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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Briefings to the Committee." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Briefings to the Committee." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
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Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Briefings to the Committee." National Research Council. 2009. Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12653.
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Page 52

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Appendix F Briefings to the Committee COMMITTEE MEETING 1 September 19, 2008 The Keck Center of the National Academies Integrated Mission Planning Scenarios: RPS Imple- Washington, D.C. mentation Timeline, Leonard A. Dudzinski, NASA September 18-19, 2008 Headquarters The Problem (revised), Alice Caponiti, DOE Headquarters September 18, 2008 Introduction and Study Expectations, W. James Adams, COMMITTEE MEETING 2 NASA Headquarters NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory NASA Demand for DOE-Supplied Plutonium-238, Harold M. Pasadena, California Bell, NASA Headquarters October 27-28, 2008 Planetary Science Division Programs, James L. Green, NASA Headquarters October 27, 2008 Power Systems Program Historical Overview & Current Content, Leonard A. Dudzinski, NASA Headquarters JPL Welcome, Eugene Tattini, NASA Jet Propulsion Radioisotope Power Systems Program Policies, Leonard A. Laboratory Dudzinski, NASA Headquarters Introduction, Rao Surampudi, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Radioisotope Power Systems Program Organization Over- RTG Powered Legacy Missions, John Casani, NASA Jet view, Thomas J. Sutliff, NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Laboratory Current and Potential RPS Missions and Requirements, Jack- MSL Overview and RPS Implementation, David Woerner, lyn R. Green, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Programs, Rao Outer Planets Flagship Mission Study Overview, Jim Cutts, Surampudi, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Critical Facilities and Infrastructure, Thomas J. Sutliff, Jupiter Europa Orbiter Study, Karla Clark, NASA Jet Pro- NASA Glenn Research Center pulsion Laboratory Other Information, Thomas J. Sutliff, NASA Glenn Research TSSM Overview, Kim Reh, NASA Jet Propulsion Center Laboratory Radioisotope Power Systems Program: NASA Summary, W. ASRG Integration/Accommodation Considerations for OPF James Adams, NASA Headquarters Missions, John Elliott, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Department of Energy Radioisotope Power Systems Pro- Nuclear Launch Safety Approval Processes for NASA gram, Owen W. Lowe, DOE Headquarters ­ issions, Reed Wilcox, NASA Jet Propulsion M Department of Energy Radioisotope Power Systems Infra- Laboratory structure, Wade Carroll, DOE Headquarters Technology Portfolio Review, Leonard A. Dudzinski, NASA RPS System Development, Robert Wiley and Rebecca Rich- Headquarters ardson, DOE Headquarters Overview of RPS Technology Programs at JPL, Roger Gibbs, Pu-238 Supply, Alice Caponiti, DOE Headquarters NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Department of Energy Summary, Owen W. Lowe, DOE Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology: Headquarters An Overview, Jean-Pierre Fleurial, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory 50

APPENDIX F 51 JPL’s Contribution to the Development of SiGe RTGs Space Science and RPSs: What Missions Cannot Be Accom- (MHW-RTG and GPHS-RTG), Jack Mondt, NASA Jet plished without RPSs?, Thomas J. Sutliff, Glenn Research Propulsion Laboratory Center RTG Life Model Development and Validation (Degra), R ­ ichard Ewell, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory SITE VISIT 1 Advanced Thermoelectrics R&D, Jean-Pierre Fleurial, Glenn Research Center NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Cleveland, Ohio Advanced Thermoelectric Converter (ATEC) Development, October 10, 2008 Thierry Caillat and Richard Ewell, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory GRC Organization and Capabilities, George Schmidt, JPL ASRG Support Activity, Sal Di Stefano, NASA Jet Pro- NASA Glenn Research Center pulsion Laboratory Small RPSs: Requirements and Schedules, Thomas J. Sutliff, Cryogenic Cooling in Space: Fifty Years of Lessons Learned, NASA Glenn Research Center Ronald G. Ross, Jr., NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory GRC Nuclear Power Radioisotope System Development, RPS Infrastructure at JPL, Bill J. Nesmith, NASA Jet Pro- Project 138494, David B. Ercegovic, NASA Glenn pulsion Laboratory Research Center ASC Converter Reliability, Dave Ercegovic, NASA Glenn Background: Free Piston Stirling for Space, Jeff Schreiber, Research Center NASA Glenn Research Center Advanced Stirling Convertor: Product Evolution, NRA to ASC-E2s, Wayne Wong, NASA Glenn Research Center October 28, 2008 ASC-E2 Design Overview, Wayne Wong, NASA Glenn Radioisotope Power System Launch Safety and Approval, Research Center and Kyle Wilson, Sunpower, Inc. Lyle Rutger, DOE Headquarters ASC-E2 Quality Program, Mary Anne Dunlap, Sunpower, Exploration RPS Planning, Timelines, and Projected Utiliza- Inc., and Orie Barnes, Sest, Inc./NASA Glenn Research tion, John Olson, NASA Headquarters Center Science Scenarios, John Olson, NASA Headquarters Risk Mitigation Efforts at GRC, Jeff Schreiber, NASA Glenn Research Center ASRG Reliability Status, Rebecca Richardson, DOE COMMITTEE MEETING 3 Headquarters National Academy of Sciences Building ASRG EU Performance, Test Results/Plans, Schedule, Washington, D.C. Plans to Completion, and System Reliability, Rebecca December 11-12, 2008 R ­ ichardson, DOE Headquarters; and Dan Tantino, Jack Chan, and Chuong Ha, Lockheed Martin December 11, 2008 GRC Structures and Materials Division: RPS Support Activi- RPS/Pu-238 Mission Closing Options, Harold M. Bell, ties, Mike Nathal, NASA Glenn Research Center NASA Headquarters Thermophotovoltaic Technology Development Project, Eric Integrated Schedule Action, Leonard A. Dudzinski, NASA B. Clark, NASA Glenn Research Center Headquarters Action Response: Exploration Functional Capabilities Enabled SITE VISIT 2 by RPS Availability, John Olson, NASA Headquarters Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho COMMITTEE MEETING 4 October 15, 2008 Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the Recap of Strategies to Restart Domestic Pu-238 Production, National Academies of Sciences and Engineering Alice Caponiti, DOE Headquarters Irvine, California Overview of Plutonium-238 Production Mission Proposal, January 12-13, 2009 Robert M. Wham, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Plutonium-238 Production Safeguards, Robert M. Wham, January 12, 2009 Oak Ridge National Laboratory RPS/Pu-238 Mission Closing Options, Harold M. Bell, INL Requirements to Support ORNL Pu-238 Production, NASA Headquarters Stephen G. Johnson, Idaho National Laboratory Action Response: Exploration Functional Capabilities Enabled Pu-238 Production: An INL and ORNL Joint Proposal, by RPS Availability, John Olson, NASA Headquarters R. Chase and Stephen G. Johnson, Idaho National Laboratory; and Robert M. Wham, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

52 RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS Pu-238 Consolidation Project, Stephen G. Johnson, Idaho SITE VISIT 3 National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory, HFIR Production of Pu-238 and Target Fabrication Con- Oak Ridge, Tennessee siderations, Robert M. Wham, Oak Ridge National November 13, 2008 Laboratory Introduction to ORNL, Dana Christensen and Kelly Advanced Test Reactor Pu-238 Production Capacity, ­Stephen B ­ eierschmitt, Oak Ridge National Laboratory G. Johnson, Idaho National Laboratory Status of International Activities, Alice Caponiti, DOE Headquarters Overview of Plutonium-238 Production Mission Pro- posal: Update, Robert M. Wham, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Iridium Clad Vent Sets/RHU Issues, Jim King, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

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Spacecraft require electrical energy. This energy must be available in the outer reaches of the solar system where sunlight is very faint. It must be available through lunar nights that last for 14 days, through long periods of dark and cold at the higher latitudes on Mars, and in high-radiation fields such as those around Jupiter. Radioisotope power systems (RPSs) are the only available power source that can operate unconstrained in these environments for the long periods of time needed to accomplish many missions, and plutonium-238 (238Pu) is the only practical isotope for fueling them.

Plutonium-238 does not occur in nature. The committee does not believe that there is any additional 238Pu (or any operational 238Pu production facilities) available anywhere in the world.The total amount of 238Pu available for NASA is fixed, and essentially all of it is already dedicated to support several pending missions--the Mars Science Laboratory, Discovery 12, the Outer Planets Flagship 1 (OPF 1), and (perhaps) a small number of additional missions with a very small demand for 238Pu. If the status quo persists, the United States will not be able to provide RPSs for any subsequent missions.

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