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Appendix E Principal Studies Sponsored by the National Academies That Address the Impact of National Security Controls on the Conduct of Science and Technology TABLE 1â Summary of Areas of Recommendation for National Academy Reports (1982-2007) Risk Scientific Bio- Classifi- Export Assess- Commu- VISA NRC Report security cation Controls ment nication Controls Space Science and the â â â â International Traffic in Arms Regulations (2008) Science and Security â â â â â in a Post 9/11 World (2007) Globalization, â â Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006) Critical Technology Accessibility (2006) Rising Above the â â Gathering Storm (2005) Policy Implications â of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States (2005) continued 107
108 APPENDIX E TABLE 1â Continued Risk Scientific Bio- Classifi- Export Assess- Commu- VISA NRC Report security cation Controls ment nication Controls Assessment of â â Department of Defense Basic Research (2005) Avoiding Surprise in an Era of Global Technology Advances (2005) Seeking Security: â â â Pathogens, Open Access, and Genome Databases (2004) Biotechnology â â â Research in an Age of Terrorism (2004) Making the Nation â â â Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (2002) Balancing Scientific â â Openness and National Security Controls at the Nuclear Weapons Laboratories (1999) Understanding Risk: â Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society (1996) A Review of the â â Department of Energy Classification Policy and Practice (1995) continued
APPENDIX E 109 TABLE 1â Continued Risk Scientific Bio- Classifi- Export Assess- Commu- VISA NRC Report security cation Controls ment nication Controls Finding Common â Ground: U.S. Export Controls in a Changed Global Environment (1991) Global Trends in â Computer Technology and Their Impact on Export Control (1988) Balancing the National â Interest: U.S. National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition (1987) Scientific â â Communication and National Security (1982)