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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

Index

A

A Question of Truth (exhibit), 67

Academies for Young Scientists, 188-189, 190

Access to science learning.

See also Cultural, diversity, and equity issues

videoconferencing technology, 154, 155

Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50

Adult science learning.

See also Citizen science;

Science Cafés;

Senior citizens

characteristics of experiences, 148-149

evidence of learning, 151

identity building, 81-82

interest and motivating factors, 146-147, 148-149, 151

number and type of programs, 148

opportunities, 4, 16, 29, 88, 146-151, 169

perceptions of institutions and programs, 148

pyramid image, 149

venues, 147-148

After-school programs. See Out-of-school-time programs

Aikenhead, Glen, 132

Albert, Marilyn, 152

Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, 150

All Girls Expedition to Yellowstone (program), 144-145

Allen, Sue, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73

Allen and Associates, 124-125

Amateur science clubs, 1, 2, 4, 15-16, 26, 30, 88, 139, 142, 175

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 132

American Sign Language, 130

Ancient Observatories (exhibit), 129

Anderson, David, 180

Apley, Alice, 58, 59

Aquariums. See Zoos and aquariums

Assessment of learning outcomes

challenges, 5, 103-105, 142, 165-166

consensus building on, 109, 111, 113

construct validity, 106

content analyses of discussions, 106

conversation taping and analysis, 66, 68-72, 79, 107

defined, 111

designed environments, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, 107, 112

developing appropriate assessments, 105-111, 112-113

ecological validity, 106

embedded in activities, 109, 113

evaluation distinguished from, 111-113

evidence base, 5

extended learning opportunities, 165, 179, 180-181

generally, 2

goal setting, 105, 112, 113

long-term learning, 106-107, 108

methods, 105

outcome and measurement approaches, 105-106, 108-109, 113-114, 165-166

pretest, 179

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

programs, 4, 54, 114, 135, 189-190

resources for developing, 114

scale of outcomes, 104-105, 108

sharing, 114

social norms and, 109

standardized, 109, 111, 113

strands framework and, 108-110, 179

surveys, 23, 33, 106, 173

target audience, 105, 112

things to try, 32-33, 100, 113-114

tracking and timing methods, 107

Association of Science-Technology Centers, 189

Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 96, 101

Astronomy, 3, 15-16, 26

Augare, Helen, 133, 134

B

Backyard research, 15-16, 21, 22-24, 25, 32

Bartlett, Karol, 162

Bay Area Discovery Museum, 164

Benbow, Ann, 151

Biodiesel fuel experiment, 98

Birdwatching, 133, 147, 149

House Finch Eye Disease Survey, 24

Project FeederWatch, 21, 22-24, 25, 32

Seed Preference Test, 24, 25

Blackfeet Community College, 132, 133

Blackfeet Native Science Field Center, 132-136

Blackfeet Reservation, 132

Bonney, Rick, 22, 24, 205

C

Calabrese Barton, Angela, 121

California Bay Watershed Education and Training Program, 177

California Science Center, 31, 169

Callanan, Maureen, 73

Cell Lab (exhibit), 43-48, 52, 66, 107, 109

Cell phones, 163, 165

Center for Informal Learning and Schools, 189, 190

Center for the Advancement of Informal Science Education, 18, 34, 62, 80, 115, 159

Children and youth.

See also Out-of-school-time programs;

Parent-child interactions;

Playing to learn

adolescents, 142

cognitive development and learning, 140-141

metacognition, 38-39

opportunities for learning, 52-60, 140-146

science identity building, 30-31

Children’s Discovery Museum, 73, 122, 123-126, 127, 128, 129, 137

Children’s Museum of Indianapolis, 83-86, 162

Citizen science

activities, 2, 4, 22-24, 25, 35, 88, 149

social interactions, 65-66

Web site, 34

City University of New York, 88

Clara Maass Continuing Care Center, 154

Clubs. See Amateur science clubs

Cognition and learning

affect and, 82-83

barriers to, 54, 55

children and adolescents, 140-141

expert vs. novice, 13-14, 38-39, 60

intuitive ideas, 38, 39, 55, 140

older adults, 150-151

principles, 17-18

prior knowledge and, 5, 12, 13, 14-15, 17, 38-39, 42, 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, 140, 162

social interaction and, 14, 15, 17, 46, 66, 78-79, 83, 87, 93, 97, 122

systematic approach to research, 13-17

Cohen Center for Interactive Learning, 170-174

Cohort effects, 155-157

Collaborations and linkages

for assessments, 114

challenges, 166

community partnerships in design and development, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, 132, 136, 153, 154, 155, 158, 176-179, 184

informal and formal environments, 166-175, 178-182, 187-190

media and designed environments, 15-16, 44-46, 48, 61

research investments in, 187-190

scientific facility partnerships with schools, 170-174

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

sharing activities among museums, 48

teacher professional development, 180-182

things to try, 184-185

value of, 179

Color Connection (exhibit), 84-86

Community partnerships, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, 132, 136, 153, 154, 155, 158, 176-179, 184

Conservation, 81-83, 96-97, 110

Conversations and discussions

adult-child interactions, 7, 63-66, 73-76

affective talk, 72

as assessment tool, 66, 68-72, 79, 106, 107

conceptual talk, 70-71

connecting talk, 71

content analyses of discussions, 106

designing space for, 46, 66

evidence of learning, 68, 71

with experts, 2

explanatory, 73-76

facilitating discussion, 10, 11, 46, 122

in family settings, 1, 64-65, 166

learning opportunities, 2, 3

mediating strategies, 76, 79

and motivation to learn, 63-64, 86

perceptual talk, 69-70

provoking discussion, 6, 8, 12, 67

research challenges, 66, 68

scientific norms and language learned in, 64, 66

strategic talk, 71-72

things to try, 79

TV viewing with, 65, 77, 78

Coral Reef Adventure (movie), 81-82, 107

Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 22-24, 33, 66, 149

Cosmic Serpent, 137

Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, 161

Craik, Fergus, 152

Crowley, Kevin, 73, 74, 75

CSI: Crime Scene Investigations, 29

Cultural, diversity, and equity issues

audience development initiatives, 122, 123-127, 129

building community relationships, 128, 129

challenges of engaging nondominant cultures, 120, 122, 123-124, 128

designing inclusive exhibits, 15, 120-127, 129, 132-136, 152, 158

equity issues, 120-127, 143-146

generational issues, 123

integrating culture and science, 15, 89-93, 119-120, 132-136

language barriers, 120, 121, 122, 127, 129

in learning, 14-15

out-of-school-time programs, 143-145

outreach model, 121, 123

for people with disabilities, 120, 128, 130-131, 152, 154, 155

things to try, 32, 136, 158

tools and artifacts, 15

Culture of science.

See also Scientific practices

program examples, 89-91, 144-145, 146, 170-174

social interactions, 15, 19-20, 30, 32

strand 5, 17, 30, 47, 55, 64, 93, 146, 151, 173

tools and language, 20, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30, 43-48, 55, 64, 146, 151, 173

values of scientists, 20-21

D

Davidson, Betty, 130

Designed environments.

See also Libraries;

Museums and exploratoriums;

Zoos and aquariums

assessment as part of, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, 107, 112

examples, 2, 3-4

extending the learning experiences, 4

interactivity in, 3-4, 40, 41-48

programs in, 4

time frame of experiences, 4

Designing for science learning

Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50

age considerations, 139, 157

challenges, 48-54

characteristics that encourage learning, 5, 37-38, 83-86

cohort considerations, 155-157

community partnerships, 121, 122, 123, 126, 129, 132, 136, 153, 154, 155, 158, 176-179, 184

computer modeling, 51

connected learning experiences, 162

cultural and diversity issues, 15, 120-127, 129, 132-136, 152

evaluation component, 111-113

exploratory experiences, 16

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

future learning preparations, 183-184

insights from research on learning, 13-17, 38-39, 60-61

interactive experiences, 32, 41-55, 56-60, 83-86

interpretive materials, 40, 85

juxtaposition of prior knowledge and scientific explanations, 14, 39-40, 41, 43

learning progressions, 182-183

long-term experiences, 16, 52-55

media, 56-60

motivation model, 83-86

multiple modes of engagement, 5, 12, 16, 17, 32, 40, 41, 43, 47, 52, 55, 60, 67, 130-131, 164

museum exhibits, 14, 15, 40, 44-48, 50-52, 64, 83-87, 99, 112, 122-131, 162, 182-183

one-shot experiences, 16

for people with disabilities, 128, 130-131

prior knowledge and interest and, 5, 12, 13, 14-15, 17, 38-39, 42, 49, 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, 140, 162

process, 52

programs, 52, 53-55

strands framework and, 31-32, 41-42, 47-48, 52, 55, 60, 87, 103

strategies for implementing research, 39-41, 53-61

structured exhibits, 16

things to try, 60-61, 157-158

universal, 128

Dierking, Lynn, 167

Dolphins (movie), 82

Downhill Race (exhibit), 49

DragonflyTV: Going Places in Science, 56-59, 62

E

Elderhostel programs, 4

Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve, 178-179

Ellenbogen, Kirsten, 46, 47, 48

Environmental centers, 2, 153, 154, 158

Equity in science education. See Cultural, diversity, and equity issues

Evaluation

assessment distinguished from, 111-113

defined, 111

evidence of learning, 7, 173-174

formative, 111-112

front-end, 111, 129

NSF framework, 109-111, 112, 115

reviewing data with outside experts, 33

summative, 111, 112, 124-125, 126, 131

Everyday science learning

backyard research, 21, 22-24, 25, 32

choosing to participate, 2, 3-4

examples, 28

range of experiences, 2, 3

signs of competence and learning, 3, 8, 173-174

Evolution traveling exhibit, 182-183

Exhibit Files, 159

Explora!, 57

Exploratorium in Second Life (exhibit), 164

Exploratorium of San Francisco, 43-48, 51, 62, 63, 68, 69-72, 79, 87, 107, 112, 129, 137, 164, 188, 189, 190

Extended learning opportunities.

See also Field trips;

Formal science learning

adult pursuit of, 149

assessment of, 165, 180-181

design strategies, 40, 162

field trips, 167-170

generally, 4, 7

internship model, 174-175

learning progressions, 182-184

lending/sharing resources, 162

linking formal and informal settings, 166-179

media platforms, 162-166, 185

motivation for, 87-88

out-of-school-time programs, 176-179

professional development, 180-182

scientific facility partnerships with schools, 170-174

things to try, 184-185

traveling exhibits, 4, 182-183

F

Falk, John, 95, 96, 100, 167

Family settings.

See also Parent-child interactions conversations that promote learning, 1, 64-65, 166

learning in, 38, 77, 78, 140-141

Family values, reinforcing, 95

Field trips

advance preparation, 167

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

hands-on activities, 167-168

internship model, 174-175

LabVenture model, 170-174

reinforcement afterwards, 169-170

teacher/chaperone involvement, 168-169

value of, 167-170

Films and videos

IMAX movies, 27, 56, 81-82, 87, 107, 161

provoking discussion with, 8, 9-11, 12

Finding Nemo (film), 161

Fink, Laurie, 45, 47, 48

Flagg, Barbara, 82

Flickr, 164

Follow-up learning opportunities. See Extended learning opportunities

Formal science learning

field trips, 167-170

instruction tie and quality, 1

learning progressions, 182-184

linking informal learning opportunities, 166-175, 188-190

reform initiatives, 181-182

scientific facility partnerships, 170-174

teacher professional development, 180-182

Frogs (exhibit), 63-64, 69-72, 107

Fusco, Dana, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93

G

Gardening and garden clubs, 30-31, 53, 89-91

Garibay, Cecilia, 121, 129

Garibay Group, 121, 126

Gleason, Mary, 73-74

Global warming, 9-11, 67

Glowing Worms (exhibit), 43, 87

Goldowsky, Alexander, 42

Griffin, Janette, 168, 169

Grimmer, Karen, 178

Guichard, Jack, 41

Gulf of Maine Research Institute, 170-174

H

Haefner, Margaret, 65

Harvard University, 188, 190

Hein, George, 167

Hidi, Suzanne, 87, 99

Hobbies/hobbyists, 2, 3, 23, 30-31, 78, 95, 96, 97, 104, 142, 146

Hopa Mountain program, 132, 134, 137

Hot air balloon experiment, 57-59

I

Identity. See Science identity building

Informal Learning and Science in Afterschool:

A Research and Dissemination Project, 189-190

Informal science learning environments.

See also Strands of science learning;

specific environments

categories, 2

characteristics that encourage learning, 2, 5-13, 16-17

cohort considerations, 155-157

cumulative process, 161-162, 166

examples, 1, 16

importance, 1, 32

strands framework, 25-33

time frame, 4

venues, 2-5

Inquiry

behaviors, 7, 24, 42, 57, 65, 78

curriculum materials, 181, 189

developing skills, 173;

see also Scientific reasoning processes, 24, 59, 135

scientific, 110, 181

storytelling devices, 56-60

Institute for Learning Innovation, 7, 95, 96, 115

Interactivity.

See also Conversations and discussions;

Parent-child interactions;

Playing to learn

benefits for learning, 5, 38, 40, 41, 43

challenges, 48-55

defined, 40

designing learning experiences, 32, 41-55, 56, 83-86

“do and see” activities, 42

exhibits, 28, 40, 41-42, 43-52, 65, 66, 69-72, 83-86, 130-131, 167-168, 185

and inquiry behaviors, 42

interpretive materials and, 40

kinds of experiences, 40

media opportunities for, 15-16, 38, 40, 56-60, 163

optimal degree, 43

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

roles that support learning, 45, 64, 65-66, 73, 75-76, 77-79

social, 14, 15, 46, 64-65, 66, 77-78, 79, 83, 87, 97, 122

strands of learning, 41-42

things to try, 79

Interest and motivation

adults, 146-147, 148-149, 151, 153

age differences, 140

assessment of, 66, 68-72, 79, 107

community garden project, 89-93

conversation and, 63-64, 86

cultivating and sustaining interest, 4, 5, 12, 18, 21, 25, 26, 49, 54, 87-93, 110, 151, 168

cultural considerations, 137-138

identity-related, 97-99

interactive experiences and, 14, 42. 49, 63-64, 146, 167-168

interest development model, 87-92, 99

motivation model, 84-86, 99, 100

movies/films and, 81-82

museum exhibit design, 42, 47, 52, 64, 84-86, 100

role of interest, 82-87

and science identity, 81-83, 93-97, 99, 100-101

strand 1, 26, 27, 42, 47, 52, 63-64, 82, 92-93, 110, 146, 151, 179

structured activities, 167-168

things to try, 100

Internet

communities of peers online, 33

computer games, 2, 5, 6-7, 8, 12, 18, 106, 107, 109, 156

forums and other resources, 6, 23, 54, 163, 164

learning activities, 2, 4, 33, 162, 183-184, 185

personalized student websites, 172

Web resources, 18, 34, 62, 79, 80, 101, 115, 137, 159, 164, 186

website design, 153

ISEN-ASTC-L, 33

J

Jacobs, Melanie, 74, 75

Jipson, Jennifer, 73

K

Kings College London, 188, 189

Koran, John, 42, 168

Kubota, Carole, 167

L

LaBar, Wayne, 165

LabVenture! (program), 170-174, 179, 186

Lake Washington Watershed Internship Program, 174-175, 179

LASER (Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform), 181-182, 186

Latino Audience Development Initiative, 123, 129

Lawrence Hall of Science, 190

Learning. See Assessment of learning outcomes;

Cognition and learning;

Designing for science learning;

Everyday science learning;

Informal science learning environments

Learning and Youth Research and Evaluation Center, 188, 189, 190

Learning in Informal and Formal Environments (LIFE) Center, 188, 189, 190

Lectures, 4, 16, 29, 88, 148, 154, 169

Liberty Science Center, 163

Libraries, 1, 2, 3, 16, 141, 147, 148, 152, 154, 162, 166

Library of Congress, 164

Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou (film), 161

Life-stage perspectives on learning

adults, 146-151

children and youth, 30, 140-146

cohort effects, 155-157

designing exhibits for, 46

senior citizens, 30-31, 139, 151-155

things to try, 157-158

Lishness, Alan, 171

Lyndhurst Public Library, 154

Lyon, Gabrielle, 145

M

Magnitude X (exhibit), 129

Making Models (exhibit), 128, 130-131, 137

Marshall, Charles, 9, 10, 11, 12

Martin, Jenni, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

Maryland Science Center, 48

McKhann, Guy, 152

McLean, Kathleen, 40

Meadowlands Environmental Center, 153, 154, 158

Media.

See also Films and videos;

Internet;

Television design strategies, 56-60

effectiveness and limitations, 15-16

interactivity, 40, 56-60, 71-72, 163

platforms for extended learning experiences, 15-16, 162-166, 185

Mentoring and mentors, 2, 4, 64, 65-66, 78, 88

Mercer Slough Environmental Education Center, 175

Metacognition, 14, 38-39, 55, 60, 71

Miami Museum of Science and Planetarium, 182

Michigan State University, 121

Miistakis Institute for the Rockies, 150

Miller, Diane, 53, 54, 55, 78

Miller, Joshua, 144

The Mind (exhibit), 49-52, 66, 112

Minnesota Zoo, 6

Montana State University, 119

Monterey Bay Aquarium, 82, 96, 101, 178

Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 177-179

Motivation. See Interest and motivation

Multicultural Education for Resource Issues Threatening Oceans (program), 177-179, 186

Museum of Comparative Zoology, 9

Museum of Science, Boston, 128, 130-131, 137

Museums and exploratoriums.

See also individual institutions and exhibits

access issues, 120, 121, 122-127, 152

Active Prolonged Engagement exhibits, 15, 48-49, 50

adult experiences, 147, 148, 152

assessment of learning in, 66, 68, 71-72, 103-104, 107, 112

connected learning experiences, 4, 162

cultural and political influences on science, 67

cultural considerations, 120, 121, 122-127, 135

designing exhibits, 14, 15, 40, 52, 64, 83-87, 99, 112, 122-131, 152, 162, 182-183

diversity of staff, 121, 126

films, 81-82

generally, 1, 3, 16, 29, 88, 139, 140, 141, 166

interactive exhibits, 40, 41-52, 65, 66, 130-131, 164, 167-168, 185

interpretive materials, 40, 122, 129, 131

lending kits and educational resources, 162

media platforms for extended learning experiences, 71-72, 162, 163, 164, 165-166, 185

online activities, 4, 33, 44-46, 162, 183-184, 185

parent-child interactions in, 73-76, 78, 95, 147

perceptions of, 123

professional development for teachers, 180, 184

programs, 4, 52-55, 148

science clubs, 2

science identity building, 95, 96-97

sharing activities among museums, 48

social interaction, 52, 65, 66, 122

skeleton exhibit experience, 41-42

structured activities in field trips, 167-168

Teenage Designers of Learning Spaces program, 52-55

traveling exhibits, 4, 182-183

visitor conversations studied in, 66, 68, 71-72, 107

Museums and the Web conference, 164

MythBusters, 29

N

Naïve understanding, 14

National marine sanctuaries, 186

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 177

National Science Foundation, 109-111, 112, 115, 163, 188-189

Native American culture, 119-120, 132-136

Native Science Field Centers (program), 132-135

Native Waters (exhibit), 119-120

Nature centers, 1, 7, 28, 40, 174

New York Hall of Science, 37, 182

North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, 131, 164

North Museum, 182

NOVA scienceNOW program, 9, 11

O

Oglala Lakota College, 132

Olstad, Roger, 167

Ontario Science Center, 67

Out-of-school-time programs

assessment of, 114, 135, 179, 189-190

continuity with other venues, 139, 166

coordination with formal curriculum, 176-179

cultural elements, 132-135

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

evolution of, 143

examples, 89-91, 132-135, 175, 177-179

extended-day programming, 176

generally, 1, 4, 16

important elements, 66, 157

participant characteristics, 143

partnership opportunities, 176-179

roles that support learning, 66, 77

and science identity, 142

self-contained, 176

strands framework, 146

sustaining interest in, 88

P

Pacific Science Center, 175, 181-182, 186

Pajaro Valley Unified School District, 178-179

Parent-child interactions.

See also Family settings

explanatory conversations, 73-76

reinforcement of learning, 3

resources to support, 74

undermining engagement, 74

Pedretti, Erminia, 67

Peer networks, 136

Perry, Deborah, 83, 84, 99, 100, 101

Pine Ridge Reservation, 132

Pittsburgh Children’s Museum, 74, 75-76

Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center, 80

Planetariums, 2, 3, 15, 26, 56, 182

Playing to learn

computer games, 2, 5, 6-7, 8, 12, 16, 18, 106, 107, 109, 156

cultural issues, 123

Price, Sabra, 167-168

Prior knowledge and interest, building on, 5, 12, 13, 14-15, 17, 38-39, 42, 60, 65, 71, 73, 82-83, 127, 140, 162, 167

Program in Education, Afterschool & Resiliency, 190

Programs.

See also Out-of-school-time programs;

specific programs

assessments, 4

choosing to participate, 4

cultural and diversity aspects, 4, 52, 143-146

design, 4, 52-55, 152-153, 154

examples, 2, 4, 143-146, 150

facilitators, 4, 148-149

number and type for adults, 148

strands framework, 146, 151

time frame, 4

Project Exploration (program), 143, 145, 146, 159

Project FeederWatch (program), 21, 22-24, 25, 32

Project SEE (program), 153, 154, 158, 159

R

Ramapo College of New Jersey, 153, 158

Randi Korn & Associates, 46

Randol, Scott, 42

Reading, 2, 3, 7, 40, 54, 88, 94, 98, 140, 141, 162, 165

Reasoning. See Scientific reasoning

Reflection on science

conversation and, 71

designing science experiences for, 13-14, 29, 38-39, 47

strand 4, 27, 29, 38-39, 47, 55, 60, 71, 146

Reginald Clark and Associates, 190

Reich, Christine, 130-131

Reiser, Robert, 65

Renninger, Ann, 87, 99

Restoring Environments and Landscapes (REAL), 89-91, 92

RMC Research Corporation, 58, 162

Road Watch in the Pass (program), 150, 151, 159

S

Sachatello-Sawyer, Bonnie, 134, 148, 149

Salthouse, Timothy, 152

Schaller, David, 6-7, 12

Schauble, Leona, 73-74, 162

Schaufele, Rob, 150

School science instruction. See Formal science learning

Schroeder, Melanie, 144

Schwartzman, Gabe, 98-99

Science.

See also Culture of science cultural and political influences, 67

social and cultural aspects, 19-25

Science Cafés, 1, 8, 9-11, 12, 18, 29, 67

Science centers, 2, 3, 28, 40.

See also Nature centers;

specific centers

Science identity building

adults, 30-31

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

children and youth, 30-31, 173, 178

conceptions of, 94

and deeper engagement with science, 30, 97-99

design of learning experiences, 47, 48, 81-82, 95, 96-97

family values, 94-95

interest development and, 93-97

as interest driver, 95-97

strand 6, 27, 30-31, 47, 48

things to try, 100-101

Science learning. See Informal science learning environments

Science Museum of Minnesota, 43, 44-46, 62, 81, 131

Science North, 162

Science Now, Science Everywhere (program), 163

Science of Dragon Boats (exhibit), 129

Scientific practices. See also Culture of science

backyard research, 15-16, 21, 22-24, 25, 32

Cell Lab experience, 43-48, 52, 66, 107, 109

data collection and documentation, 22, 58, 110, 134, 150, 179

interactions with people, 64

LabVenture! program, 170-174, 179, 186

NSF evaluation framework, 110

Scientific reasoning

conversation and, 66, 74

designing activities for, 42, 47, 87

examples, 28, 92-93

interactive experiences, 41, 42, 66, 74

naïve, 182

NSF evaluation framework, 109

opportunities for, 28, 47

process, 28-29, 47, 146

short-term vs. long-term experiences, 42

strand 3, 27, 28-29, 42, 47, 87, 92, 110, 146, 151, 173

Scientists

cultural values, 15, 20-21

mentoring role, 65-66

stereotypes, 19

Search for Life (exhibit), 37

Secaucus Senior Center, 154

Secrets of Circles (exhibit), 124-126

Senior citizens

cognition and learning, 152-153

with disabilities, 129, 130-131, 152

effective strategies, 155

planning programs for, 151-154

science identity building, 30-31

Serrell, Beverly, 88

Service at Salado (program), 66

Sesame Street, 65

Sierra Club, 10

60 Minutes, 162

Skeleton exhibit, 41-42

Smithsonian Institution, 164

Social interactions.

See also Conversations and discussions;

Parent-child interactions in citizen science, 65-66

and cognition and learning, 14, 15, 17, 46, 66, 78-79, 83, 87, 93, 97, 122

cultural variation in beliefs, values and norms, 122

in museum exhibits, 52, 65, 66, 122

in science, 15, 19-20, 30, 32

Spickelmier, Grant, 6, 7, 12

SRI International, 188

St. Louis Center for Inquiry in Science Teaching and Learning, 189, 190

St. Louis Science Center, 48, 52, 53-54, 62, 78, 93, 109

Storytelling, 56-60, 119

Strands of science learning

in assessments, 108-110, 179

designing learning experiences, 31-32, 41-42, 47-48, 87

framework, 26-31

interconnectedness, 26, 92-93

NSF evaluation framework compared, 109-110

strand 1, see Interest and motivation

strand 2, see Understanding content and knowledge

strand 3, see Scientific reasoning

strand 4, see Reflecting on science

strand 5, see Culture of science

strand 6, see Science identity building

things to try, 32-33

Summer programs, 4, 53, 104, 127, 131, 133

Symington, David, 168

T

Teachers and teaching

field trip involvement, 167, 168-170

in informal settings, 148-149

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
×

professional development in informal settings, 180-182

time available and quality of, 55

Tech Museum (San Jose, CA), 81-82

Teenage Designers of Learning Spaces, 53-55, 109

Television

conversational interaction during shows, 65, 77, 78

educational shows, 2, 3, 7, 15, 16, 56, 57-59, 75, 141, 146, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 183

effect on learning, 166

entertainment shows as learning venues, 29

extended learning experiences, 56, 57-59, 161, 164, 165, 183

interactivity, 40, 56, 57-59, 65

Thirsty Scholar Pub, 8, 9-11

Thogersen, Erik, 50, 51, 52, 66, 112

21st Century Learning Centers, 143

Twin Cities Public Television, 56

U

Understanding content and knowledge

design of learning experiences and, 29, 41-42, 47, 52, 86

examples, 27, 41-42

naïve understanding, 14, 38

persistence of, 42

prior knowledge and, 39-40

strand 2, 7, 26-27, 41, 47, 52, 87, 110, 146, 179

United Senior Center Hackensack, 154

University of British Columbia, 180

University of California at Santa Cruz, 188, 189

University of Michigan, 182

V

Vacations, learning-oriented, 4, 161

Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre, 180-181

Videos. See Films and videos

Vietnamese Audience Development Initiative, 123-126

Vietnamese culture, 122, 123-127, 129

Visitor Studies Association, 115

Volunteering, 2, 3, 4, 6, 31, 44, 45, 65-66, 91, 97, 133, 175

W

Wartella, Ellen, 65

WGBH public television outreach, 8, 9, 10

Wiehe, Ben, 9-11, 12

Wind River Reservation, 132

WolfQuest (game), 5, 6-7, 8, 12, 18, 106, 107, 109, 156

Y

Yellowstone National Park, 6, 144-146

Yelp, 164

Z

Zoetrope exhibit, 73

Zoos and aquariums

after-school programs, 178

assessment of learning experiences, 180-181

diversity initiatives, 127

extended learning opportunities, 161, 183

generally, 2, 3

interactive components, 42

membership, 82

motivation for visiting, 82, 83, 93, 96-97

teacher training opportunities, 180

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2010. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12614.
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Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures, have a positive learning experience.

Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments, is designed to make that task easier. Based on the National Research Council study, Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits, this book is a tool that provides case studies, illustrative examples, and probing questions for practitioners. In short, this book makes valuable research accessible to those working in informal science: educators, museum professionals, university faculty, youth leaders, media specialists, publishers, broadcast journalists, and many others.

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