that has been achieved. We expect that implementation of programs to develop the nuclear energy industry complex and develop nuclear and radiation safety, which have been created taking new forms of management into account, will promote resolution of our accumulated environmental problems. Within the framework of corporate management of the use of nuclear power, we must work to strengthen and further develop the founda- tions that have already been laid for environmental security efforts. The most important environmental security-related tasks we face at the fed- eral level include the following: â¢ Forming a state system for ensuring and monitoring nuclear and radia- tion safety associated with the use of nuclear power â¢ Creating an effective state system for radioactive waste management â¢ Creating effective mechanisms for the technical regulation of environ- mental security â¢ Developing the system of state environmental security guarantees, in- cluding insurance against nuclear damages â¢ Improving the system of environmental protection management â¢ Promoting outstanding development of scientific potential in the area of environmental security, which is necessary to provide scientific foundations for activities in this sphere The top priority tasks for Rosatom enterprises must be the following: â¢ Unconditionally meeting the requirements of environmental protection legislation â¢ Promoting the evolving increase in levels of environmental security by introducing modern environmental management systems and effective new technologies These tasks may be accomplished successfully only if the industry collabo- rates closely with government agencies and the public at all levels.