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Committee for Review of the Federal Strategy to Address Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Insti- tute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. NSFNNCO-073158 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, con- clusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11699-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11699-6 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
COMMITTEE FOR REVIEW OF THE FEDERAL STRATEGY TO ADDRESS ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY RESEARCH NEEDS FOR ENGINEERED NANOSCALE MATERIALS Members DAVID L. EATON (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle MARTIN A. PHILBERT (Vice Chair), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor GEORGE V. ALEXEEFF, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland TINA BAHADORI, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC MOUNGI G. BAWENDI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge PRATIM BISWAS, Washington University at St. Louis, St. Louis, MO VICKI L. COLVIN, Rice University, Houston, TX STEPHEN J. KLAINE, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC ANDREW D. MAYNARD, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC NANCY A. MONTEIRO-RIVIERE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh GUNTER OBERDÃRSTER, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL JUSTIN G. TEEGUARDEN, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA MARK R. WIESNER, Duke University, Durham, NC Staff EILEEN N. ABT, Project Director MICHAEL MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor HEIDI MURRAY-SMITH, Research Associate MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center PANOLA GOLSON, Senior Program Assistant Sponsor NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY COORDINATION OFFICE v
BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), University of Southern California, Los Angeles RAMOïN ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense Fund, Austin, TX JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JAMES S. BUS, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI RUTH DEFRIES, Columbia University, New York, NY COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie, Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC MARY R. ENGLISH, University of Tennessee, Knoxville J. PAUL GILMAN, Covanta Energy Corporation, Fairfield, NJ JUDITH A. GRAHAM (Retired), Pittsboro, NC WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno DANNY D. REIBLE, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROBERT F. SAWYER, University of California, Berkeley KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Studies EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor vi
NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD Members KATHARINE G. FRASE (Chair), IBM, Somers, NY LYLE H. SCHWARTZ (Vice Chair), University of Maryland, College Park PAUL BECHER (Retired), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN EVERETT E. BLOOM (Retired), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN BARBARA D. BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH (Retired), Alcoa, Inc., Boca Raton, FL L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL JOHN W. CAHN, University of Washington, Seattle DIANNE CHONG, The Boeing Company, Bellevue, WA PAUL CITRON (Retired), Medtronic, Inc., New Brighton, MN GEORGE T. GRAY, III, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM SOSSINA M. HAILE, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN ELIZABETH A. HOLM, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., Stevens Institute of Technology, Bedminster, NJ ROBERT H. LATIFF, Science Applications International Corp., Alexandria, VA KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta LINDA S. SCHADLER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH JAMES C. SEFERIS, GloCal Network Corp., Seattle, WA STEVEN G. WAX, Strategic Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA Staff GARY FISCHMAN, Director MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer EMILY ANN MEYER, Program Officer ERIK SVEDBERG, Program Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate vii
OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009) Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008) Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008) Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH (2008) Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008) Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007) Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007) Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007) Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007) Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPAâs Standards (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining MegasitesâLessons from the Coeur dâAlene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) viii
Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (seven volumes, 2000-2008) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Councilâs Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu ix
OTHER REPORTS OF THE NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD Proceedings of a Workshop on Materials State Awareness (2008) Managing Materials for a Twenty-first Century Military (2008) Ballistic Imaging (2008) Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: A Transformational Discipline for Improved Competitiveness and National Security (2008) Managing Materials for a Twenty-First Century Military (2007) Fusion of Security System Data to Improve Airport Security (2007) Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century (2007) Assessment of Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Technology for Detection and Identification of Concealed Explosives and Weapons (2007) Fusion of Security System Data to Improve Airport Security (2007) Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century (2007) A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (2006) Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies (2006) Defending the U.S. Air Transportation System Against Chemical and Biological Threats (2006) Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy (2005) Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites (2005) High-Performance Structural Fibers for Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites (2005) Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community (2005) Summary of the Power Systems Workshop on Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community (2004) Summary of the Sensing and Positioning Technology Workshop of the Committee on Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community (2004) Opportunities to Improve Airport Passenger Screening with Mass Spectrometry (2004) Capturing the Full Power of Biomaterials for Military Medicine: Report of a Workshop (2004) Science-Based Assessment: Accelerating Product Development of Combination Medical Devices (2004) Capturing the Full Power of Biomaterials for Military Medicine: Report of a Workshop (2004) Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production (2004) Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Trucks (2003) Materials Research to Meet 21st Century Defense Need (2003) x
Assessment of Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis for Aviation Security (2002) Workshop on Technical Strategies for Adoption of Commercial Materials and Processing Standards in Defense Procurement (2002) Summary of the Workshop on Structural Nanomaterials (2001) Materials Research to Meet 21st Century Defense Needs: Interim Report (2001) Small Business Innovation Research to Support Aging Aircraft: Priority Technical Areas and Process Improvements (2001) Materials Technologies for the Process Industries of the Future: Management Strategies and Research Opportunities (2000) Uninhabited Air Vehicles: Enabling Science for Military Systems (2000) Summary Record of the Workshop on Polymer Materials Research â August 30-31, 1999 (2000) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu xi
Preface Nanotechnology relies on the ability to engineer, manipulate, and manu- facture materials at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology is already enabling the de- velopment of an industry that produces and uses engineered nanomaterials in a wide variety of industrial and consumer products. The increasing use of nano- materials in industrial and consumer products will result in greater exposure of workers and the general public to engineered nanoscale materials. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is the central locus for the coordination of federal agency investments in nanoscale research and devel- opment. In 2007, the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, which oversees the operation of NNI, asked the National Research Council to review its publication Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research. The National Research Councilâs Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology and National Materials Advisory Board convened the Committee for Review of the Federal Strategy to Address Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials, which produced this report. The committee was composed of members with expertise in nanotechnology, nanomaterials, metrology, toxicology, risk assessment, ex- posure assessment, ecotoxicology, occupational and public health, and risk man- agement. The committee was asked to conduct a scientific and technical review of the federal strategy. The committee considered the elements of an effective nanotechnology risk-research strategy, evaluated whether the federal strategy has these elements, and assessed how the research identified in the strategy will support risk-assessment and risk-management needs. To assist its task, the committee held two workshops at which it heard from representatives of NNI agencies, policy experts from the European Commission, and such stakeholders as manufacturing industry, nongovernment organizations, and the insurance sector. This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The pur- pose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that xiii
xiv Preface will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: David E. Aspnes, North Carolina State University; Chris G. Whipple, ENVIRON International Corporation; Richard A. Denison, Environmental Defense Fund; William H. Farland, Colorado State University; Richard A.L. Jones, University of Sheffield; Gregory V. Lowry, Carnegie Mellon University; David Y. Pui, University of Minnesota; Ronald F. Turco, Purdue University; Mark J. Utell, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; David B. Warheit, DuPont Haskell Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Richard Schlesinger, Pace University, and the review monitor, Elsa Garmire, Dartmouth College. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests en- tirely with the committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for their presenta- tions: Pilar Aguar, European Commission; Norris Alderson, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Carolyn Cairns, Consumers Union; Richard Canady, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Altaf Carim, U.S. Department of Energy; Thomas Epprecht, Swiss Re; William Gulledge, American Chemistry Council; Michael Holman, Lux Research; William Kojola, AFL-CIO; Philippe Martin, European Commission; Terry Medley, DuPont; Jeffrey Morris, U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency; Vladimir Murashov, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Dianne Poster, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Wil- liam Rees, U.S. Department of Defense; Mihail Roco, National Science Founda- tion; Jennifer Sass, National Resources Defense Council; Phillip Sayre, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Paul Schulte, National Institute for Occupa- tional Safety and Health; Clayton Teague, National Nanotechnology Coordina- tion Office; and Sally Tinkle, National Institute of Environmental Health Sci- ences. The committee is also grateful for the assistance of the National Research Council staff in preparing this report. Staff members who contributed to the ef- fort are Eileen Abt, project director; Michael Moloney, senior program officer; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Heidi Murray-Smith, research associate; Norman Grossblatt, senior editor; Mir- sada Karalic-Loncarevic, manager, technical information center; and Panola Golson, senior program assistant.
Preface xv We would especially like to thank the committee members for their efforts throughout the development of this report. David L. Eaton, Chair Martin A. Philbert, Vice Chair Committee for Review of the Federal Strategy to Address Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials
Abbreviations ADME absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination AEC Atomic Energy Commission CSREES Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service CST UK Council for Science and Technology DHS Department of Homeland Security DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DOC Department of Commerce DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DOJ Department of Justice DOT Department of Transportation EC European Commission EHS environmental, health, and safety EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EU European Union FDA Food and Drug Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FS Forest Service FY fiscal year GIN Global Issues in Nanotechnology Working Group ICON International Council on Nanotechnology IWGN Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NEHI Nanotechnology Environmental Health Implications NIH National Institutes of Health NILI Nanomanufacturing Industry Liaison and Innovation Working Group NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NNCO National Nanotechnology Coordination Office NNI U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative NORA National Occupational Research Agenda xvii
xviii Abbreviations NPEC National Public Engagement and Communications Working Group NRC National Research Council NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSET Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology subcommittee NSF National Science Foundation NSTC National Science and Technology Council OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OMB Office of Management and Budget OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PART Program Assessment Rating Tool PCA program component area PCAST Presidentâs Council of Advisors on Science and Technology QSAR quantitative structureâactivity relationship R&D research and development SCENIHR Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly-Identified Health Risks USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture VOI Value of Information WPMN Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials
Contents ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................. xvii SUMMARY ............................................................................................................ 3 1 THE NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE AND THE GENESIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY STRATEGY ............. 13 Environment, Health, and Safety, 18 Structure of this Report, 22 References, 22 2 ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE NANOTECHNOLOGY RISK- RESEARCH STRATEGY ............................................................................ 26 Overview, 26 Developing Effective Research Strategies, 26 Developing Effective Risk-Research Strategies, 29 Developing Nanotechnology-Specific Risk-Research Strategies, 30 Elements of a Risk-Research Strategy, 36 References, 37 3 EVALUATION OF THE FEDERAL STRATEGY ........................................... 40 Is There an Evaluation of the Existing State of Science? 40 Does the Strategy Have a Vision or Stated Purpose? 44 Does the Strategy Have Goals to Ensure the Safe Development of Nanotechnologies, and Is There a Road Map for Achieving Stated Goals? 45 Does the Strategy Provide for Evaluation of Research Priorities and an Assessment of Research Progress? 46 Does the Strategy Identify the Resources Needed to Achieve Stated Goals? 47 Does the Strategy Provide Accountability for Achieving Stated Goals? 47 xix
xx Contents Conclusions, 49 Reference, 51 4 REVIEW OF HIGH-PRIORITY RESEARCH TOPICS, RESEARCH NEEDS, AND GAP ANALYSIS ................................................................... 53 Cross-Cutting Conclusions on Analysis of Specific Research Categories, 54 Analysis of Specific Research Categories, 58 Committeeâs Assessment of Current Distribution of Federal Investment in Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research, 88 Conclusions, 90 References, 91 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................. 93 APPENDICES A BIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE FOR REVIEW OF THE FEDERAL STRATEGY TO ADDRESS ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY RESEARCH NEEDS FOR ENGINEERED NANOSCALE MATERIALS ....................................................................... 98 B STATEMENT OF TASK ........................................................................... 104 C WORKSHOP AGENDAS .......................................................................... 105 D NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE STRATEGY FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY RESEARCH ....................................................................... 108 BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES BOXES 1-1 A Brief History of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, 14 2-1 Elements of a Research Strategy, 27 3-1 Priority Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials, as Identified in the 2008 National Nanotechnology Initiative Research Strategy, 42 4-1 Questions that Structured the Committeeâs Analysis, 54 4-2 Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Categories Identified by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, 55
Contents xxi 4-3 Research Needs for the Instrumentation, Metrology, and Analytical Methods, 61 4-4 Research Needs for Nanomaterials and Human Health, 68 4-5 Research Needs for Nanomaterials and the Environment, 74 4-6 Research Needs for Human and Environmental Exposure Assessment, 79 4-7 Research Needs for Risk Management Methods, 84 FIGURES 1-1 Organization of NNI, 16 1-2 NNI Research Funding by Program Component Area for FY 2006, 18 TABLES 1-1 Estimated FY 2008 Agency NNI-Related Investments by Program Component Area (in $ millions), 17 4-1 NNI Evaluation of Federal Grant Awards in FY 2006 That Are Directly Relevant to EHS Issues, 89 4-2 NRC Committeeâs Estimate of the Percentage of FY 2006 Projects That Are Aimed Primarily at Understanding Potential Risks Posed by Engineered Nanomaterials, 90