Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
APPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR BUILDING COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE WORKSHOP SUMMARY Sammantha L. Magsino, Rapporteur Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS â¢ 500 Fifth Street, N.W. â¢ Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Award No. HSHQDC-08-C-00176. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not constitute their endorsement by the sponsoring agencies. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14094-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14094-3 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet http://www.nap.edu Cover: Social network image courtesy of Carl Latkin. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autono- mous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to se- cure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and educa- tion. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of fur- thering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph, J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON APPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR BUILDING COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE SUSAN L. CUTTER, Chair, University of South Carolina KATHLEEN M. CARLEY, Carnegie Mellon University WILLIAM A. V. CLARK, University of California, Los Angeles ERIC HOLDEMAN, ICF International RANDOLPH H. ROWEL, Morgan State University MONICA SCHOCH-SPANA, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center National Research Council Staff SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Study Director JARED P. ENO, Research Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Program Assistant iv
GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES COMMITTEE WILLIAM L. GRAF, Chair, University of South Carolina LUC E. ANELIN, Arizona State University WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, University of California CAROL P. HARDEN, University of Tennessee CALESTOUS JUMA, Harvard University JOHN A. KELMELIS, The Pennsylvania State University VICTORIA A. LAWSON, University of Washington SUSANNE C. MOSER, Susanne Moser Research & Consulting THOMAS M. PARRIS, ISciences LLC NORBERT P. PSUTY, Rutgers University DAVID R. RAIN, The George Washington University National Research Council Staff CAETLIN OFIESH, Associate Program Officer JARED P. ENO, Research Associate TONYA FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant v
BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID J. COWEN, University of South Carolina WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley ROGER M. DOWNS, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park WILLIAM L. GRAF, University of South Carolina RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN JR., Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering LOUISE H. KELLOGG, University of California, Davis ROBERT B. McMASTER, University of Minnesota CLAUDIA INÃS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Standpoint JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson WILLIAM W. SHILTS, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign RUSSELL STANDS-OVER-BULL, BP American Production Company, Pryor, Montana TERRY C. WALLACE JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico HERMAN B. ZIMMERMAN, National Science Foundation (Retired) National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Associate Program Officer JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial Associate JARED P. ENO, Research Associate NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate TONYA E. FONG YEE, Senior Program Assistant ERIC J. EDKIN, Program Assistant vi
Acknowledgments In response to a request by the Department of Homeland Security, the National Research Council formed an ad hoc committee to organize a two-day workshop to discuss the use of social network analysis (SNA) for the purpose of building community disaster resilience. The workshop was held February 11-12, 2009, in Washington, D.C., and engaged a group of approximately 30 researchers in the fields of SNA and resilience science as well as emergency management practitioners from different regions of the country. Gaps in knowledge regarding SNA and its use for constructing designed networks for the purpose of increasing resilience were discussed, as were areas of research that could fill those gaps. The National Research Council greatly acknowledges the work of the planning committee that designed this workshop. Susan L. Cutter of the University of South Carolina was the workshop moderator and served as chair of the workshop planning committee. Kathleen Carley, Carnegie Mellon University; William A.V. Clark, University of California, Los Angeles; Eric Holdeman, ICF International; Randolph H. Rowel, Morgan State University; and Monica Schoch-Spana, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center served as members of the planning committee. All put a great deal of time, thought, and effort into planning an agenda, identifying and inviting speakers and attendees, and preparing a detailed agenda book that included a list of select references on SNA and resilience. Committee members also served as moderators and rapporteurs for individual breakout sessions. The National Research Council would like to thank Kathleen Carley; Carnegie Mellon University; Fran H. Norris, Dartmouth Medical School; Carl Latkin, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; and Michael Byrne, ICF International for providing excellent workshop presentations intended to orient attendees regarding the subject matter to be discussed. Additionally, the workshop would not have been successful without the important contributions of those who attended the event. A complete list of participants is found in Appendix C of this document. Discussions were informative, professional, and conducted in a cooperative spirit among, in large part, individuals who do not often have the opportunity to collaborate. This workshop summary was prepared by National Research Council staff following the workshop. It represents the findings of the workshop participants as interpreted by a rapporteur. vii
viii APPLICATIONS OF SNA FOR BUILDING COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this summary: William A.V. Clark, University of California, Los Angeles Darrell Darnell, District of Columbia Homeland Security and Management Agency Jeffrey Johnson, East Carolina University Naim Kapucu, University of Central Florida Ann Patton, Ann Patton Company LLC Monica Schoch-Spana, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see, the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by the Division on Earth and Life Studies. The division was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the National Research Council.
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 Workshop Planning, 11 Workshop Summary Organization, 12 2 THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE 15 Workshop Vocabulary, 15 The State of the Art in Social Network Analysis, 17 Studying, Assessing, and Creating Resilient Communities, 22 Reaching Vulnerable Populations through Social Networks: Case Studies of Efforts to Prevent the Spread of HIV, 25 Using Social Networking Tools to Enhance Communication, 28 3 SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVED DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND INTERVENTION PLANNING 33 SNA for Improving Communication, 34 SNA for Planned Interventions, 37 SNA for Enhancing Improvisational Response within Networks of Organizations, 39 4 FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE 43 Incentives for Fostering Preparedness, 43 Understanding and Using Social Networks, 44 Quantifying Adaptive Capacities, 46 Translation from Research to Practice, 46 The Need for a Measuring Stick, 47 Communication for Resilience, 48 Next Steps, 49 ix
x APPLICATIONS OF SNA FOR BUILDING COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE REFERENCES 55 APPENDIXES A Committee Biographies 57 B Selected Recent References on Disaster Resilience, Social Networks, and Social Network Analysis 61 C Workshop Participants 67 D Breakout Session Descriptions 69