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Leslie Pray and Ann Yaktine, Rapporteurs Food Forum Food and Nutrition Board
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â¢ 500 Fifth Street, N.W. â¢ Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract Nos. AG-3A94-C-09-0025 (U.S. Department of Agriculture), N01-OD-4-2139 (National Institutes of Health), and HHSF223200811169P (Food and Drug Administration) between the National Academy of Sciences. Additional support came from Abbott Laboratories, Cargill, Coca-Cola Company, ConAgra Foods, General Mills, Kellogg Company, Kraft Foods, Mars, McDonalds, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Monsanto, and PepsiCo. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13772-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13772-1 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at www.iom.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2009. Nanotechnology in food products: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR A WORKSHOP ON NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON FOOD SCIENCE, NUTRITION, AND THE CONSUMER 1 MICHAEL P. DOYLE (Chair), University of Georgia, Griffin JANET BEAUVAIS, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario HONGDA CHEN, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC ERIC DECKER, University of Massachusetts, Amherst EDWARD GROTH III, Groth Consulting Services, Pelham, NY DARLENE HARDIE-MUNCY, Cargill Corporation, Wayzata, MN VAN HUBBARD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD DONNA V. PORTER, Library of Congress, Washington, DC GEORGE PUGH, Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, GA Study Staff ANN YAKTINE, Study Director GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v
FOOD FORUM 1 MICHAEL P. DOYLE (Chair), University of Georgia, Griffin MARK ANDON, ConAgra Foods Inc., Omaha, NE RHONA APPLEBAUM, The Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia SUSAN BORRA, Edelman, Washington, DC FRANK BUSTA, University of Minnesota, St. Paul JULIE CASWELL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst CELESTE A. CLARK, Kellogg Company, Battle Creek, MI DAVID B. COCKRAM, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH SUSAN J. CROCKETT, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN PETER VAN DAEL, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN ERIC A. DECKER, University of Massachusetts, Amherst DEBRA DEMUTH, McDonalds Corporation, Oak Brook, IL SAMUEL GODEFROY, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario NED GROTH III, Groth Consulting Services, Pelham, New York BRENDA HALBROOK, Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC DARLENE HARDIE-MUNCY, Cargill, Wayzata, MN JERRY HJELLE, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO VAN S. HUBBARD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD GORDON L. JENSEN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park CAROL KELLAR, Kraft Foods, Glenview, IL CHOR-SAN KHOO, Campbell Soup Company, Camden, NJ JOSEPH A. LEVITT, Hogan & Hartson, L.L.P., Washington DC DONNA PORTER, Library of Congress, Washington, DC STEPHEN F. SUNDLOF, Food and Drug Administration, Washington DC CATHERINE E. WOTEKI, Mars, Incorporated, McLean, VA DEREK YACH, PepsiCo, Purchase, NY BARRY L. ZOUMAS, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Study Staff ANN YAKTINE, Study Director (through February 2009) CAITLIN BOON, Study Director GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant LINDA D. MEYERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vi
Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eric A. Decker, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Donna V. Porter, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress Patrick J. Stover, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Sanford A. Miller, Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, University of Maryland. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. vii
Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 2 APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY TO FOOD PRODUCTS 21 3 SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF NANOMATERIALS IN FOOD PRODUCTS 55 4 EDUCATING AND INFORMING CONSUMERS ABOUT APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY TO FOOD PRODUCTS 85 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 119 B Workshop Participants 123 C Speaker Biographies 131 D Acronyms and Abbreviations 135 ix