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D Summary of Workshop Outcomes T O WA R D S U S TA I N A B L E INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS: WORKSHOP OUTCOMES The discussions at the May workshop yielded many ideas and themes, or outcomes. The workshop outcomes are sum- marized below. I. Introduction a. Many communities are facing challenges in maintain- ing and upgrading one or more of the basic services for their citizens (water, transportation, power, communi- cations, wastewater). i. Reasons for the challenges 1. Needs are changing. 2. New approaches are available but not well known. 3. Existing organizational structures impede coordination. ii. Result 1. Each community is âreinventing the wheel.â 2. There is risk of potential suboptimal solutions across the full set of infrastructure services (e.g., corn as biofuel provides power but threatens water supply and land quality). 63
iii. Opportunity 1. Leverage current knowledge and experience across communities. 2. Coordinate the development of new approaches. 3. Coordinate implementation across communi- ties, regions, and United States as a whole. b. New approach: Infrastructure asâ i. Service 1. Provides critical functionality for civil society and commerce. 2. Provides a basis for quality of life, well-being, and safety. 3. Focuses on use rather than means of delivering. ii. Region 1. Reflects actual system aspects of infrastructure (does not stop at community borders). 2. Reflects links among communities for economic development, social equity, and environmental bearing capacityâat local, regional, national levels. iii. Interdependence 1. Reflects functional and locational interdepen- dence among infrastructure systems. a. For example: i. Water pumping and treatment requires power. ii. Power often requires water (for cooling, steam, etc.). iii. Power and telecommunications lines and water piping often run along trans- portation corridors. 2. Reflects opportunities for further developments for sustainable infrastructure that explicitly take advantage of the integration of infrastructure systems to provide critical services. a. For example: i. Parking lots that generate electricity through photovoltaic coatings ii. Wastewater treatment plants that use biofuel cells to generate electricity iii. Localized gray water capture, treatment, and reuse with locally generated power 64 SUSTAINABLE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS
II. Conditions for Developing Sustainable Infrastructure Solutions a. Process i. Policy and planning 1. Process for allocating funding a. Rational b. Transparent c. With respect to regional and national planning 2. Champions for infrastructure services at com- munity, regional, and national levels 3. Flexible and adaptive policies with respect to economic, social, and environmental changes over time 4. Balance of real cost to provide services and public good value (e.g., public health, commerce) 5. Assessment of public âequityâ in infrastructure assetsâas reflected in property values, market activity, and so on 6. Utilization of demand management (e.g., elimi- nate waste, increase efficiency) 7. Partnership among private, public, and non- profit sectors 8. Coordination/leverage of centralized and/or multi-nodal infrastructure systems with respect to a. Disaster resiliency and b. Flexibility in demand response ii. Decision making 1. Transparency of infrastructure decision making 2. Community, regional, and national recon- ciliation of infrastructure service needs and c Â apacityâsystemic, geospatial, strategic 3. Decisions and solutions to enhance current infrastructure capacity with respect to com- munity and regional economic development, environmental capacity, and social equity 4. All-sector involvement (public, private, nonÂ governmental organizations, community) APPENDIX D 65
iii. Public dialogue and communication 1. Awareness of current infrastructure service capacity and vulnerabilities 2. Constant user feedback on condition, capacity, use, costs, and benefits of infrastructure systems 3. Recognized link of infrastructure services to economic development, social equity, and envi- ronmental regeneration 4. Local and regional dialogue on priorities, resources, and plans for infrastructure services (including resiliency and adaptiveness) 5. K-12 hands-on projects, simulation games, and other activities on the built and natural environments (i.e., infrastructure services and ecosystems) 6. Professional training with respect to current and emerging sustainable infrastructure servicesâ local and regional capacity building 7. Executive sessions on the role of infrastructure services in organizational strategy and tactics b. Structure i. Financial 1. Alignment of cost and value of infrastructure servicesâstructure of user, community, regional fees 2. Investment in new capacity to meet emerging and expected needs for infrastructure services 3. Investment in upgrades of existing infrastruc- ture systems to meet current and expected needs 4. Clear designation of responsibilities, authorities, and financial means for delivery, operations, maintenance, and upgrade for infrastructure services over the lives of systems 5. All-sector involvement (public, private, nonÂ governmental organizations, community) ii. Legal 1. Congruence in planning and operation with respect to the physical distribution of infrastruc- ture systems 66 SUSTAINABLE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS
2. Regional integration of organizations that manage or oversee infrastructure systems and services 3. Insurance or warranty with respect to resiliency of infrastructure services for community and region 4. Mechanisms for international agreements, col- laboration with respect to infrastructure services and ecosystem impacts c. Performance i. Technological 1. Investment in current, emerging, and âradicalâ technological developments a. Effectiveness b. Timescale 2. Assessment and strategy for technology readiness 3. International collaboration and information dissemination 4. Modeling and real-time monitoring systems of infrastructure services (condition, capacity, use, cost, benefit, impacts) ii. Scientific Evidence and Metrics 1. Performance criteria a. Physical b. Economic i. Cost ii. Benefit iii. Development iv. Secondary and tertiary impacts c. Social d. Environment and ecosystems 2. Life-cycle analysis a. Timescale to reflect life of asset b. Multisector impacts c. Environmental footprint d. Secondary and tertiary impacts 3. Analysis of systemic risksâespecially with respect to interdependencies a. Reliability b. Robustness APPENDIX D 67
4. Balance of human needs and bearing capacity of ecosystems 5. Trade-offs and priorities among and between infrastructure services and their underlying systems 6. All-hazards approach (cascading failures, dif- ferential vulnerabilities, etc.) with respect to potential disruptions, acceptable risks, climate change, and so on 7. Scale of infrastructure services and systems (e.g., spatial, organizational) III. Existing Resources and Programs a. Previous U.S. programs i. New York Regional Plan ii. Interstate highway system iii. Fragile Foundations report b. Current national activities and programs i. Pending congressional bills ii. Regional agreements c. Local and state activities and programs i. Local (e.g., Cambridge Energy Alliance: nonprofit foundation, local government, private companies, universities and hospitals, citizens) ii. State (e.g., Hawaii renewable energy investment program) d. National laboratories e. Professional associations i. American Water Works Association and others ii. American Society of Civil Engineersâ infrastructure report card IV. Conclusions/Summary a. Focus on the future b. Focus on the possible c. Focus on starting the journey now, and learning as we goâ i. Leverage current activities and programs and capabilities ii. Marshal knowledge, creativity, and engagement across all regions, sectors, and levels 68 SUSTAINABLE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS