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Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World (2009)

Chapter: Appendix K: Commerce Control List Overlap with Multilateral Agreements

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix K: Commerce Control List Overlap with Multilateral Agreements." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
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Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K: Commerce Control List Overlap with Multilateral Agreements." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 136
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K: Commerce Control List Overlap with Multilateral Agreements." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
×
Page 137
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K: Commerce Control List Overlap with Multilateral Agreements." National Research Council. 2009. Beyond 'Fortress America': National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12567.
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Page 138

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Appendix K Commerce Control List Overlap with Multilateral Agreements 135

136 Various Export Control Regimes Total Heading Technology WML WDUL MTCR IAEA AG EU-DUL CCL Only ECCN # % # % # % # % # % # % # % Nuclear Materials, Facilities & 0 Equipment (and Miscellaneous 36 Items) 3 8% 0 0% 0 0% 15 42% 0 0% 13 36% 19 53% Materials, Chemicals, 1 124 Microorganisms, and Toxins 22 18% 25 20% 42 34% 54 44% 13 10% 86 69% 26 21% 2 Materials Processing 76 5 7% 15 20% 21 28% 32 42% 12 16% 47 62% 23 30% 3 Electronics 46 0 0% 17 37% 6 13% 13 28% 0 0% 32 70% 14 30% 4 Computers 19 0 0% 7 37% 3 16% 0 0% 0 0% 9 47% 11 58% 5a Telecommunications 15 0 0% 4 27% 3 20% 0 0% 0 0% 7 47% 8 53% 5b Information Security 7 0 0% 4 57% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 4 57% 3 43% 6 Sensors and Lasers 52 0 0% 20 38% 16 31% 10 19% 0 0% 33 63% 18 35% 7 Navigation and Avionics 40 4 10% 17 43% 33 83% 2 5% 0 0% 34 85% 4 10% 8 Marine 13 3 23% 8 62% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 8 62% 4 31% Propulsion Systems, Space 9 71 Vehicles and Related Equipment 16 23% 29 41% 48 68% 1 1% 0 0% 57 80% 11 15% TOTAL 499 53 11% 146 29% 172 34% 127 25% 25 5% 330 66% 141 28%

NOTE: Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) are listed in accordance with the numerical index of the Commerce Control List (CCL). Entries with overlap on the Wassenaar Munitions List (WML), ­Wassenaar Dual-Use List (WDUL), Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), International Atomic Energy Agency Trigger List and Nuclear Suppliers Group (IAEA), Australia Group (AG), and EU Common Dual-Use List (EU-DUL) were then denoted and counted. The percent of overlap was determined (a) within each of the 10 ECCN headings within the CCL; and (b) for the entire CCL as a whole. ECCNs with no overlap and that are represented only on the CCL were then identified and similarly enumerated. ECCNs were taken from the EAR Commerce Control List Supplement No. 1 to Part 774—Index 49 (“Numerical Index to the Commerce ­Control List”) dated November 5, 2007. Data for WML, MTCR, IAEA, and AG overlap were taken from Appendix 4-2 (“Cross-References Between Multilateral and U.S. Item Numbers”) in Root, Liebman, and Thomsen, United States Export Controls, 5th edition with 2007 Supplement. Items not appearing in this reference were investigated independently for overlap using the most recent list of controlled technologies for each multilateral agreement. Cross-referencing for WDUL and EU-DUL was done manually and was based upon the conformity in the numbering systems of these lists with reference to the CCL. 137

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The national security controls that regulate access to and export of science and technology are broken. As currently structured, many of these controls undermine our national and homeland security and stifle American engagement in the global economy, and in science and technology. These unintended consequences arise from policies that were crafted for an earlier era. In the name of maintaining superiority, the U.S. now runs the risk of becoming less secure, less competitive and less prosperous.

Beyond "Fortress America" provides an account of the costs associated with building walls that hamper our access to global science and technology that dampen our economic potential. The book also makes recommendations to reform the export control process, ensure scientific and technological competitiveness, and improve the non-immigrant visa system that regulates entry into the United States of foreign science and engineering students, scholars, and professionals.

Beyond "Fortress America" contains vital information and action items for the President and policy makers that will affect the United States' ability to compete globally. Interested parties--including military personnel, engineers, scientists, professionals, industrialists, and scholars--will find this book a valuable tool for stemming a serious decline affecting broad areas of the nation's security and economy.

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