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Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World (2009)

Chapter: Appendix E: Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology

« Previous: Appendix D: Recent Studies and Initiatives Outside the National Academies
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
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Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
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Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
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Page 109

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Appendix E Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology TABLE 1  Summary of Areas of Recommendation for National Academy Reports (1982-2007) Risk Scientific Bio- Classifi- Export Assess- Commu- VISA NRC Report security cation Controls ment nication Controls Space Science and the √ √ √ √ International Traffic in Arms Regulations (2008) Science and Security √ √ √ √ √ in a Post 9/11 World (2007) Globalization, √ √ Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006) Critical Technology Accessibility (2006) Rising Above the √ √ Gathering Storm (2005) Policy Implications √ of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States (2005) continued 107

108 APPENDIX E TABLE 1  Continued Risk Scientific Bio- Classifi- Export Assess- Commu- VISA NRC Report security cation Controls ment nication Controls Assessment of √ √ Department of Defense Basic Research (2005) Avoiding Surprise in an Era of Global Technology Advances (2005) Seeking Security: √ √ √ Pathogens, Open Access, and Genome Databases (2004) Biotechnology √ √ √ Research in an Age of Terrorism (2004) Making the Nation √ √ √ Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (2002) Balancing Scientific √ √ Openness and National Security Controls at the Nuclear Weapons Laboratories (1999) Understanding Risk: √ Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (1996) A Review of the √ √ Department of Energy Classification Policy and Practice (1995) continued

APPENDIX E 109 TABLE 1  Continued Risk Scientific Bio- Classifi- Export Assess- Commu- VISA NRC Report security cation Controls ment nication Controls Finding Common √ Ground: U.S. Export Controls in a Changed Global Environment (1991) Global Trends in √ Computer Technology and Their Impact on Export Control (1988) Balancing the National √ Interest: U.S. National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition (1987) Scientific √ √ Communication and National Security (1982)

Next: Appendix F: U.S. Government Agency Jurisdiction and Export Decision Tree »
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The national security controls that regulate access to and export of science and technology are broken. As currently structured, many of these controls undermine our national and homeland security and stifle American engagement in the global economy, and in science and technology. These unintended consequences arise from policies that were crafted for an earlier era. In the name of maintaining superiority, the U.S. now runs the risk of becoming less secure, less competitive and less prosperous.

Beyond "Fortress America" provides an account of the costs associated with building walls that hamper our access to global science and technology that dampen our economic potential. The book also makes recommendations to reform the export control process, ensure scientific and technological competitiveness, and improve the non-immigrant visa system that regulates entry into the United States of foreign science and engineering students, scholars, and professionals.

Beyond "Fortress America" contains vital information and action items for the President and policy makers that will affect the United States' ability to compete globally. Interested parties--including military personnel, engineers, scientists, professionals, industrialists, and scholars--will find this book a valuable tool for stemming a serious decline affecting broad areas of the nation's security and economy.

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