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Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States (2010)

Chapter: Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Appendix C
Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

 

Ozone

Ozone Precursorsa

PM

PM (chemical constituents)

Hgb

POPs

Key Contributions

Commerical Aircraft

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOZAIC

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

Routine cross-Atlantic measurements onseveral European Airbus aircraft in flight corridor plus profiles of O3, CO, H2O (1994-present) and NO, NOy in addition (2001-present).

CARIBIC

Y

Y

Y

 

Y

 

Multiple species measured in container onan in-service aircraft as part of European project, 1997 to 2002 and 2004 to present.

NOXAR

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

Routine measurement of O3, NO, NO2 on Swiss aircraft over North Atlantic in UT in 1995/1996.

Airborne Campaigns [North American export]

NARE I & II

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

 

Large international field campaigns involving multiple platforms examining export of North American pollution over North Atlantic, summer 1993 and 1997.

SONEX

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

NASA-led campaign focused on impact of aircraft emissions on UT(LS), autumn 1997.

POLINAT

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

German DLR-Falcon campaign on impactof aircraft emissions over North Atlantic, autumn 1997.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

ACTO, MAXOX, EXPORT

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

European multi-aircraft campaigns examining import of NA pollution into European free troposphere and export of EU pollution, spring and summer 1999-2000.

ICARTT

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

 

Large international field campaign involving multiple platforms focused on detection and quantification of North America to Europe long-range transport. First attempt to conduct Lagrangian experiment, by making multiple sampling of same plume across Atlantic. Included NASA INTEX-NA, European ITOP missions, summer 2004.

YAK-AEROSIB

Y

 

Y

 

 

 

French-Russian flights over Siberia, export of European pollution, transport of Siberian FF plumes to NA, spring and summer 2006-2008.

ABLE 3A/3B

Y

 

Y

 

 

 

GTE missions investigating chemical composition over tundra and Arctic regions, 1988, 1990.

TOPSE

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

Characterization of Arctic Haze breakdown, origins of springtime ozone in midlatitude and polar regions, winter and spring 2000

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

 

Ozone

Ozone Precursorsa

PM

PM (chemical constituents)

Hgb

POPs

Key Contributions

POLARCAT

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

Large international field on export of NA (and other) pollution to the Arctic, radiative and climate impacts – contribution to IPY; impact of AN and FF pollution. Included NASA ARCTAS, DLR-GRACE, NOAA-ICEALOT, NOAA-ARCPAC, DOE-ISDAC, POLARCAT-France missions, spring and summer 2008.

Airborne Campaigns [focus on North American import]

PEM-West B

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

NASA experiment to quantify out flow of pollutants from Asia during spring 1994.

TRACE-P/ACE-Asia

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

 

Large international field experiment involving numerous platforms and groups to examine Asian pollutant formation, out flow and transport across the Pacific, spring 2001.

ITCT-2K2

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

 

NOAA-led campaign focusing on import of pollutants into southwest USA, summer 2002.

INTEX-B

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

 

NASA campaign focusing on pollution import into North America (also DLR- Falcon over Germany), spring 2006.

PHOBEA-I, II

Y

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

University of Washington experiment (1997-1999 and 2001-2003) to detect and quantify flux of Asian pollution to North America.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Satellite Instruments

METEOR-3, NIMBUS-7, EP/TOMS

Y

 

Y

UV absorbing (dust, smoke)

 

 

Multiyear dataset for the study of interannual variability of tropospheric O3 and AI.

ERS-2/GOME

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

Multiyear dataset for the study of interannual variability and inverse modeling of emissions, especially NO2.

ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

Multiyear dataset for the study of interannual variability and inverse modeling of emissions, especially NO2.

TERRA/MOPITT

 

Y

 

 

 

 

Multiyear CO dataset for the study of interannual variability and inverse modeling of emissions.

TERRA, AQUA/MODIS

Y

 

Y

 

 

 

Multiyear AOD dataset for the study of interannual variability; daily coverage is possible for tracking aerosol plumes as they develop; inverse modeling of emissions.

TERRA/MISR

 

 

Y

 

 

 

Aerosol type and plume height information.

AQUA/AIRS

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

Daily coverage is possible for CO plume tracking; upper troposphere O3.

(SCISAT/ACE)

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

Observations of transport and chemical processing in the upper troposphere.

AURA/TES

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

Coincident measurements of O3 and precursors for process studies.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

 

Ozone

Ozone Precursorsa

PM

PM (chemical constituents)

Hgb

POPs

Key Contributions

AURA/OMI

Y

Y

Y

Dust, smoke, sulfates

 

 

Good coverage of O3, precursors and AI; possibility of tracking plumes as they develop; inverse modeling of emissions.

AURA/MLS

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

Good sensitivity to upper tropospheric CO transport; provides stratospheric O3 column for use in tropospheric O3 residual retrievals (especially with OMI).

METOP-A/IASI

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

Daily coverage of O3 and precursors is possible for plume tracking; first of 3 missions that will provide data through 2020.

METOP-A/GOME2

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

First of 3 missions that will provide data through 2020.

(CLOUDSAT/CALIPSO)

 

 

Y

 

 

 

High vertical resolution information on aerosol distribution and type for suborbital plume transects.

Ground-based networks

NOAA/ESRL Atmospheric Baseline Observatories

Y

Y

Y

 

 

 

5 sites (3 in NH) focused on GHG distribution. Some use of this data for LRT studies.

NOAA/ESRL Cooperative Air Sampling Network

 

Y

 

 

 

 

Network collects weekly flask samples from approximately 100 sites around the globe. Major focus is on GHG distribution, but data provide some utility for understanding LRT.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

WMO/GAW Global Observatories

Y

Y

 

 

 

 

There are approximately 22 GAW stations, which includes the ESRL sites and other national programs. GAW observatories are similar in design to ESRL Atmospheric Baseline Observatories but provide broader spatial coverage. Gas phase observations are made regularly at most sites. The GAW program recommends an extensive set of aerosol measurements, including AOD, light scattering, size distribution. However, only a small fraction of the sites are currently reporting aerosol data to the GAW data center.

CASTNET

Clean Air Status and Trends Network

Y

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. network of approximately 100 sites to obtain background observations of surface ozone and some additional parameters relevant to understanding trends and ecosystem impacts of air pollutants. A small fraction of the sites measure CO and NOy. Many sites are colocated with an IMPROVE aerosol sampler.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

 

Ozone

Ozone Precursorsa

PM

PM (chemical constituents)

Hgb

POPs

Key Contributions

IMPROVE

Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments

 

 

Y

Y

 

 

U.S. network of approximately 200 sites to obtain regional background aerosol mass loadings and chemical composition of fine mode aerosol (D < 2.5 μm). IMPROVE data has been used in numerous studies to document LRT. Many sites are colocated with a CASTNET measurements of O3.

CAMNET

Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Network

 

 

 

 

Y (TGM and wet dep)

 

Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Network (CAMNET) measures total gaseous mercury at 11 sites across Canada. Wet deposition of mercury is also measured at some of these sites.

MDN/AMI

Mercury Deposition Network, Atmospheric Mercury Initiative

 

 

 

 

Y (wet dep)

 

MDN collects weekly Hg in wet deposition at approximately 85 sites in the United States. AMI is a new inititive which will collect speciated Hg data at multiple sites for quantification of dry deposition.

EMEP

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

European program to measure gas and aerosol compounds in support of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Measurements are made at several hundred sites across Europe.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia)

Y

 

Y

 

 

 

Integration of national networks across Asia for acid deposition, ozone, and aerosols.

Other Research sites

Mt. Bachelor Observatory

Y

Y

Y

 

Y

Y

Mountain top (2.7 km) research station on the west coast of the United States (Oregon). Operated by the University of Washington and Oregon State University.

a Ozone precursors include CO, CH4, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides. A [Y] in this box indicates measurement of any one or more of these species.

b While the chemical form of Hg is important, here we do not distinguish between measurements of total, elemental or Hg+2.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 218
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 220
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 221
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 222
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Recent advances in air pollution monitoring and modeling capabilities have made it possible to show that air pollution can be transported long distances and that adverse impacts of emitted pollutants cannot be confined to one country or even one continent. Pollutants from traffic, cooking stoves, and factories emitted half a world away can make the air we inhale today more hazardous for our health. The relative importance of this "imported" pollution is likely to increase, as emissions in developing countries grow, and air quality standards in industrial countries are tightened.

Global Sources of Local Pollution examines the impact of the long-range transport of four key air pollutants (ozone, particulate matter, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants) on air quality and pollutant deposition in the United States. It also explores the environmental impacts of U.S. emissions on other parts of the world. The book recommends that the United States work with the international community to develop an integrated system for determining pollution sources and impacts and to design effective response strategies.

This book will be useful to international, federal, state, and local policy makers responsible for understanding and managing air pollution and its impacts on human health and well-being.

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