National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 6 Crosscutting Issues and Synthesis
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

References

ACAP (Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic). 2005a. Arctic Mercury Releases Inventory: Reduction of Atmospheric Mercury Releases from Arctic States. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Ministry of the Environment, Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

———. 2005b. Assessment of Mercury Releases from the Russian Federation. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Ministry of the Environment, Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

Ackerman, L.K., A.R. Schwindt, S.L.M. Simonich, D.C. Koch, T.F. Blett, C.B. Schreck, M.L. Kent, and D.H. Landers. 2008. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western US national park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines. Environmental Science & Technology 42(7):2334-2341.

Ahrens, C.D. 2007. Essentials of Metoeorology: An Invitation to the Atmosphere. Florence, KY: Brooks Cole.

Al-Saadi, J., J. Szykman, R.B. Pierce, C. Kittaka, D. Neil, D.A. Chu, L. Remer, L. Gumley, E. Prins, L. Weinstock, C. MacDonald, R. Wayland, F. Dimmick, and J. Fishman. 2005. Improving national air quality forecasts with satellite aerosol observations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86(9):1249-1261.

Amyot, M., G. Southworth, S.E. Lindberg, H. Hintelmann, J.D. Lalonde, N. Ogrinc, A.J. Poulain, and K.A. Sandilands. 2004. Formation and evasion of dissolved gaseous mercury in large enclosures amended with 200HgCl2. Atmospheric Environment 38(26):4279-4289.

Anderson, B.T., and A. Strahler. 2008. Visualizing Weather and Climate. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Anderson, P.N., and R.A. Hites. 1996. Oh radical reactions: The major removal pathway for polychlorinated biphenyls from the atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 30(5):1756-1763.

Andreae, M. O., and P. Merlet. 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(4):955-966.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Anenberg, S., J.J. West, A.M. Fiore, D.A. Jaffe, M.J. Prather, D. Bergmann, C. Cuvelier, F.J. Dentener, B.N. Duncan, M. Gauss, P. Hess, J.E. Jonson, A. Lupu, I.A. MacKenzie, E. Marmer, R.J. Park, M. Sanderson, M. Schultz, D.T. Shindell, S. Szopa, M.G. Vivanco, O. Wild, and G. Zeng. 2009. Intercontinental impacts of ozone pollution on human mortality. Environmental Science & Technology (submitted).

Angevine, W.M., M.P. Buhr, J.S. Holloway, M. Trainer, D.D. Parrish, J.I. MacPherson, G.L. Kok, R.D. Schillawski, and D.H. Bowlby. 1996. Local meteorological features affecting chemical measurements at a north Atlantic coastal site. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 101(22):28935-28946.

Ariya, P., K. Peterson, G. Snider, and M. Amyot. 2009. Mercury transformations in the gas, aqueous, and heterogenous phases: State of the art science and uncertainties. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere emissions, measurements and models, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason. 644, Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Armitage, J., I.T. Cousins, R.C. Buck, K. Prevedouros, M.H. Russell, M. MacLeod, and S.H. Korzeniowski. 2006. Modeling global-scale fate and transport of perfluorooctanoate emitted from direct sources. Environmental Science & Technology 40(22):6969-6975.

Atkeson, T.D., C.D. Pollman, and D.M. Axelrad. 2005. Recent trends in hg emissions, deposition, and biota in the Florida everglades: A monitoring and modeling analysis. In Dynamics of mercury pollution on regional and global scales: Atmospheric processes and human exposures around the world, edited by N. Pirrone and K. R. Mahaffey. 637-656. New York: Springer.

Ault, A.P., M.J. Moore, H. Furutani, and K.A. Prather. 2009. Impact of emissions from the Los Angeles port region on san diego air quality during regional transport events. Environmental Science & Technology (ASAP)(0).

Auvray, M., and I. Bey. 2005. Long-range transport to Europe: Seasonal variations and implications for the European ozone budget. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(11):1-22.

Bader, M.J. 1995. Images in weather forecasting: A practical guide for interpreting satellite and radar imagery. New York: Cambridge.

Bagnato, E., A. Aiuppa, F. Parello, S. Calabrese, W. D’Alessandro, T.A. Mather, A.J.S. McGonigle, D.M. Pyle, and I. Wängberg. 2007. Degassing of gaseous (elemental and reactive) and particulate mercury from mount etna volcano (southern italy). Atmospheric Environment 41(35):7377-7388.

Barber, J.L., A.J. Sweetman, D. van Wijk, and K.C. Jones. 2005. Hexachlorobenzene in the global environment: Emissions, levels, distribution, trends and processes. Science of the Total Environment 349(1-3):1-44.

Barrie, L.A. 1986. Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge. Atmospheric Environment–Part A General Topics 20(4):643-663.

Bates, T.S., T.L. Anderson, T. Baynard, T. Bond, O. Boucher, G. Carmichael, A. Clarke, C. Erlick, H. Guo, L. Horowitz, S. Howell, S. Kulkarni, H. Maring, A. McComiskey, A. Middlebrook, K. Noone, C.D. O’Dowd, J. Ogren, J. Penner, P.K. Quinn, A.R. Ravishankara, D.L. Savoie, S.E. Schwartz, Y. Shinozuka, Y. Tang, R.J. Weber, and Y. Wu. 2006. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest atlantic, northwest pacific, and north indian oceans: Estimates based on in situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(6):1657-1732.

Becker, S., C.J. Halsall, W. Tych, H. Hung, S. Attewell, P. Blanchard, H. Li, P. Fellin, G. Stern, B. Billeck, and S. Friesen. 2006. Resolving the long-term trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Canadian arctic atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 40(10):3217-3222.

Bein, K.J., Y.J. Zhao, M.V. Johnston, and A.S. Wexler. 2008. Interactions between boreal wildfire and urban emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 113(D07304).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Bell, M.L., F. Dominici, and J.M. Samet. 2005. A meta-analysis of time-series studies of ozone and mortality with comparison to the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Epidemiology 4:436-445.

Bell, M.L., R.D. Peng, and F. Dominici. 2006. The exposure–response curve for ozone and risk of mortality and the adequacy of current ozone regulations. Environmental Health Perspectives 114:532-536.

Bell, M.L., A. McDermott, S.L. Zeger, J.M. Samet, and F. Dominici. 2004. Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 292(19):2372-2378.

Bergan, T., L. Gallardo, and H. Rodhe. 1999. Mercury in the global troposphere: A three-dimensional model study. Atmospheric Environment 33:1575-1585.

Bertschi, I.T., and D.A. Jaffe. 2005. Long-range transport of ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols to the ne pacific troposphere during the summer of 2003: Observations of smoke plumes from Asian boreal fires. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(D05303).

Bezares-Cruz, J., C.T. Jafvert, and I. Hua. 2004. Solar photodecomposition of decabromodiphenyl ether: Products and quantum yield. Environmental Science & Technology 38(15):4149-4156.

Biester, H., R. Bindler, A. Martinez-Cortizas, and D.R. Engstrom. 2007. Modeling the past atmospheric deposition of mercury using natural archives. Environmental Science and Technology 41(14):4851-4860.

Bindler, R., I. Renberg, P.G. Appleby, N.J. Anderson, and N.L. Rose. 2001. Mercury accumulation rates and spatial patterns in lake sediments from West Greenland: A coast to ice margin transect. Environmental Science and Technology 35(9):1736-1741.

Biswas, A., J.D. Blum, B. Klaue, and G.J. Keeler. 2007. Release of mercury from rocky mountain forest fires. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21(1).

Blais, J.M., D.W. Schindler, D.C.G. Muir, L.E. Kimpe, D.B. Donald, and B. Rosenberg. 1998. Accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in mountains of western Canada. Nature 395(6702):585-588.

Bloom, N.S. 1992. On the chemical form of mercury in edible fish and marine invertebrate tissue. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(5):1010-1017.

Bond, T.C., D.G. Streets, K.F. Yarber, S.M. Nelson, J.-H. Woo, and Z. Klimont. 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697.

Bortz, S.E., M.J. Prather, J.-P. Cammas, V. Thouret, and H. Smit. 2006. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D05305.

Bousquet, P., P. Ciais, J.B. Miller, E.J. Dlugokencky, D.A. Hauglustaine, C. Prigent, G.R. Van der Werf, P. Peylin, E.-G. Brunke, C. Carouge, R.L. Langenfelds, J. Lathière, F. Papa, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, L.P. Steele, S.C. Tyler, and J. White. 2006. Contribution of anthropogenic and natural sources to atmospheric methane variability. Nature 443:439-443, doi:10.1038/nature05132.

Braune, B.M., M.L. Mallory, and H.G. Gilchrist. 2006. Elevated mercury levels in a declining population of ivory gulls in the Canadian arctic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(8):978-982.

Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J.M. Pacyna, and K.C. Jones. 2002a. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected pcb congeners—a mass balance approach 1. Global production and consumption. Science of the Total Environment 290(1-3):181-198.

———. 2002b. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected pcb congeners—a mass balance approach 2. Emissions. Science of the Total Environment 290(1-3):199-224.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

———. 2007. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected pcb congeners—a mass balance approach-3. An update. Science of the Total Environment 377(2-3):296-307.

Browning, K.A., and G.A. Monk. 1982. A simple model for the synoptic analysis of cold fronts. Quarterly Journal, Royal Meteorological Society 108(456):435-452.

Browning, K.A., and N.M. Roberts. 1994. Structure of a frontal cyclone. Quarterly Journal–Royal Meteorological Society 120(520):1535-1557.

Brunke, E.G., C. Labuschagne, and F. Slemr. 2001. Gaseous mercury emissions from a fire in the cape peninsula, South Africa, during January 2000. Geophysical Research Letters 28(8):1483-1486.

Buehler, S.S., I. Basu, and R.A. Hites. 2002. Gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyl and hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations near the great lakes: A historical perspective. Environmental Science & Technology 36(23):5051-5056.

———. 2004. Causes of variability in pesticide and pcb concentrations in air near the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 38(2):414-422.

Bullock, O.R. Jr., and L. Jaeglé. 2008. Importance of a global scale approach to using regional models in the assessment of source-receptor relationships for mercury. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason. 377-388. New York: Springer.

Burger, J., and M. Gochfeld. 2004. Mercury in canned tuna: White versus light and temporal variation. Environmental Research 96(3):239-249.

Butler, T., M.D. Cohen, F.M. Vermeylen, G.E. Likens, D. Schmeltz, and R.S. Artz. 2007. Regional precipitation mercury trends in the eastern USA 1998-2005 Atmospheric Environment 42:1582-1592.

Butler, T.M., M.G. Lawrence, B.R. Gurjar, J. van Aardenne, M. Schultz, and J. Lelieveld. 2008. The representation of emissions from megacities in global emission inventories. Atmospheric Environment 42(4):703-719.

Caldwell, C.A., P. Swartzendruber, and E. Prestbo. 2006. Concentration and dry deposition of mercury species in arid south central New Mexico (2001-2002). Environmental Science and Technology 40(24):7535-7540.

Canagaratna, M.R., J.T. Jayne, J.L. Jimenez, J.D. Allan, M.R. Alfarra, Q. Zhang, T.B. Onasch, F. Drewnick, H. Coe, A. Middlebrook, A. Delia, L.R. Williams, A.M. Trimborn, M.J. Northway, P.F. DeCarlo, C.E. Kolb, P. Davidovits, and D.R. Worsnop. 2007. Chemical and microphysical characterization of ambient aerosols with the aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer. Mass Spectrometry Reviews 26(2):185-222.

Cape, J.N. 2008. Surface ozone concentrations and ecosystem health: Past trends and a guide to future projections. Science of the Total Environment 400(1-3):257-269.

Carlson, D.L., I. Basu, and R.A. Hites. 2004. Annual variations of pesticide concentrations in great lakes precipitation. Environmental Science & Technology 38(20):5290-5296.

Carlson, T.N. 1998. Mid-latitude weather systems. Boston: American Meteorological Society.

Carmichael, G.R., T. Sakurai, D. Streets, Y. Hozumi, H. Ueda, S.U. Park, C. Fung, Z. Han, M. Kajino, M. Engardt, C. Bennet, H. Hayami, K. Sartelet, T. Holloway, Z. Wang, A. Kannari, J. Fu, K. Matsuda, N. Thongboonchoo, and M. Amann. 2008a. Mics-Asia ii: The model intercomparison study for Asia phase ii methodology and overview of findings. Atmospheric Environment 42(15):3468-3490.

Carmichael, G.R., A. Sandu, T. Chai, D.N. Daescu, E.M. Constantinescu, and Y. Tang. 2008b. Predicting air quality: Improvements through advanced methods to integrate models and measurements. Journal of Computational Physics 227(7):3540-3571.

Chen, C.Y., N. Serell, D.C. Evers, B.J. Fleishman, K.F. Lambert, J. Weiss, R.P. Mason, and M.S. Bank. 2008. Meeting report: Methylmercury in marine ecosystems—from sources to seafood consumers. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(12):1706-1712.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Chen, Y., and R.G. Prinn. 2006. Estimation of atmospheric methane emissions between 1996 and 2001 using a three-dimensional global chemical transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D10307, doi:10.1029/2005JD006058.

Chin, M., T. Diehl, P. Ginoux, and W. Malm. 2007. Intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols: Implications for regional air quality. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(21):5501-5517.

Chin, M., D.J. Jacob, J.W. Munger, D.D. Parrish, and B.G. Doddridge. 1994. Relationship of ozone and carbon monoxide over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 99(D7):14565-14573.

Choi, Y.J., and H.J.S. Fernando. 2007. Simulation of smoke plumes from agricultural bums: Application to the San Luis/Rio Colorado airshed along the U.S./Mexico border. Science of the Total Environment 388(1-3):270-289.

Clarkson, T.W. 2002. The three modern faces of mercury. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(SUPPL. 1):11-23.

Clarkson, T.W., L. Magos, and G.J. Myers. 2003. The toxicology of mercury—current exposures and clinical manifestations. New England Journal of Medicine 349(18):1731-1737.

Cofala, J., M. Amann, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, and L. Höglund-Isaksson. 2007. Scenarios of global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and methane until 2030. Atmospheric Environment 41(38):8486-8499.

Cohan, D.S., J. Xu, R. Greenwald, M.H. Bergin, and W.L. Chameides. 2002. Impact of atmospheric aerosol light scattering and absorption on terrestrial net primary productivity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):37-1.

Cohen, A.J., H.R. Anderson, B. Ostro, K.D. Pandey, M. Krzyzanowski, N. Kuenzli, K. Gutschmidt, C.A. Pope, I. Romieu, J.M. Samet, and K.R. Smith. 2004. Urban air pollution. In Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors, edited by M. Ezzati, A.D. Lopez, A. Rodgers and C. J. L. Murray, pp. 1353-1433. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Colarco, P.R., M.R. Schoeberl, B.G. Doddridge, L.T. Marufu, O. Torres, and E.J. Welton. 2004. Transport of smoke from Canadian forest fires to the surface near Washington, D.C.: Injection height, entrainment, and optical properties. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D06203.

Colette, A., and G. Ancellet. 2005. Impact of vertical transport processes on the tropospheric ozone layering above Europe: Part II: Climatological analysis of the past 30 years. Atmospheric Environment 39(29):5423-5435.

Collins, W.J., R.G. Derwent, B. Garnier, C.E. Johnson, M.G. Sanderson, and D.S. Stevenson. 2003. The effect of stratosphere- troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D12), doi:10.1029/2002JD002617.

Cooper, O.R., C. Forster, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, E. Dunlea, Y. Ryerson, G. Hüber, F. Fehsenfeld, D. Nicks, J. Holloway, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J.M. Roberts, F. Flocke, and J. Moody. 2004. A case study transpacific warm conveyor belt transport: Influence of merging airstreams on trace gas import to North America. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(23):1-17.

Cooper, O.R., J.L. Moody, D.D. Parrish, M. Trainer, J.S. Holloway, G. Hübler, F.C. Fehsenfeld, and A. Stohl. 2002a. Trace gas composition of midlatitude cyclones over the western North Atlantic Ocean: A seasonal comparison of O3 and CO. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(7-8):2-1.

Cooper, O.R., J.L. Moody, D.D. Parrish, M. Trainer, T.B. Ryerson, J.S. Holloway, G. Hübler, F.C. Fehsenfeld, and M.J. Evans. 2002b. Trace gas composition of midlatitude cyclones over the western North Atlantic Ocean: A conceptual model. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(7-8):1-1.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Cooper, O.R., J.L. Moody, D.D. Parrish, M. Trainer, T.B. Ryerson, J.S. Holloway, G. Hübler, F.C. Fehsenfeld, S.J. Oltmans, and M.J. Evans. 2001. Trace gas signatures of the air-streams within North Atlantic cyclones: Case studies from the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE ‘97) aircraft intensive. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D6):5437-5456.

Corbett, J.J., J.J. Winebrake, E.H. Green, P. Kasibhatla, V. Eyring, and A. Lauer. 2007. Mortality from ship emissions: A global assessment. Environmental Science and Technology 41(24):8512-8518.

Cortes, D.R., I. Basu, C.W. Sweet, and R.A. Hites. 2000. Temporal trends in and influence of wind on pah concentrations measured near the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 34(3):356-360.

Cotton, W.R., G.D. Alexander, R. Hertenstein, R.L. Walko, R.L. McAnelly, and M. Nicholls. 1995. Cloud venting—a review and some new global annual estimates. Earth Science Reviews 39(3-4):169-206.

Cubison, M.J., B. Ervens, G. Feingold, K.S. Docherty, I.M. Ulbrich, L. Shields, K. Prather, S. Hering, and J.L. Jimenez. 2008. The influence of chemical composition and mixing state of Los Angeles urban aerosol on CCN number and cloud properties. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(18):5649-5667.

Damoah, R., N. Spichtinger, R. Servranckx, M. Fromm, E.W. Eloranta, I.A. Razenkov, P. James, M. Shulski, C. Forster, and A. Stohl. 2006. A case study of pyro-convection using transport model and remote sensing data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(1):173-185.

Daniels, M.J., F. Dominici, J.M. Samet, and S.L. Zeger. 2000. Estimating particulate matter-mortality dose-response curves and threshold levels: An analysis of daily time-series for the 20 largest U.S. cities. American Journal of Epidemiology 152:397-406.

Dalsøren, S.B., M.S. Eide, Ø. Endresen, A. Mjelde, G. Gravir, and I.S.A. Isaksen. 2009. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: The contribution from major ship types and ports. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(6):2171-2194.

Daly, G.L., and F. Wania. 2004. Simulating the influence of snow on the fate of organic compounds. Environmental Science & Technology 38(15):4176-4186.

Dastoor, A.P., D. Davignon, N. Theys, M. Van Roozendael, A. Steffen, and P.A. Ariya. 2008. Modeling dynamic exchange of gaseous elemental mercury at polar sunrise. Environmental Science & Technology 42(14):5183-5188.

Deacon, R.T., and C.S. Norman. 2006. Does the environmental kuznets curve describe how individual countries behave? Land Economics 82(2):291-315.

DeBell, L.J., K. Gebhart, J. Hand, W. Malm, M. Pitchford, B. Schichtel, and W. White. 2006. Spatial and Seasonal Patterns and Temporal Variability of Haze and its Constituents in the United States, Report IV. Fort Collins, Colo: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere.

De Foy, B., J.D. Fast, S.J. Paech, D. Phillips, J.T. Walters, R.L. Coulter, T.J. Martin, M.S. Pekour, W.J. Shaw, P.P. Kastendeuch, N.A. Marley, A. Retama, and L.T. Molina. 2008. Basin-scale wind transport during the milagro field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(5):1209-1224.

de Gouw, J.A., and J.L. Jimenez. 2009. Organic aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere. Environmental Science and Technology (in press).

Dentener, F., D. Stevenson, J. Cofala, R. Mechler, M. Amann, P. Bergamaschi, F. Raes, and R. Derwent. 2005. The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990-2030. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(5):1731-1755.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Dentener, F., S. Kinne, T. Bond, O. Boucher, J. Cofala, S. Generoso, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, J.J. Hoelzemann, A. Ito, L. Marelli, J.E. Penner, J.-P. Putaud, C. Textor, M. Schulz, G.R.v.d. Werf, and J. Wilson. 2006. Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750: Prescribed data-sets for aerocom. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6:4321-4344.

Derwent, R.G., P.G. Simmonds, A.J. Manning, and T.G. Spain. 2007. Trends over a 20-year period from 1987 to 2007 in surface ozone at the atmospheric research station, Mace Head, Ireland. Atmospheric Environment 41(39):9091-9098.

Derwent, R.G., D.S. Stevenson, W.J. Collins, and C.E. Johnson. 2004. Intercontinental transport and the origins of the ozone observed at surface sites in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 38(13):1891-1901.

Derwent, R.G., D.S. Stevenson, R.M. Doherty, W.J. Collins, and M.G. Sanderson. 2008. How is surface ozone in Europe linked to Asian and North American NOx emissions? Atmospheric Environment 42(32):7412-7422.

Deshler, T., J.L. Mercer, H.G.J. Smit, R. Stubi, G. Levrat, B.J. Johnson, S.J. Oltmans, R. Kivi, A.M. Thompson, J. Witte, J. Davies, F.J. Schmidlin, G. Brothers, and T. Sasaki. 2008. Atmospheric comparison of electrochemical cell ozonesondes from different manufacturers, and with different cathode solution strengths: The balloon experiment on standards for ozonesondes. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D04307.

Dickerson, R.R., G.J. Huffman, and W.T. Luke. 1987. Thunderstorms: An important mechanism in the transport of air pollutants. Science 235(4787):460-465.

Dickerson, R.R., C. Li, Z. Li, L.T. Marufu, J.W. Stehr, B. McClure, N. Krotkov, H. Chen, P. Wang, X. Xia, X. Ban, F. Gong, J. Yuan, and J. Yang. 2007. Aircraft observations of dust and pollutants over northeast china: Insight into the meteorological mechanisms of transport. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(D24S90).

Dinglasan, M.J.A., Y. Ye, E.A. Edwards, and S.A. Mabury. 2004. Fluorotelomer alcohol biodegradation yields poly- and perfluorinated acids. Environmental Science & Technology 38(10):2857-2864.

Djuric, D. 1994. Weather Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Dlugokencky, E.J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K.A. Masarie, P.M. Lang, J.B. Miller, and P.P. Tans. 2003. Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state? Geophysical Research Letters 30(19).

Dominguez, G., T. Jackson, L. Brothers, B. Barnett, B. Nguyen, and M.H. Thiemens. 2008. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in earth’s atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(35):12769-12773.

Dommergue, A., C.P. Ferrari, M. Amyot, S. Brooks, F. Sprovieri, and A. Steffen. 2008. Spatial coverage and temporal trends of atmospheric mercury measurements in polar regions. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason. 220-242. New York: Springer.

Donahue, N., A. Robinson, and S. Pandis. 2009. Atmospheric organic particulate matter: From smoke to secondary organic aerosol. Atmospheric Environment 43(1):94-106.

Donald, D.B., J. Syrgiannis, R.W. Crosley, G. Holdsworth, D.C.G. Muir, B. Rosenberg, A. Sole, and D.W. Schindler. 1999. Delayed deposition of organochlorine pesticides at a temperate glacier. Environmental Science & Technology 33(11):1794-1798.

Donnell, E., D. Fish, E. Dicks, and A. Thorpe. 2001. Mechanisms for pollutant transport between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D8):7847-7856.

Doswell, C.A., ed. 2001. Severe convective storms. Vol. 28, Meteorological monographs. Boston, MA: American Meteorological Society. 561 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Duncan, B.N., and I. Bey. 2004. A modeling study of the export pathways of pollution from Europe: Seasonal and interannual variations (1987-1997). Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(8).

Dvonch, J.T., J.R. Graney, G.J. Keeler, and R.K. Stevens. 1999. Use of elemental tracers to source apportion mercury in south Florida precipitation. Environmental Science and Technology 33(24):4522-4527.

Ebinghaus, R. 2008. Mercury cycling in the Arctic—does enhanced deposition flux mean net-input? Environmental Chemistry 5(2):87-88.

Eckhardt, S., A. Stohl, H. Wernli, P. James, C. Forster, and N. Spichtinger. 2004. A 15-year climatology of warm conveyor belts. Journal of Climate 17(1):218-237.

Edgerton, E.S., B.E. Hartsell, and J.J. Jansen. 2006. Mercury speciation in coal-fired power plant plumes observed at three surface sites in the southeastern U.S. Environmental Science and Technology 40(15):4563-4570.

Edwards, D.P., L.K. Emmons, D.A. Hauglustaine, D.A. Chu, J.C. Gille, Y.J. Kaufman, G. Pétron, L.N. Yurganov, L. Giglio, M.N. Deeter, V. Yudin, D.C. Ziskin, J. Warner, J.F. Lamarque, G.L. Francis, S.P. Ho, D. Mao, J. Chen, E.I. Grechko, and J.R. Drummond. 2004. Observations of carbon monoxide and aerosols from the Terra satellite: Northern hemisphere variability. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D24202.

Engelstaedter, S., and R. Washington. 2007. Temporal controls on global dust emissions: The role of surface gustiness. Geophysical Research Letters 34(15).

Engle, M.A., M.S. Gustin, F. Goff, D.A. Counce, C.J. Janik, D. Bergfeld, and J.J. Rytuba. 2006. Atmospheric mercury emissions from substrates and fumaroles associated with three hydrothermal systems in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(D17304).

Engstrom, D.R., and E.B. Swain. 1997. Recent declines in atmospheric mercury deposition in the upper midwest. Environmental Science and Technology 31(4):960-967.

EPA. 1997. Mercury study report to congress. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards and Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-452/R-97-007. Washington, DC. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/mercury/report.htm.

———. 2004. Air quality criteria for particulate matter (final report, Oct 2004). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 600/P-99/002aF-bF. Washington, DC. Available online at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=87903.

———. 2006a. Air quality criteria for ozone and related photochemical oxidants (final). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-05/004aF-cF. Washington, DC. Available online at http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS86552.

———. 2006b. Speciate 4.0-speciation database development documentation. November. US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/R-06/161. Washington, DC. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/speciate/index.html.

———. 2009. Particulate matter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Available online at http://epa.gov/air/emissions/pm.htm. [accessed June 09, 2009, 2009].

Ericksen, J.A., M.S. Gustin, S.E. Lindberg, S.D. Olund, and D.P. Krabbenhoft. 2005. Assessing the potential for re-emission of mercury deposited in precipitation from arid soils using a stable isotope. Environmental Science and Technology 39(20):8001-8007.

Esler, J.G., G.J. Roelofs, M.O. Köhler, and F.M. O’Connor. 2004. A quantitative analysis of grid-related systematic errors in oxidising capacity and ozone production rates in chemistry transport models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4(7):1781-1795.

Evers, D.C., and T.A. Clair. 2005. Mercury in northeastern North America: A synthesis of existing databases. Ecotoxicology 14(1-2):7-14.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Eyring, V., H.W. Köhler, A. Lauer, and B. Lemper. 2005. Emissions from international shipping: 2. Impact of future technologies on scenarios until 2050. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(D17306):183-200.

Falke, S.R., R.B. Husar, and B.A. Schichtel. 2001. Fusion of seawifs and toms satellite data with surface observations and topographic data during extreme aerosol events. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 51(11):1579-1585.

Fast, J.D., B. De Foy, F.A. Rosas, E. Caetano, G. Carmichael, L. Emmons, D. McKenna, M. Mena, W. Skamarock, X. Tie, R.L. Coulter, J.C. Barnard, C. Wiedinmyer, and S. Madronich. 2007. A meteorological overview of the milagro field campaigns. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(9):2233-2257.

Finlayson-Pitts, B.J., and J.N. Pitts Jr. 2006. Chemistry of the upper and lower atmosphere: Theory, experiments, and applications. San Diego: Academic Press.

Finley, B., P.C. Swartzendruber, and D.A. Jaffe. 2009. Large particulate mercury emissions in regional wildfire plumes observed at the mount bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment In Press, Corrected Proof.

Fiore, A., D.J. Jacob, H. Liu, R.M. Yantosca, T.D. Fairlie, and Q. Li. 2003a. Variability in surface ozone background over the United States: Implications for air quality policy. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(D24):4787.

Fiore, A.M., F.J. Dentener, O. Wild, C. Cuvelier, M.G. Schultz, P. Hess, C. Textor, M. Schulz, R.M. Doherty, L.W. Horowitz, I.A. MacKenzie, M.G. Sanderson, D.T. Shindell, D.S. Stevenson, S. Szopa, R. Van Dingenen, G. Zeng, C. Atherton, D. Bergmann, I. Bey, G. Carmichael, W.J. Collins, B.N. Duncan, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, M. Gauss, S. Gong, D. Hauglustaine, T. Holloway, I.S.A. Isaksen, D.J. Jacob, J.E. Jonson, J.W. Kaminski, T.J. Keating, A. Lupu, E. Marmer, V. Montanaro, R.J. Park, G. Pitari, K.J. Pringle, J.A. Pyle, S. Schroeder, M.G. Vivanco, P. Wind, G. Wojcik, S. Wu, and A. Zuber. 2009. Multimodel estimates of intercontinental source-receptor relationships for ozone pollution. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 114:D04301.

Fiore A.M., L.W. Horowitz, E.J. Dlugokencky, and J.J. West. 2006. Impact of meteorology and emissions on methane trends. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L12809, doi:10.1029/2006GL026199.

Fiore, A.M., D.J. Jacob, R. Mathur, and R.V. Martin. 2003b. Application of empirical orthogonal functions to evaluate ozone simulations with regional and global models. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(D14):4431.

Fiore, A.M., J.J. West, L.W. Horowitz, V. Naik, and M.D. Schwarzkopf. 2008. Characterizing the tropospheric ozone response to methane emission controls and the benefits to climate and air quality. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 113(D8):D08307.

Fiore, A.M., D.J. Jacob, I. Bey, R.M. Yantosca, B.D. Field, A.C. Fusco, and J.G. Wilkinson. 2002. Background ozone over the United States in summer: Origin, trend, and contribution to pollution episodes. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(15).

Fischer, E.V., N.C. Hsu, D.A. Jaffe, M.J. Jeong, and S.L. Gong. 2009. A decade of dust: Asian dust and springtime aerosol load in the us Pacific Northwest. Geophysical Research Letters 36.

Fitzgerald, W.F., D.R. Engstrom, C.H. Lamborg, C.M. Tseng, P.H. Balcom, and C.R. Hammerschmidt. 2005. Modern and historic atmospheric mercury fluxes in northern alaska: Global sources and arctic depletion. Environmental Science and Technology 39(2):557-568.

Fitzgerald, W.F., D.R. Engstrom, R.P. Mason, and E.A. Nater. 1998. The case for atmospheric mercury contamination in remote areas. Environmental Science and Technology 32(1):1-7.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Flanner, M.G., C.S. Zender, J.T. Randerson, and P.J. Rasch. 2007. Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D11202, doi:10.1029/2006JD008003.

Flannigan, M.D., K.A. Logan, B.D. Amiro, W.R. Skinner, and B.J. Stocks. 2005. Future area burned in Canada. Climatic Change 72(1-2):1-16.

Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D.C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Ng’ang’a, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R.V. Dorland. 2007a. Changes in atmospheric constituents and radiative forcing. In Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group i to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor and H. L. Miller. 129-234, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Forster, P.M., G. Bodeker, R. Schofield, S. Solomon, and D. Thompson. 2007b. Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. Geophysical Research Letters 34(23).

Forster, C., U. Wandinger, G. Wotawa, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S.G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, and A. Stohl. 2001. Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D19):22887-22906.

Friedli, H.R., L.F. Radke, and J.Y. Lu. 2001. Mercury in smoke from biomass fires. Geophysical Research Letters 28(17):3223-3226.

Friedli, H.R., L.F. Radke, J.Y. Lu, C.M. Banic, W.R. Leaitch, and J.I. MacPherson. 2003. Mercury emissions from burning of biomass from temperate North American forests: Laboratory and airborne measurements. Atmospheric Environment 37(2):253-267.

Fromm, M., J. Alfred, K. Hoppel, J. Hornstein, R. Bevilacqua, E. Shettle, R. Servranckx, Z. Li, and B. Stocks. 2000. Observations of boreal forest fire smoke in the stratosphere by poam iii, sage ii, and lidar in 1998. Geophysical Research Letters 27(9):1407-1410.

Fromm, M., R. Bevilacqua, R. Servranckx, J. Rosen, J.P. Thayer, J. Herman, and D. Larko. 2005. Pyro-cumulonimbus injection of smoke to the stratosphere: Observations and impact of a super blowup in northwestern Canada on August 3-4, 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(8):1-17.

Fu, T.-M., D.J. Jacob, P.I. Palmer, K. Chance, Y.X. Wang, B. Barletta, D.R. Blake, J.C. Stanton, and M.J. Pilling. 2007. Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in East and South Asia and implications for ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D06312.

Furutani, H., M. Dall’osto, G.C. Roberts, and K.A. Prather. 2008. Assessment of the relative importance of atmospheric aging on ccn activity derived from field observations. Atmospheric Environment 42(13):3130-3142.

Fusco, A.C., and J.A. Logan. 2003. Analysis of 1970-1995 trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes with the geos-chem model. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(15).

Gallagher, K.P., and R. Taylor. 2003. International trade and air pollution: The economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States. September. Tufts University. No. 03-08. Medford. Available online at http://www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/publications/working_papers/03-08WaterborneCommerce.PDF.

García-Hernández, J., L. Cadena-Cárdenas, M. Betancourt-Lozano, L.M. García-De-La-Parra, L. García-Rico, and F. Márquez-Farías. 2007. Total mercury content found in edible tissues of top predator fish from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 89(3):507-522.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Garrison, V.H., W.T.F., S. Genualdi, D.W. Griffin, C.A. Kellogg, M.S. Majewski, A. Mohammed, A. Ramsubhag, E.A.Shinn, S.L. Simonich, and G.W. Smith. 2006. Saharan dust—a carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals, and microbes to the Caribbean? Revista de Biologia Tropical–International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation 54 (Suppl. 3):9-21.

Gauss, M., G. Myhre, I.S.A. Isaksen, V. Grewe, G. Pitari, O. Wild, W.J. Collins, F.J. Dentener, K. Ellingsen, L.K. Gohar, D.A. Hauglustaine, D. Iachetti, J.F. Lamarque, E. Mancini, L.J. Mickley, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, M.G. Sanderson, K.P. Shine, D.S. Stevenson, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng. 2006. Radiative forcing since preindustrial times due to ozone change in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(3):575-599.

Gebhart, K.A., S.M. Kreidenweis, and W.C. Malm. 2001. Back-trajectory analyses of fine particulate matter measured at big bend national park in the historical database and the 1996 scoping study. Science of the Total Environment 276(1-3):185-204.

Geisz, H.N., R.M. Dickhut, M.A. Cochran, W.R. Fraser, and H.W. Ducklow. 2008. Melting glaciers: A probable source of ddt to the antarctic marine ecosystem. Environmental Science & Technology 42(11):3958-3962.

Genualdi, S.A., R.K. Killin, J. Woods, G. Wilson, D. Schmedding, and S.L.M. Simonich. 2009. Trans-pacific and regional atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in biomass burning emissions to western North America. Environmental Science & Technology 43(4):1061-1066.

Genualdi, S.A., S.L. Massey Simonich, T.K. Primbs, T.F. Bidleman, L.M. Jantunen, K.S. Ryoo, T. Zhu. 2009. Enantiomeric signature of organochlorine pesticides in Asian, trans-Pacific and western U.S. air masses. Environmental Science & Technology 43:2806-2811.

Girardin, M.P., and M. Mudelsee. 2008. Past and future changes in Canadian boreal wildfire activity. Ecological Applications 18(2):391-406.

Glassmeyer, S.T., D.S. De Vault, and R.A. Hites. 2000. Rates at which toxaphene concentrations decrease in lake trout from the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 34(9):1851-1855.

Glassmeyer, S.T., D.S. DeVault, T.R. Myers, and R.A. Hites. 1997. Toxaphene in great lakes fish: A temporal, spatial, and trophic study. Environmental Science & Technology 31(1):84-88.

Goldstein, A.H., M. McKay, M.R. Kurpius, G.W. Schade, A. Lee, R. Holzinger, and R.A. Rasmussen. 2004. Forest thinning experiment confirms ozone deposition to forest canopy is dominated by reaction with biogenic VOCs. Geophysical Research Letters 31(22):1-4.

Grieshop, A.P., J.M. Logue, N.M. Donahue, and A.L. Robinson. 2008. Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires-part 1: Measurement and simulation of organic aerosol evolution. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(4):15699-15737.

Gryparis, A., B. Forsberg, K. Katsouyanni, A. Analitis, G. Touloumi, J. Schwartz, E. Samoli, S. Medina, H.R. Anderson, E.M. Niciu, H.E. Wichmann, B. Kriz, M. Kosnik, J. Skorkovsky, J.M. Vonk, Z. Dortbudak. 2004. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the “Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach’’ Project. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170:1080-1087.

Grigal, D.F. 2003. Mercury sequestration in forests and peatlands: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality 32(2):393-405.

Guenther, A., C. Geron, T. Pierce, B. Lamb, P. Harley, and R. Fall. 2000. Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from North America. Atmospheric Environment 34: 2205-2230.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P.I. Palmer, and C. Geron. 2006. Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using megan (model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6:3181-3210.

Guentzel, J.L., W.M. Landing, G.A. Gill, and C.D. Pollman. 2001. Processes influencing rainfall deposition of mercury in Florida Environmental Science and Technology 35(5):863-873

Guerova, G., I. Bey, J.-L. Attie, and R.V. Martin. 2006. Case studies of ozone between North America and Europe in summer 2000, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion 5:6127-6184.

Guo, Z.G., T. Lin, G. Zhang, Z.S. Yang, and M. Fang. 2006. High-resolution depositionalHigh-resolution depositional records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the central continental shelf mud of the east china sea. Environmental Science & Technology 40(17):5304-5311.

Gurjar, B.R., T.M. Butler, M.G. Lawrence, and J. Lelieveld. 2008. Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities. Atmospheric Environment 42(7):1593-1606.

Gusev, A., O. Rozovskaya, and V. Shatalov. 2007. Modelling pop long-range transport and contamination levels by msce-pop model. April. Meteorological Synthesizing Centre–East. EMEP/MSC-E Technical Report 1/2007. Moscow, Russia. Available online at http://www.msceast.org/publications.html.

Gustin, M., and S. Lindberg. 2005. Terrestrial mercury fluxes: Is the net exchange up, down or neither? In Dynamics of mercury pollution on regional and global scales: Atmospheric processes, human exposure around the world, N. Pironne and K. Mahaffey, eds. Nowell, MA: USA Springer Publisher.

Gustin, M.S., S.E. Lindberg, and P.J. Weisberg. 2008. An update on the natural sources and sinks of atmospheric mercury. Applied Geochemistry 23(3):482-493.

Hadley, O.L., V. Ramanathan, G.R. Carmichael, Y. Tang, C.E. Corrigan, G.C. Roberts, and G.S. Mauger. 2007. Trans-pacific transport of black carbon and fine aerosols (d < 2.5 μm) into North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D05309.

Hafner, W.D., D.L. Carlson, and R.A. Hites. 2005. Influence of local human population on atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 39(19):7374-7379.

Hafner, W.D., and R.A. Hites. 2003. Potential sources pesticides, pcbs, and pahs to the atmosphere of the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 37(17):3764-3773.

———. 2005. Effects of wind and air trajectory directions on atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants near the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 39(20):7817-7825.

Hageman, K.J., S.L. Simonich, D.H. Campbell, G.R. Wilson, and D.H. Landers. 2006. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at national parks in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology 40(10):3174-3180.

Hakami, A., D.K. Henze, J.H. Seinfeld, K. Singh, A. Sandu, S. Kim, D. Byun, and Q. Li. 2007. The adjoint of CMAQ. Environmental Science and Technology 41(22):7807-7817.

Hakami, A., J.H. Seinfeld, T. Chai, Y. Tang, G.R. Carmichael, and A. Sandu. 2006. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of ozone nonattainment over the continental United States. Environmental Science and Technology 40(12):3855-3864.

Halland, J.J., H.E. Fuelberg, K.E. Pickering, and M. Luo. 2009. Identifying convective transport of carbon monoxide by comparing remotely sensed observations from TES with cloud modeling simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:4279-4294.

Halsall, C.J. 2004. Investigating the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (pops) in the arctic: Their atmospheric behaviour and interaction with the seasonal snow pack. Environmental Pollution 128(1-2):163-175.

Hammerschmidt, C.R., and W.F. Fitzgerald. 2006. Methylmercury in freshwater fish linked to atmospheric mercury deposition. Environmental Science and Technology 40(24):7764-7770.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Hammerschmidt, C.R., C.H. Lamborg, and W.F. Fitzgerald. 2007. Aqueous phase methylation as a potential source of methylmercury in wet deposition. Atmospheric Environment 41(8):1663-1668.

Harris, N.R.P., G. Ancellet, L. Bishop, D.J. Hofmann, J.B. Kerr, R.D. McPeters, M. Prendez, W.J. Randel, J. Staehelin, B.H. Subbaraya, A. Volz-Thomas, J. Zawodny, and C.S. Zerefos. 1997. Trends in stratospheric and free tropospheric ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 102(1):1571-1590.

Harris, R.C., J.W.M. Rudd, M. Amyot, C.L. Babiarz, K.G. Beaty, P.J. Blanchfield, R.A. Bodaly, B.A. Branfireun, C.C. Gilmour, J.A. Graydon, A. Heyes, H. Hintelmann, J.P. Hurley, C.A. Kelly, D.P. Krabbenhoft, S.E. Lindberg, R.P. Mason, M.J. Paterson, C.L. Podemski, A. Robinson, K.A. Sandilands, G.R. Southworthn, V.L. St. Louis, and M.T. Tate. 2007. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(42):16586-16591.

Hartman, J., P. Weisberg, R. Pillai, J.A. Ericksen, T. Kuiken, S. Lindberg, H. Zhang, J. Rytuba, and M.S. Gustin. 2009. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States. Environmental Science and Technology 43:4989-4994.

He, J.Z., K.R. Robrock, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. 2006. Microbial reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes). Environmental Science & Technology 40(14):4429-4434.

Heald, C.L. and D.V. Spracklen. 2009. Atmospheric budget of primary biological aerosol particles from fungal spores. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L09806, doi:10.1029/2009GL037493.

Heald, C.L., D.J. Jacob, R.J. Park, L.M. Russell, B.J. Huebert, J.H. Seinfeld, H. Liao, and R.J. Weber. 2005. A large organic aerosol source in the free troposphere missing from current models. Geophysical Research Letters 32(18):1-4.

Heald, C.L., D.K. Henze, L.W. Horowitz, J. Feddema, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Guenther, P.G. Hess, F. Vitt, J.H. Seinfeld, A.H. Goldstein, and I. Fung. 2008. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D05211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009092.

Heald, C.L., D.J. Jacob, S. Turquety, R.C. Hudman, R.J. Weber, A.P. Sullivan, R.E. Peltier, E.L. Atlas, J.A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J.S. Holloway, J.A. Neuman, F.M. Flocke, and J.H. Seinfeld. 2006. Concentrations and sources of organic carbon aerosols in the free troposphere over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D23S47.

Heald, C.L., D.J. Jacob, A.M. Fiore, L.K. Emmons, J.C. Gille, M.N. Deeter, J. Warner, D.P. Edwards, J.H. Crawford, A.J. Hamlin, G.W. Sachse, E.V. Browell, M.A. Avery, S.A. Vay, D.J. Westberg, D.R. Blake, H.B. Singh, S.T. Sandholm, R.W. Talbot, and H.E. Fuelberg. 2003. Asian outflow and trans-Pacific transport of carbon monoxide and ozone pollution: An integrated satellite, aircraft, and model perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(D24):4804.

Hedgecock, I.M., and N. Pirrone. 2004. Chasing quicksilver: Modeling the atmospheric life-time of Hg 0(g) in the marine boundary layer at various latitudes. Environmental Science and Technology 38(1):69-76.

Helmig, D., J. Arey, W.P. Harger, R. Atkinson, and J. Lopezcancio. 1992. Formation of mutagenic nitrodibenzopyranones and their occurrence in ambient air. Environmental Science & Technology 26(3):622-624.

Henne, S., M. Furger, S. Nyeki, M. Steinbacher, B. Neininger, S.F.J. de Wekker, J. Dommen, N. Spichtinger, A. Stohl, and A.S.H. Prévôt. 2004. Quantification of topographic venting of boundary layer air to the free troposphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4(2):497-509.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Henze, D.K., J.H. Seinfeld, and D.T. Shindell. 2008. Inverse modeling and mapping us air quality influences of inorganic PM2.5 precursor emissions using the adjoint of GEOS-chem. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(4):15031-15099.

Hightower, J.M., and D. Moore. 2003. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(4):604-608.

Hillery, B.R., M.F. Simcik, I. Basu, R.M. Hoff, W.M.J. Strachan, D. Burniston, C.H. Chan, K.A. Brice, C.W. Sweet, and R.A. Hites. 1998. Atmospheric deposition of toxic pollutants to the great lakes as measured by the integrated atmospheric deposition network. Environmental Science & Technology 32(15):2216-2221.

Hintelmann, H., P. Dillon, R. Douglas Evans, J.W.M. Rudd, R.A. Bodaly, and T.A. Jackson. 2001. Comment: Variations in the isotope composition of mercury in a freshwater sediment sequence and food web1. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58(11):2309-2311.

Hintelmann, H., and R.D. Evans. 1997. Application of stable isotopes in environmental tracer studies—measurement of monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+) by isotope dilution ICP-MS and detection of species transformation. Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry 358(3):378-385.

Hintelmann, H., R. Harris, A. Heyes, J.P. Hurley, C.A. Kelly, D.P. Krabbenhoft, S. Lindberg, J.W.M. Rudd, K.J. Scott, and V.L. St. Louis. 2002. Reactivity and mobility of new and old mercury deposition in a boreal forest ecosystem during the first year of the metaalicus study. Environmental Science and Technology 36(23):5034-5040.

Hites, R.A. 1999. Temperature dependence and temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the great lakes atmosphere. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 217:U741-U741.

Hogrefe, C., B. Lynn, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, J. Rosenthal, C. Rosenzweig, R. Goldberg, S. Gaffin, K. Knowlton, and P.L. Kinney. 2004. Simulating changes in regional air pollution over the eastern United States due to changes in global and regional climate and emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D22301, doi:10.1029/2004JD004690.

Holzer, M., T.M. Hall, and R.B. Stull. 2005. Seasonality and weather-driven variability of transpacific transport. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(23):1-22.

Houze, R.A. Jr. 1989: Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meterological Society 115:425-461.

Howe, T.S., S. Billings, and R.J. Stolzberg. 2004. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hexachlorobenzene in spruce needles of eastern Alaska. Environmental Science & Technology 38(12):3294-3298.

HTAP-TF. 2007. Hemispheric transport of air pollution 2007. T. Keating, A. Zuber, G. Lough, O. Cooper, A. Stohl, D. Parrish, Z. Klimont, D. Streets, G. Carmichael and F. Dentener, eds. Geneva: UN–Economic Commission for Europe. Air Pollution Studies No. 16:145.

Hsu, J., and M.J. Prather. 2009. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research 114:D06102, doi:10.1029/2008JD010942.

Hua, I., C. Jafvert, J. Bezares-Cruz, N. Kang, and T. Filley. 2003. Photochemical reaction rates and products of solar irradiated polybrominated diphenylethers. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 226:U511-U511.

Hubbell, B.J., A. Hallberg, D.R. McCubbin, and E. Post. 2005. Health-related benefits of attaining the 8-hr ozone standard. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(1):73-82.

Hudman, R.C., D.J. Jacob, S. Turquety, E.M. Leibensperger, L.T. Murray, S. Wu, A.B. Gilliland, M. Avery, T.H. Bertram, W. Brune, R.C. Cohen, J.E. Dibb, F.M. Flocke, A. Fried, J. Holloway, J.A. Neuman, R. Orville, A. Perring, X. Ren, G.W. Sachse, H.B. Singh, A. Swanson, and P.J. Wooldridge. 2006. Surface and lightning sources of nitrogen oxides over the United States: magnitudes, chemical evolution, and outflow. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D12S05, doi:10.1029/2006JD007912.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Hudman, R.C., D.J. Jacob, O.R. Cooper, M.J. Evans, C.L. Heald, R.J. Park, F. Fehsenfeld, F. Flocke, J. Holloway, G. Hübler, K. Kita, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, A. Neuman, J. Nowak, S. Oltmans, D. Parrish, J.M. Roberts, and T. Ryerson. 2004. Ozone production in transpacific Asian pollution plumes and implications for ozone air quality in California. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(23):1-14.

Hudman, R.C., L.T. Murray, D.J. Jacob, D.B. Millet, S. Turquety, S. Wu, D.R. Blake, A.H. Goldstein, J. Holloway, and G.W. Sachse. 2008. Biogenic versus anthropogenic sources of CO in the United States. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L04801.

Huebert, B.J., T. Bates, P.B. Russell, G. Shi, Y.J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima. 2003. An overview of ace-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(23).

Hung, H., P. Blanchard, G. Poole, B. Thibert, and C.H. Chiu. 2002a. Measurement of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (pcdd/fs) in arctic air at alert, Nunavut, Canada. Atmospheric Environment 36(6):1041-1050.

Hung, H., C.J. Halsall, P. Blanchard, H.H. Li, P. Fellin, G. Stern, and B. Rosenberg. 2001. Are pcbs in the Canadian arctic atmosphere declining? Evidence from 5 years of monitoring. Environmental Science & Technology 35(7):1303-1311.

———. 2002b. Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides in the Canadian arctic atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 36(5):862-868.

Huntrieser, H., J. Heland, H. Schlager, C. Forster, A. Stohl, H. Aufmhoff, F. Arnold, H.E. Scheel, M. Campana, S. Gilge, R. Eixmann, and O. Cooper. 2005. Intercontinental air pollution transport from North America to Europe: Experimental evidence from airborne measurements and surface observations. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(D01305).

Husar, R.B., D.M. Tratt, B.A. Schichtel, S.R. Falke, F. Li, D. Jaffe, S. Gasso, T. Gill, N.S. Laulainen, F. Lu, M.C. Reheis, Y. Chun, D. Westphal, B.N. Holben, C. Gueymard, I. McKendry, N. Kuring, G.C. Feldman, C. McClain, R.J. Frouin, J. Merrill, D. DuBois, F. Vignola, T. Murayama, S. Nickovic, W.E. Wilson, K. Sassen, N. Sugimoto, and W.C. Malm. 2001. Asian dust events of april 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D16):18317-18330.

Hynes, A.J., D.L. Donohoue, I.M. Hedgecock, and M.E. Goodsite. 2008. Our current understanding of major chemical and physical processes affecting mercury dynamics in the atmosphere and at the air-water/terrestrial interfaces. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason. 322-341. New York: Springer.

In, H.J., D.W. Byun, R.J. Park, N.K. Moon, S. Kim, and S. Zhong. 2007. Impact of transboundary transport of carbonaceous aerosols on the regional air quality in the United States: A case study of the South American wildland fire of may 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112(D07201).

IPCC, ed. 1999. Aviation and the global atmosphere : A special report of ipcc working groups i and iii in collaboration with the scientific assessment panel to the montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. Edited by J. E. Penner, D. H. Lister, D. J. Griggs, D. J. Dokken and M. McFarland. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

———, ed. 2007. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group i to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor and J. Henry LeRoy Miller. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York: Cambridge University Press. 996 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

IPCS-WHO. 1990. Methylmercury. Environmental health criteria 101. International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization. Geneva. Available online at http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc101.htm.

Irie, H., K. Sudo, H. Akimoto, A. Richter, J.P. Burrows, T. Wagner, M. Wenig, S. Beirle, Y. Kondo, V.P. Sinyakov, and F. Goutail. 2005. Evaluation of long-term tropospheric NO2data obtained by GOME over East Asia in 1996-2002. Geophysical Research Letters 32(11):1-4.

Ito, K., S.F. De Leon, M. Lippmann. 2005. Associations between ozone and daily mortality: analysis and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 16:446-457.

Jacob, D.J., and D.A. Winner. 2009. Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43:51−63.

Jacob, D.J., J.A. Logan, and P.P. Murti. 1999. Effect of rising Asian emissions on surface ozone in the United States. Geophysical Research Letters 26(14):2175-2178.

Jacob, D.J., J.A. Logan, G.M. Gardner, R.M. Yevich, C.M. Spivakovsky, S.C. Wofsy, S. Sillman, and M.J. Prather. 1993. Factors regulating ozone over the United States and its export to the global atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 98(D8):14817-14826.

Jaeglé, L., D.A. Jaffe, H.U. Price, P. Weiss-Penzias, P.I. Palmer, M.J. Evans, D.J. Jacob, and I. Bey. 2003. Sources and budgets for co and o3 in the northeastern pacific during the spring of 2001: Results from the phobea-ii experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(20).

Jaeglé, L., D.J. Jacob, S.A. Strode, and N.E. Selin. 2008. The geos-chem model. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason. 401-410. New York: Springer.

Jaffe, D., T. Anderson, D. Covert, R. Kotchenruther, B. Trost, J. Danielson, W. Simpson, T. Berntsen, S. Karlsdottir, D. Blake, J. Harris, G. Carmichael, and I. Uno. 1999. Transport of Asian air pollution to North America. Geophysical Research Letters 26(6):711-714.

Jaffe, D., I. Bertschi, L. Jaeglé, P. Novelli, J.S. Reid, H. Tanimoto, R. Vingarzan, and D.L. Westphal. 2004. Long-range transport of siberian biomass burning emissions and impact on surface ozone in western North America. Geophysical Research Letters 31(16).

Jaffe, D., D. Chand, W. Hafner, A. Westerling, and D. Spracklen. 2008. Influence of fires on O3 concentrations in the western U.S. Environmental Science & Technology 42(16):5885-5891.

Jaffe, D., I. McKendry, T. Anderson, and H. Price. 2003a. Six “new” episodes of trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 37(3):391-404.

Jaffe, D., E. Prestbo, P. Swartzendruber, P. Weiss-Penzias, S. Kato, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, and Y. Kajii. 2005a. Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment 39(17):3029-3038.

Jaffe, D., H. Price, D. Parrish, A. Goldstein, and J. Harris. 2003b. Increasing background ozone during spring on the west coast of North America. Geophysical Research Letters 30(12):15-1.

Jaffe, D., and J. Ray. 2007. Increase in surface ozone at rural sites in the western US. Atmospheric Environment 41(26):5452-5463.

Jaffe, D., J. Snow, and O. Cooper. 2003c. The 2001 Asian dust events: Transport and impact on surface aerosol concentrations in the U.S. Eos, Transactions of the AGU 84(46).

Jaffe, D., S. Tamura, and J. Harris. 2005b. Seasonal cycle and composition of background fine particles along the west coast of the U.S. Atmospheric Environment 39(2):297-306.

James, R.R., and R.A. Hites. 2002. Atmospheric transport of toxaphene from the southern United States to the great lakes region. Environmental Science & Technology 36(16):3474-3481.

Jenkin, M.E. 2008. Trends in ozone concentration distributions in the UK since 1990: Local, regional and global influences. Atmospheric Environment 42(21):5434-5445.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Jerrett, M., R.T. Burnett, C.A. Pope III, I. Kazuhiko, G. Thurston, D. Krewski, Y. Shi, E. Calle, and M. Thun. 2009. Long-Term Ozone Exposure and Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 360:1085-1095.

Jorgenson, J.L. 2001. Aldrin and dieldrin: A review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology and epidemiology in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 109:113-139.

Jost, H.J., K. Drdla, A. Stohl, L. Pfister, M. Loewenstein, J.P. Lopez, P.K. Hudson, D.M. Murphy, D.J. Cziczo, M. Fromm, T.P. Bui, J. Dean-Day, C. Gerbig, M.J. Mahoney, E.C. Richard, N. Spichtinger, J.V. Pittman, E.M. Weinstock, J.C. Wilson, and I. Xueref. 2004. In situ observations of mid-latitude forest fire plumes deep in the stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 31(11).

Kaiser J. 2005. Epidemiology. Mounting evidence indicts fine-particle pollution. Science 307:1858-1861.

Kalashnikova, O.V., and R.A. Kahn. 2008. Mineral dust plume evolution over the atlantic from misr and modis aerosol retrievals. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D24204, doi:10.1029/2008JD010083.

Kanakidou, M., J.H. Seinfeld, S.N. Pandis, I. Barnes, F.J. Dentener, M.C. Facchini, R. Van Dingenen, B. Ervens, A. Nenes, C.J. Nielsen, E. Swietlicki, J. P. Putaud, Y. Balkanski, S. Fuzzi, J. Horth, G.K. Moortgat, R. Winterhalter, C.E.L. Myhre, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati, E. G. Stephanou, and J.Wilson. 2005. Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: A review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5:1053-1123.

Kannan, K., S.H. Yun, and T.J. Evans. 2005. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated contaminants in livers of polar bears from Alaska. Environmental Science & Technology 39(23):9057-9063.

Kasibhatla, P., A. Arellano, J.A. Logan, P.I. Palmer, and P. Novelli. 2002. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia. Geophysical Research Letters 29(19):doi:10.1029/2002GL015581.

Kasischke, E.S., and M.R. Turetsky. 2006. Recent changes in the fire regime across the North American boreal region—spatial and temporal patterns of burning across Canada and alaska. Geophysical Research Letters 33(9):L09703.

Keeler, G.J., N. Pirrone, R. Bullock, and S. Sillman. 2009. The need for a coordinated global mercury monitoring network for global and regional models validatations. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason, pp. 391-426. New York: Springer.

Keeler, G.J., M.S. Landis, G.A. Norris, E.M. Christianson, and J.T. Dvonch. 2006. Sources of mercury wet deposition in eastern Ohio, USA. Environmental Science and Technology 40(19):5874-5881.

Kellerhals, M., S. Beauchamp, W. Belzer, P. Blanchard, F. Froude, B. Harvey, K. McDonald, M. Pilote, L. Poissant, K. Puckett, B. Schroeder, A. Steffen, and R. Tordon. 2003. Temporal and spatial variability of total gaseous mercury in Canada: Results from the Canadian atmospheric mercury measurement network (camnet). Atmospheric Environment 37(7):1003-1011.

Kemper, C., P. Gibbs, D. Obendorf, S. Marvanek, and C. Lenghaus. 1994. A review of heavy metal and organochlorine levels in marine mammals in Australia. Science of the Total Environment 154(2-3):129-139.

Kiley, C.M., and H.E. Fuelberg. 2006. An examination of summertime cyclone transport processes during intercontinental chemical transport experiment (intex-a). Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(24).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Killin, R.K., S.L. Simonich, D.A. Jaffe, C.L. DeForest, and G.R. Wilson. 2004. Transpacific and regional atmospheric transport of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds to cheeka peak observatory during the spring of 2002. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(D23).

Kim, B.M., S. Teffera, and M.D. Zeldin. 2000. Characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California: Part 1–spatial variations. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 50(12):2034-2044.

Kinne, S., M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S.E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T.F. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, J. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, S. Kloster, D. Koch, J.E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J.F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J.E. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie. 2006. An AEROCOM initial assessment—optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(7):1815-1834.

Kirk, J.L., V.L. St. Louis, and M.J. Sharp. 2006. Rapid reduction and reemission of mercury deposited into snowpacks during atmospheric mercury depletion events at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Environmental Science and Technology 40(24):7590-7596.

Kirkevåg, A., T. Iversen, Ø. Seland, J.B. Debernard, T. Storelvmo, and J.E. Kristjánsson. 2008. On the additivity of climate response to anthropogenic aerosols and CO2, and the enhancement of future global warming by carbonaceous aerosols. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography 60 A(3):513-527.

Kley, D., A. Volz, and F. Mulheims. 1988. Ozone measurements in historic perspective. In Tropospheric ozone: Regional and global scale interactions, edited by I. S. A. Isaksen, Pp. 63-72. Norwell, Mass: D. Reidel.

Klonecki, A., P. Hess, L. Emmons, L. Smith, J. Orlando, and D. Blake. 2003. Seasonal changes in the transport of pollutants into the arctic troposphere-model study. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(4):15-1.

Koch, D., T.C. Bond, D. Streets, N. Unger, and G.R. van der Werf. 2007. Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112(D02205).

Kopacz, M., D.J. Jacob, D.K. Henze, C.L. Heald, D.G. Streets, and Q. Zhang. 2009. Comparison of adjoint and analytical Bayesian inversion methods for constraining Asian sources of carbon monoxide using satellite (MOPITT) measurements of CO columns. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 114(D04305).

Kotchenruther, R.A., D.A. Jaffe, H.J. Beine, T.L. Anderson, J.W. Bottenheim, J.M. Harris, D.R. Blake, and R. Schmitt. 2001. Observations of ozone and related species in the northeast pacific during the PHOBEA campaigns 2. Airborne observations. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D7):7463-7483.

Kreidenweis, S.M., L.A. Remer, R. Bruintjes, and O. Dubovik. 2001. Smoke aerosol from biomass burning in Mexico: Hygroscopic smoke optical model. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D5):4831-4844.

Krewski, D. M. Jerrett, R.T. Burnett, R. Ma, E. Hughes, Y. Shi, M.C. Turner, C. Arden Pope III, G. Thurston, E.E. Calle, and M.J. Thun. 2009. Extended Analysis of the American Cancer Society Study of Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality. HEI Report 140 Available online at http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=315, accessed August 20, 2009.

Kucklick, J.R., M.M. Krahn, P.R. Becker, B.J. Porter, M.M. Schantz, G.S. York, T.M. O’Hara, and S.A. Wise. 2006. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan ringed seal (phoca hispida) and walrus (odobenus rosmarus) blubber. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8(8):848-854.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Kucklick, J.R., W.D.J. Struntz, P.R. Becker, G.W. York, T.M. O’Hara, and J.E. Bohonowych. 2002. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska. Science of the Total Environment 287(1-2):45-59.

Künzli, N., R. Kaiser, S. Medina, M. Studnicka, O. Chanel, P. Filliger, M. Herry, F. Horak Jr, V. Puybonnieux-Texier, P. Quénel, J. Schneider, R. Seethaler, J.C. Vergnaud, and H. Sommer. 2000. Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: A European assessment. Lancet 356(9232):795-801.

Kupiainen, K., and Z. Klimont. 2007. Primary emissions of fine carbonaceous particles in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 41:2156-2170.

Kurokawa, J., K. Yumimoto, I. Uno, and T. Ohara. 2009. Adjoint inverse modeling of nox emissions over eastern china using satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities. Atmospheric Environment 43(11):1878-1887.

Lack, D.A., J.J. Corbett, T. Onasch, B. Lerner, P. Massoli, P.K. Quinn, T.S. Bates, D.S. Covert, D. Coffman, B. Sierau, S. Herndon, J. Allan, T. Baynard, E. Lovejoy, A.R. Ravishankara, and E. Williams. 2009. Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 114(D00F04).

Lafreniere, M.J., J.M. Blais, M.J. Sharp, and D.W. Schindler. 2006. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in snow, snowmelt, and runoff at Bow Lake, Alberta. Environmental Science & Technology 40(16):4909-4915.

Lamborg, C.H., W.F. Fitzgerald, A.W.H. Damman, J.M. Benoit, P.H. Balcom, and D.R. Engstrom. 2002a. Modern and historic atmospheric mercury fluxes in both hemispheres: Global and regional mercury cycling implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):51-1.

Lamborg, C.H., W.F. Fitzgerald, J. O’Donnell, and T. Torgersen. 2002b. A non-steady-state compartmental model of global-scale mercury biogeochemistry with interhemispheric atmospheric gradients. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66(7):1105-1118.

Landers, D.H., C. Gubala, M. Verta, M. Lucotte, K. Johansson, T. Vlasova, and W.L. Lockhart. 1998. Using lake sediment mercury flux ratios to evaluate the regional and continental dimensions of mercury deposition in arctic and boreal ecosystems. Atmospheric Environment 32(5):919-928.

Landers, D.H., S.L. Simonich, D. Jaffe, L. Geiser, D.H. Campbell, A. Schwindt, C. Schreck, M. Kent, W. Hafner, H.E. Taylor, K. Hageman, S. Usenko, L. Ackerman, J. Schrlau, N. Rose, T. Blett, and M.M. Erway. 2008. The fate, transport, and ecological impacts of airborne contaminants in western national parks (USA). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NHEERL. Corvallis, Oregon.

Landis, M.S., M.M. Lynam, and R.K. Stevens. 2005. The monitoring and modeling of hg species in support of local, regional and global modeling. In Dynamics of mercury pollution on regional and global scales: Atmospheric processes and human exposures around the world, N. Pirrone and K. R. Mahaffey, eds. 123-151. New York: Springer.

Lang, C., S. Tao, W.X. Liu, Y.X. Zhang, and S. Simonich. 2008. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from china. Environmental Science & Technology 42(14):5196-5201.

Laurier, F.J.G., R.P. Mason, L. Whalin, and S. Kato. 2003. Reactive gaseous mercury formation in the North Pacific Ocean’s marine boundary layer: A potential role of halogen chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(D17):4529.

Law, K.S., and A. Stohl. 2007. Arctic air pollution: Origins and impacts. Science 315(5818):1537-1540.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Leaner J., J. Dabrowski, R. Mason, T. Resane, M. Richardson, M. Ginster, R. Euripides, and E. Masekoameng. 2008. Mercury emissions from point sources in South Africa. In Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason, pp. 113-130. New York: Springer.

Lee, R.G.M., N.J.L. Green, R. Lohmann, and K.C. Jones. 1999. Seasonal, anthropogenic. Air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources. Environmental Science & Technology 33(17):2864-2871.

Lee, R.G.M., G.O. Thomas, and K.C. Jones. 2004. PBDEs in the atmosphere of three locations in Western Europe. Environmental Science & Technology 38(3):699-706.

Lefohn, A.S., S.J. Oltmans, T. Dann, and H.B. Singh. 2001. Present-day variability of background ozone in the lower troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D9):9945-9958.

Lei, W., B. De Foy, M. Zavala, R. Volkamer, and L.T. Molina. 2007. Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City metropolitan area: A case study using a chemical transport model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(5):1347-1366.

Lei, Y.D., and F. Wania. 2004. Is rain or snow a more efficient scavenger of organic chemicals? Atmospheric Environment 38(22):3557-3571.

Leibensperger, E.M. , L.J. Mickley, and D.J. Jacob. 2008. Sensitivity of U.S. air quality to mid-latitude cyclone frequency and implications of 1980-2006 climate change. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8:7075-7086.

Lelieveld, J., H. Berresheim, S. Borrmann, P.J. Crutzen, F.J. Dentener, H. Fischer, J. Feichter, P.J. Flatau, J. Heland, R. Holzinger, R. Korrmann, M.G. Lawrence, Z. Levin, K.M. Markowicz, N. Mihalopoulos, A. Minikin, V. Ramanathan, M. De Reus, G.J. Roelofs, H.A. Scheeren, J. Sciare, H. Schlager, M. Schultz, P. Siegmund, B. Steil, E.G. Stephanou, P. Stier, M. Traub, C. Warneke, J. Williams, and H. Ziereis. 2002. Global air pollution crossroads over the mediterranean. Science 298(5594):794-799.

Lelieveld, J., and P.J. Crutzen. 1994. Role of deep cloud convection in the ozone budget of the troposphere. Science 264(5166):1759-1761.

Levy, H., II, M.D. Schwarzkopf, L. Horowitz, V. Ramaswamy, and K.L. Findell. 2008. Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 113(D06102).

Levy, J.I., S.M. Chemerynski, J.A. Sarnat. 2005. Ozone exposure and mortality: an empiric Bayes metaregression analysis. Epidemiology 16:458-468.

Li, Q., D.J. Jacob, I. Bey, P.I. Palmer, B.N. Duncan, B.D. Field, R.V. Martin, A.M. Fiore, R.M. Yantosca, D.D. Parrish, P.G. Simmonds, and S.J. Oltmans. 2002. Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(13).

Li, Q.Q., A. Loganath, Y.S. Chong, J. Tan, and J.P. Obbard. 2006a. Persistent organic pollutants and adverse health effects in humans. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health–Part A: Current Issues 69(21):1987-2005.

———. 2006b. Persistent organic pollutants and adverse health effects in humans. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part a-Current Issues 69(21):1987-2005.

Liang, Q., L. Jaeglé, D.A. Jaffe, P. Weiss-Penzias, A. Heckman, and J.A. Snow. 2004. Long-range transport of Asian pollution to the northeast pacific: Seasonal variations and transport pathways of carbon monoxide. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(D23S07):1-16.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Liang, Q., L. Jaeglé, R.C. Hudman, S. Turquety, D.J. Jacob, M.A. Avery, E.V. Browell, G.W. Sachse, D.R. Blake, W. Brune, X. Ren, R.C. Cohen, J.E. Dibb, A. Fried, H. Fuelberg, M. Porter, B.G. Heikes, G. Huey, H.B. Singh, and P.O. Wennberg. 2007. Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(12):D12S11.

Lin, C.J., and S.O. Pehkonen. 1999. The chemistry of atmospheric mercury: A review. Atmospheric Environment 33(13):2067-2079.

Lin, C.J., P. Pongprueksa, S.E. Lindberg, S.O. Pehkonen, D. Byun, and C. Jang. 2006. Scientific uncertainties in atmospheric mercury models i: Model science evaluation. Atmospheric Environment 40(16):2911-2928.

Lin, C.Y., D.J. Jacob, and A.M. Fiore. 2001. Trends in exceedances of the ozone air quality standard in the continental United States, 1980-1998. Atmospheric Environment 35(19):3217-3228.

Lin, C.Y.C., D.J. Jacob, J.W. Munger, and A.M. Fiore. 2000. Increasing background ozone in surface air over the United States. Geophysical Research Letters 27(21):3465-3468.

Lin, J.-T., D.J. Donald J. Wuebbles, and X.-Z. Liang. 2008. Effects of intercontinental transport on surface ozone over the United States: Present and future assessment with a global model. Geophysical Research Letters 35(L02805, doi:10.1029/2007GL031415).

Lindberg, S., R. Bullock, R. Ebinghaus, D. Engstrom, X. Feng, W. Fitzgerald, N. Pirrone, E. Prestbo, and C. Seigneur. 2007. A synthesis of progress and uncertainties in attributing the sources of mercury in deposition. Ambio 36(1):19-32.

Lindberg, S.E., S. Brooks, C.J. Lin, K.J. Scott, M.S. Landis, R.K. Stevens, M. Goodsite, and A. Richter. 2002. Dynamic oxidation of gaseous mercury in the arctic troposphere at polar sunrise. Environmental Science and Technology 36(6):1245-1256.

Liu, B., G.J. Keeler, J.T. Dvonch, J.A. Barres, M.M. Lynam, F.J. Marsik, and J.T. Morgan. 2007. Temporal variability of mercury speciation in urban air. Atmospheric Environment 41(9):1911-1923.

Liu, J., and D.L. Mauzerall. 2005. Estimating the average time for inter-continental transport of air pollutants. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L11814, doi:10.1029/2005GL022619.

Liu, J., D.L. Mauzerall, and L.W. Horowitz. 2008. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8:5537-5561.

Liu, J. D.L. Mauzerall, and L.W. Horowitz. 2009. Evaluating Inter-continental transport of fine aerosols: (2) Global Health Impacts, Atmospheric Environment 43(28):4339-4347, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.05.032.

Loewen, M., F. Wania, F.Y. Wang, and G. Tomy. 2008. Altitudinal transect of atmospheric and aqueous fluorinated organic compounds in western Canada. Environmental Science & Technology 42(7):2374-2379.

Logan, J.A., I.A. Megretskaia, A.J. Miller, G.C. Tiao, D. Choi, L. Zhang, R.S. Stolarski, G.J. Labow, S.M. Hollandsworth, G.E. Bodeker, H. Claude, D. De Muer, J.B. Kerr, D.W. Tarasick, S.J. Oltmans, B. Johnson, F. Schmidlin, J. Staehelin, P. Viatte, and O. Uchino. 1999. Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone: A comparison of two analyses of ozonesonde data. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D21):26373-26399.

Lohmann, R., K. Breivik, J. Dachs, and D. Muir. 2007. Global fate of pops: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150(1):150-165.

Lorenz, E.N. 1963. Deterministic nonperiodic flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 20(2):130-141.

Lucotte, M., A. Mucci, C. Hullaire-Marcel, P. Pichet, and A. Grondin. 1995. Anthropogenic mercury enrichment in remote lakes of northern Quebec (Canada). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 80(1-4):467-476.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Luderer, G., J. Trentmann, K. Hungershöfer, M. Herzog, M. Fromm, and M.O. Andreae. 2007. Small-scale mixing processes enhancing troposphere-to-stratosphere transport by pyro-cumulonimbus storms. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(23):5945-5957.

Lyman, S., M. Gustin, E. Prestbo, P. Kilner, E. Edgerton, B. Hartsell. 2009. Testing and application of surrogate surfaces for understanding potential gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition. Environmental Science and Technology, in press.

Lyman, S.N., M.S. Gustin, E.M. Prestbo, and F.J. Marsiks. 2007. Estimation of dry deposition of atmospheric mercury in Nevada by direct and indirect methods. Environmental Science and Technology 41(6):1970-1976.

Ma, J., and J.A. van Aardenne. 2004. Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over china: A regional chemical transport model evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4:877-887.

Ma, J., S. Venkatesh, Y.-f. Li, Z. Cao, and S. Daggupaty. 2005a. Tracking toxaphene in the North American great lakes basin. 2. A strong episodic long-range transport event. Environmental Science & Technology 39(21):8132-8141.

Ma, J., S. Venkatesh, Y.-F. Li, and S. Daggupaty. 2005b. Tracking toxaphene in the North American great lakes basin. 1. Impact of toxaphene residues in United States soils. Environmental Science & Technology 39(21):8123-8131.

Ma, J.M., S. Daggupaty, T. Harner, P. Blanchard, and D. Waite. 2004. Impacts of lindane usage in the Canadian prairies on the great lakes ecosystem. 2. Modeled fluxes and loadings to the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 38(4):984-990.

Ma, J.M., S. Daggupaty, T. Harner, and Y.F. Li. 2003. Impacts of lindane usage in the Canadian prairies on the great lakes ecosystem. 1. Coupled atmospheric transport model and modeled concentrations in air and soil. Environmental Science & Technology 37(17):3774-3781.

Ma, J.M., and Y.F. Li. 2006. Interannual variation of persistent organic pollutants over the great lakes induced by tropical pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(D4).

Ma, J.M., S. Venkatesh, Y.F. Li, Z.H. Cao, and S. Daggupaty. 2005c. Tracking toxaphene in the North American great lakes basin. 2. A strong episodic long-range transport event. Environmental Science & Technology 39(21):8132-8141.

Ma, J.M., S. Venkatesh, Y.F. Li, and S. Daggupaty. 2005d. Tracking toxaphene in the North American great lakes basin. 1. Impact of toxaphene residues in United States soils. Environmental Science & Technology 39(21):8123-8131.

Macdonald, R.W. 2005. Climate change, risks and contaminants: A perspective from studying the arctic. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 11(6):1099-1104.

Macdonald, R.W., T. Harner, and J. Fyfe. 2005. Recent climate change in the arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data. Science of the Total Environment 342(1-3):5-86.

Macdonald, R.W., D. Mackay, Y.F. Li, and B. Hickie. 2003. How will global climate change affect risks from long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9(3):643-660.

Mahowald, N.M., and C. Luo. 2003. A less dusty future? Geophysical Research Letters 30(17).

Malm, W.C., B.A. Schichtel, R.B. Ames, and K.A. Gebhart. 2002. A 10-year spatial and temporal trend of sulfate across the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(D22):4627.

Mandalakis, M., H. Berresheim, and E.G. Stephanou. 2003. Direct evidence for destruction of polychlorobiphenyls by oh radicals in the subtropical troposphere. Environmental Science & Technology 37(3):542-547.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Marenco, A., H. Gouget, P. Nedelec, J.P. Pages, and F. Karcher. 1994. Evidence of a long-term increase in tropospheric ozone from Pic du Midi data series: Consequences: Positive radiative forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 99(D8):16,617-16,632.

Marenco, A., V. Thouret, P. Nédélec, H. Smit, M. Helten, D. Kley, F. Karcher, P. Simon, K. Law, J. Pyle, G. Poschmann, R. Von Wrede, C. Hume, and T. Cook. 1998. Measurement of ozone and water vapor by airbus in-service aircraft: The MOZAIC airborne program, an overview. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(D19):25631-25642.

Martin, B.D., H.E. Fuelberg, N.J. Blake, J.H. Crawford, J.A. Logan, D.R. Blake, and G.W. Sachse. 2003. Long-range transport of Asian outflow to the equatorial pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(8322):[printed 108(D2), 2003].

Martin, R.V. 2008. Satellite remote sensing of surface air quality. Atmospheric Environment 42(34):7823-7843.

Martin, R.V., C.E. Sioris, K. Chance, T.B. Ryerson, T.H. Bertram, P.J. Wooldridge, R.C. Cohen, J.A. Neuman, A. Swanson, and F.M. Flocke. 2006. Evaluation of space-based constraints on global nitrogen oxide emissions with regional aircraft measurements over and downwind of eastern North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 111(15): D15308.

Mason, R.P., W.F. Fitzgerald, and F.M.M. Morel. 1994. The biogeochemical cycling of elemental mercury: Anthropogenic influences. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58(15):3191-3198.

Mason, R.P., and G.R. Sheu. 2002. Role of the ocean in the global mercury cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):40-1.

McConnell, J.R., A.J. Aristarain, J.R. Banta, P.R. Edwards, and J.C. Simöes. 2007. 20th-century doubling in dust archived in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core parallels climate change and desertification in South America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(14):5743-5748.

McKeen, S., G. Grell, S. Peckham, J. Wilczak, I. Djalalova, E. Hsie, G. Frost, J. Peischl, J. Schwarz, R. Spackman, A. Middlebrook, J. Holloway, J. de Gouw, C. Warneke, W. Gong, V. Bouchet, S. Gadreault, J. Racine, J. McHenry, J. McQueen, P. Lee, Y. Tang, G. Carmichael, and R. Mathur. 2009. An evaluation of real-time air quality forecasts and their urban emissions over eastern Texas during the summer of 2006 Second Texas Air Quality Study field study. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres. 114(D00F11):1-26.

McMillan, W.W., J.X. Warner, M.M. Comer, E. Maddy, A. Chu, L. Sparling, E. Eloranta, R. Hoff, G. Sachse, C. Barnet, I. Razenkov, and W. Wolf. 2008. Airs views transport from 12 to 22 July 2004 Alaskan/Canadian fires: Correlation of AIRS CO and MODIS AOD with forward trajectories and comparison of AIRS CO retrievals with DC-8 in situ measurements during INTEX-A/ICARTT. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(20):D20301.

Meehl, G.A., J.M. Arblaster, and W.D. Collins. 2008. Effects of black carbon aerosols on the Indian monsoon. Journal of Climate 21:2869-2882.

Mendoza-Dominguez, A., and A.G. Russell. 2000. Iterative inverse modeling and direct sensitivity analysis of a photochemical air quality model. Environmental Science and Technology 34:4974-4981.

Mendoza, A., M.R. Garcia, P. Vela, D.F. Lozano, and D. Allen. 2005. Trace gases and particulate matter emissions from wildfires and agricultural burning in northeastern Mexico during the 2000 fire season. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 55(12):1797-1808.

Merrill, J.T., and J.L. Moody. 1996. Synoptic meteorology and transport during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive: Overview. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 101(22):28903-28921.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Meyer, T., Y.D. Lei, and F. Wania. 2006. Measuring the release of organic contaminants from melting snow under controlled conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 40(10):3320-3326.

Mickley, L.J., D.J. Jacob, B.D. Field, and D. Rind. 2004. Climate response to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times: A comparison between ozone and equivalent CO2 forcings. Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D05106.

Mickley, L.J., D.J. Jacob, and D. Rind. 2001. Uncertainty in preindustrial abundance of tropospheric ozone: Implications for radiative forcing calculations. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D4):3389-3399.

Milford, J.B., and A. Pienciak. 2009. After the clean air mercury rule: Prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. Environmental Science and Technology 43(8):2669-2673.

Minguillón, M.C., M. Arhami, J.J. Schauer, and C. Sioutas. 2008. Seasonal and spatial variations of sources of fine and quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in neighborhoods near the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor. Atmospheric Environment 42(32):7317-7328.

Moffet, R.C., Y. Desyaterik, R.J. Hopkins, A.V. Tivanski, M.K. Gilles, Y. Wang, V. Shutthanandan, L.T. Molina, R.G. Abraham, K.S. Johnson, V. Mugica, M.J. Molina, A. Laskin, and K.A. Prather. 2008. Characterization of aerosols containing zn, pb, and cl from an industrial region of mexico city. Environmental Science & Technology 42(19):7091-7097.

Moldanová, J., E. Fridell, O. Popovicheva, B. Demirdjian, V. Tishkova, A. Faccinetto, and C. Focsa. 2009. Characterisation of particulate matter and gaseous emissions from a large ship diesel engine. Atmospheric Environment 43(16):2632-2641.

Morris, G.A., S. Hersey, A.M. Thompson, S. Pawson, J.E. Nielsen, P.R. Colarco, W.W. McMillan, A. Stohl, S. Turquety, J. Warner, B.J. Johnson, T.L. Kucsera, D.E. Larko, S.J. Oltmans, and J.C. Witte. 2006. Alaskan and Canadian forest fires exacerbate ozone pollution over Houston, Texas, on 19 and 20 July 2004. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D24S03.

Mozaffarian, D., and E.B. Rimm. 2006. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health evaluating the risks and the benefits. Journal of the American Medical Association 296(15):1885-1899.

Mudway, I.S., and F.J. Kelly. 2000. Ozone and the lung: a sensitive issue. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 21:1-48.

Mühle, J., T.J. Lueker, Y.X. Su, B.R. Miller, K.A. Prather, and R.F. Weiss. 2007. Trace gas and particulate emissions from the 2003 southern California wildfires. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112(3).

Muir, D.C.G., S. Backus, A.E. Derocher, R. Dietz, T.J. Evans, G.W. Gabrielsen, J. Nagy, R.J. Norstrom, C. Sonne, I. Stirling, M.K. Taylor, and R.J. Letcher. 2006. Brominated flame retardants in polar bears (ursus maritimus) from Alaska, the Canadian arctic, east Greenland, and Svalbard. Environmental Science & Technology 40(2):449-455.

Mukherjee A.B., P. Bhattacharya, A. Sarkar, R. Zevenhoven. 2008. Mercury emissions from industrial sources in India. In Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason, pp. 81-112. New York: Springer.

Munthe, J., K. Kindbom, O. Kruger, G. Petersen, J. Pacyna, and Å. Iverfeldt. 2001. Examining source-receptor relationships for mercury in Scandinavia modelled and empirical evidence. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus 1(3-4):299-310.

Munthe, J., R.A. Bodaly, B.A. Branfireun, C.T. Driscoll, C.C. Gilmour, R. Harris, M. Horvat, M. Lucotte, and O. Malm. 2007. Recovery of mercury-contaminated fisheries. Ambio 36(1):33-44.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Munthe, J., E. Fjeld, M. Meili, P. Porvari, S. Rognerud, and M. Verta. 2004. Mercury in nordic freshwater fish: An assessment of spatial variability in relation to atmospheric deposition. RMZ-Mater. Geoenviron 51:1239-1241.

Murazaki, K., and P. Hess. 2006. How does climate change contribute to surface ozone change over the United States? Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(5).

Murphy, D.M., D.J. Cziczo, K.D. Froyd, P.K. Hudson, B.M. Matthew, A.M. Middlebrook, R.E. Peltier, A. Sullivan, D.S. Thomson, and R.J. Weber. 2006. Single-particle mass spectrometry of tropospheric aerosol particles. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(D23S32).

Murphy, D. M., P. K. Hudson, D. J. Cziczo, S. Gallavardin, K. D. Froyd, M.V. Johnston, A. M. Middlebrook, M.S. Reinard, D. S. Thomson, T. Thornberry and A.S. Wexler. 2007. Distribution of lead in single atmospheric particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(12):3195-3210.

NARSTO. 2005. Improving emission inventories for effective air quality management across North America. NARSTO. NARSTO-05-001. Oak Ridge, TN. Available online at http://www.narsto.org/section.src?SID=8.

Neff, J.C., A.P. Ballantyne, G.L. Farmer, N.M. Mahowald, J.L. Conroy, C.C. Landry, J.T. Overpeck, T.H. Painter, C.R. Lawrence, and R.L. Reynolds. 2008. Increasing eolian dust deposition in the western United States linked to human activity. Nature Geoscience 1(3):189-195.

Nelson, P.F. 2007. Atmospheric emissions of mercury from Australian point sources. Atmospheric Environment 41:1717-1724.

Neuman, J.A., D.D. Parrish, M. Trainer, T.B. Ryerson, J.S. Holloway, J.B. Nowak, A. Swanson, F.M. Flocke, J.M. Roberts, S.S. Brown, H. Stark, R. Sommariva, A. Stohl, R.E. Peltier, R.J. Weber, A.G. Wollny, D.T. Sueper, G. Hubler, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 2006. Reactive nitrogen transport and photochemistry in urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(23).

Newell, R.E., and M.J. Evans. 2000. Seasonal changes in pollutant transport to the north pacific: The relative importance of Asian and European sources. Geophysical Research Letters 27(16):2509-2512.

Nowak, J.B., D.D. Parrish, J.A. Neuman, J.S. Holloway, O.R. Cooper, T.B. Ryerson, D.K. Nicks, F. Flocke, J.M. Roberts, E. Atlas, J.A. de Gouw, S. Donnelly, E. Dunlea, G. Hübler, L.G. Huey, S. Schauffler, D.J. Tanner, C. Warneke, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 2004. Gas-phase chemical characteristics of Asian emission plumes observed during itct 2k2 over the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(23):1-18.

NRC. 1998. The atmospheric sciences: Entering the twenty-first century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

———. 2000. Toxicological effects of methylmercury. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

———. 2001. Global air quality an imperative for long-term observational strategies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

———. 2005. Radiative forcing of climate change: Expanding the concept and addressing uncertainties. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

———. 2008. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

———. 2009. Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Ohara, T., H. Akimoto, J. Kurokawa, N. Horii, K. Yamaji, X. Yan, and T. Hayasaka. 2007. An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(16):4419-4444.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Oltmans, S.J., A.S. Lefohn, J.M. Harris, I. Galbally, H.E. Scheel, G. Bodeker, E. Brunke, H. Claude, D. Tarasick, B.J. Johnson, P. Simmonds, D. Shadwick, K. Anlauf, K. Hayden, F. Schmidlin, T. Fujimoto, K. Akagi, C. Meyer, S. Nichol, J. Davies, A. Redondas, and E. Cuevas. 2006. Long-term changes in tropospheric ozone. Atmospheric Environment 40(17):3156-3173.

Oltmans, S.J., A.S. Lefohn, J.M. Harris, and D.S. Shadwick. 2008. Background ozone levels of air entering the west coast of the U.S. and assessment of longer-term changes. Atmospheric Environment 42(24):6020-6038.

Ondov, J.M., T.J. Buckley, P.K. Hopke, D. Ogulei, M.B. Parlange, W.F. Rogge, K.S. Squibb, M.V. Johnston, and A.S. Wexler. 2006. Baltimore Supersite: Highly time- and size-resolved concentrations of urban PM2.5 and its constituents for resolution of sources and immune responses. Atmospheric Environment 40(Suppl. 2):224-237

Outridge, P.M., R.W. MacDonald, F. Wang, G.A. Stern, and A.P. Dastoor. 2008. A mass balance inventory of mercury in the Arctic Ocean. Environmental Chemistry 5(2):89-111.

Outridge, P.M., G.A. Stern, P.B. Hamilton, J.B. Percival, R. McNeely, and W.L. Lockhart. 2005. Trace metal profiles in the varved sediment of an arctic lake. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(20):4881-4894.

Owen, R.C., O.R. Cooper, A. Stohl, and R.E. Honrath. 2006. An analysis of the mechanisms of North American pollutant transport to the central north atlantic lower free troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(23).

Pacyna, E.G., J.M. Pacyna, F. Steenhuisen, and S. Wilson. 2006a. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment 40(22):4048-4063.

Pacyna, E.G., J.M. Pacyna, J. Fudala, E. Strzelecka-Jastrzab, S. Hlawiczka, and D. Panasiuk. 2006b. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2000 and their scenarios until 2020. Science of the Total Environment, 370: 147-156.

Pacyna, J.M., K. Breivik, J. Munch, and J. Fudala. 2003a. European atmospheric emissions of selected persistent organic pollutants, 1970-1995. Atmospheric Environment 37: S119-S131.

Pacyna, J.M., E.G. Pacyna, F. Steenhuisen, and S. Wilson. 2003b. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury. Atmospheric Environment 37(SUPPL. 1).

Palmer, P. I., D.J. Jacob, L.J. Mickley, D.R. Blake, G.W. Sachse, H.E. Fuelberg, and C.M. Kiley. 2003. Eastern Asian emissions of anthropogenic halocarbons deduced from aircraft concentration data. Journal of Geophysical Research 108:4753, doi:10.1029/2003JD003591.

Park, R.J., D.J. Jacob, M. Chin, and R.V. Martin. 2003. Sources of carbonaceous aerosols over the United States and implications for natural visibility. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(D124355).

Park, R.J., D.J. Jacob, N. Kumar, and R.M. Yantosca. 2006. Regional visibility statistics in the United States: Natural and transboundary pollution influences, and implications for the regional haze rule. Atmospheric Environment 40(28):5405-5423.

Park, R.J., G.L. Stenchikov, K.E. Pickering, R.R. Dickerson, D.J. Allen, and S. Kondragunta. 2001. Regional air pollution and its radiative forcing: Studies with a single-column chemical and radiation transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D22):28751-28770.

Parrish, D.D., J.S. Holloway, M. Trainer, P.C. Murphy, G.L. Forbes, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1993. Export of North America ozone pollution to the North Atlantic Ocean. Science 259(5100):1436-1439.

Parrish, D.D., Y. Kondo, O.R. Cooper, C.A. Brock, D.A. Jaffe, M. Trainer, T. Ogawa, G. Hubler, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 2004. Intercontinental transport and chemical transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) and Pacific exploration of Asian continental emission (PEACE) experiments: An overview of the 2002 winter and spring intensives. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(D23S01).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Parrish, D.D., D.B. Millet, and A.H. Goldstein. 2008. Increasing ozone concentrations in marine boundary layer air inflow at the west coasts of North America and Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(4):13847-13901.

Parrish, D.D., M. Trainer, J.S. Holloway, J.E. Yee, M.S. Warshawsky, F.C. Fehsenfeld, G.L. Forbes, and J.L. Moody. 1998. Relationships between ozone and carbon monoxide at surface sites in the north Atlantic region. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 103(D11):13357-13376.

Patris, N., S.S. Cliff, P.K. Quinn, M. Kasem, and M.H. Thiemens. 2007. Isotopic analysis of aerosol sulfate and nitrate during itct-2k2: Determination of different formation pathways as a function of particle size. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112.

Pavelin, E.G., C.E. Johnson, S. Rughooputh, and R. Toumi. 1999. Evaluation of pre-industrial surface ozone measurements made using Schonbein’s method. Atmospheric Environment 33(6):919-929.

Peppler, R.A., C.P. Bahrmann, J.C. Barnard, J.R. Campbell, M.D. Cheng, R.A. Ferrare, R.N. Halthore, L.A. Heilman, D.L. Hlavka, N.S. Laulainen, C.J. Lin, J.A. Ogren, M.R. Poellot, L.A. Remer, K. Sassen, J.D. Spinhirne, M.E. Splitt, and D.D. Turner. 2000. Arm southern Great Plains site observations of the smoke pall associated with the 1998 Central American fires. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 81(11):2563-2591.

Perry, K.D., T.A. Cahill, R.A. Eldred, D.D. Dutcher, and T.E. Gill. 1997. Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 102(10):11225-11238.

Peterson, C., and M. Gustin. 2008. Mercury in air, water and biota at the Great Salt Lake Science of the Total Environment 405:255-268.

Pétron, G., C. Granier, B. Khattatov, V. Yudin, J.F. Lamarque, L. Emmons, J. Gille, and D.P. Edwards. 2004. Monthly CO surface sources inventory based on the 2000-2001 MOPITT satellite data. Geophysical Research Letters 31(21).

Pfister, G.G., L.K. Emmons, P.G. Hess, R. Honrath, J.F. Lamarque, M. Val Martin, R.C. Owen, M.A. Avery, E.V. Browell, J.S. Holloway, P. Nedelec, R. Purvis, T.B. Ryerson, G.W. Sachse, and H. Schlager. 2006. Ozone production from the 2004 North American boreal fires. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D24S07.

Pfister, G.G., L.K. Emmons, P.G. Hess, J.F. Lamarque, A.M. Thompson, and J.E. Yorks. 2008. Analysis of the summer 2004 ozone budget over the United States using intercontinental transport experiment ozonesonde network study (IONS) observations and model of ozone and related tracers (MOZART-4) simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(23):D23306.

Piekarz, A.M., T. Primbs, J.A. Field, D.F. Barofsky, and S. Simonich. 2007. Semivolatile fluorinated organic compounds in Asian and western U.S. air masses. Environmental Science & Technology 41(24):8248-8255.

Pirrone, N. 2008. Executive summary. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason, pp. xxxv-xlii. New York: Springer.

Pirrone, N., and R. Mason, eds. 2009a. Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Measurements, Models, and Policy Implications. Geneva: United Nations Environment Program.

Pirrone, N., and R. Mason, eds. 2009b. Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere emissions, measurements and models. New York: Springer.

Pisso, I., E. Real, K.S. Law, B. Legras, N. Bousserez, J.L. Attie, and H. Schlager. 2009. Estimation of mixing in the troposphere from Lagrangian trace gas reconstructions during long-range pollution plume transport. Journal of Geophysical Research. Accepted 2009.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Pitchford, M., W. Malm, B. Schichtel, N. Kumar, D. Lowenthal, and J. Hand. 2007. Revised algorithm for estimating light extinction from IMPROVE particle speciation data. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 57(11):1326-1336.

Pitts, J.N., J.A. Sweetman, B. Zielinska, R. Atkinson, A.M. Winer, and W.P. Harger. 1985. Formation of nitroarenes from the reaction of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons with dinitrogen pentaoxide. Environmental Science & Technology 19(11):1115-1121.

Pochanart, P., H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, and P. Sukasem. 2003. Carbon monoxide, regional-scale transport, and biomass burning in tropical continental Southeast Asia: Observations in rural Thailand. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(17).

Pope, C.A. 2000. Invited commentary: Particulate matter-mortality exposure-response relations and threshold. American Journal of Epidemiology 152:407-412.

Pope, C.A., and D.W. Dockery. 2006. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 56:709-742.

Pope III, C.A., M. Ezzati, and D.W. Dockery. 2009. Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 360(4):376-386.

Poulain, A.J., J.D. Lalonde, M. Amyot, J.A. Shead, F. Raofie, and P.A. Ariya. 2004. Redox transformations of mercury in an arctic snowpack at springtime. Atmospheric Environment 38(39):6763-6774.

Pozo, K., T. Harner, S.C. Lee, F. Wania, D.C.G. Muir, and K.C. Jones. 2009. Seasonally resolved concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the global atmosphere from the first year of the gaps study. Environmental Science & Technology 43(3):796-803.

Prather, M., M. Gauss, T. Berntsen, I. Isaksen, J. Sundet, I. Bey, G. Brasseur, F. Dentener, R. Derwent, D. Stevenson, L. Grenfell, D. Hauglustaine, L. Horowitz, D. Jacob, L. Mickley, M. Lawrence, R. von Kuhlmann, J.F. Muller, G. Pitari, H. Rogers, M. Johnson, J. Pyle, K. Law, M. van Weele, and O. Wild. 2003. Fresh air in the 21st century? Geophysical Research Letters 30(2):72-1.

Prather, M.J. 2001. Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In Climate change 2001: The scientific basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. v. d. Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, pp. 239-287. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Prestbo, E.M., and D.A. Gay. 2009. Wet deposition of mercury in the U.S. and Canada, 1996-2005: Results and analysis of the NADP mercury deposition network (mdn). Atmospheric Environment in Press, Accepted Manuscript.

Prevedouros, K., E. Brorstrom-Lunden, C.J. Halsall, K.C. Jones, R.G.M. Lee, and A.J. Sweetman. 2004. Seasonal and long-term trends in atmospheric pah concentrations: Evidence and implications. Environmental Pollution 128(1-2):17-27.

Price, H.U., D.A. Jaffe, O.R. Cooper, and P.V. Doskey. 2004. Photochemistry, ozone production, and dilution during long-range transport episodes from Eurasia to the northwest United States. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109:D23S13.

Primbs, T., A. Piekarz, G. Wilson, D. Schmedding, C. Higginbotham, J. Field, and S.M. Simonich. 2008a. Influence of Asian and western United States urban areas and fires on the atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and fluorotelomer alcohols in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology 42(17):6385-6391.

Primbs, T., S. Simonich, D. Schmedding, G. Wilson, D. Jaffe, A. Takami, S. Kato, S. Hatakeyama, and Y. Kajii. 2007. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in spring 2004. Environmental Science & Technology 41(10):3551-3558.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Primbs, T., G. Wilson, D. Schmedding, C. Higginbotham, and S.M. Simonich. 2008b. Influence of Asian and western United States agricultural areas and fires on the atmospheric transport of pesticides in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology 42(17):6519-6525.

Prospero, J.M. 1999a. Assessing the impact of advected African dust on air quality and health in the eastern United States. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 5(3):471-479.

———. 1999b. Long-term measurements of the transport of African mineral dust to the southeastern United States: Implications for regional air quality. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 104(D13):15917-15927.

Prospero, J.M., P. Ginoux, O. Torres, S.E. Nicholson, and T.E. Gill. 2002. Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (toms) absorbing aerosol product. Reviews of Geophysics 40(1).

Prospero, J.M., and P.J. Lamb. 2003. African droughts and dust transport to the caribbean: Climate change implications. Science 302(5647):1024-1027.

Prospero, J.M., I. Olmez, and M. Ames. 2001. Al and Fe in PM2.5 and PM10 suspended particles in south-central Florida: The impact of the long range transport of african mineral dust. Water Air and Soil Pollution 125(1-4):291-317.

Prospero, J.M., D.L. Savoie, and R. Arimoto. 2003. Long-term record of nss-sulfate and nitrate in aerosols on Midway Island, 1981-2000: Evidence of increased (now decreasing?) anthropogenic emissions from Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(D1):4019.

Qian, W., X. Tang, and L. Quan. 2004. Regional characteristics of dust storms in china. Atmospheric Environment 38(29):4895-4907.

Quinn, P.K., T.S. Bates, E. Baum, N. Doubleday, A.M. Fiore, M. Flanner, A. Fridlind, T.J. Garrett, D. Koch, S. Menon, D. Shindell, A. Stohl, and S.G. Warren. 2008. Short-lived pollutants in the arctic: Their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(6):1723-1735.

Ramanathan, V., P.J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A.P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M.O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G.R. Cass, C.E. Chung, A.D. Clarke, J.A. Coakley, W.D. Collins, W.C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A.J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J.T. Kiehl, T.N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J.A. Ogren, I.A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J.M. Prospero, P.K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S.K. Satheesh, G.E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F.P.J. Valero. 2001. Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great indo-Asian haze. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 106(D22):28371-28398.

Real, E., K. Law, H. Schlager, A. Roiger, H. Huntrieser, J. Methven, M. Cain, J. Holloway, J.A. Neuman, T. Ryerson, F. Flocke, J. De Gouw, E. Atlas, S. Donnelly, and D. Parrish. 2008. Lagrangian analysis of low level anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(2):7509-7554.

Real, E., K.S. Law, B. Weinzierl, M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, O. Wild, J. Methven, S. Arnold, A. Stohl, H. Huntrieser, A. Roiger, H. Schlager, D. Stewart, M. Avery, G. Sachse, E. Browell, R. Ferrare, and D. Blake. 2007. Processes influencing ozone levels in Alaskan forest fire plumes during long-range transport over the North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(10):D10S41.

Reddy, M.S., and O. Boucher. 2007. Climate impact of black carbon emitted from energy consumption in the world’s regions. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L11802, doi:10.1029/2006GL028904.

Reddy, M.S., and C. Venkataraman. 2002. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I–fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric Environment 36:677-697.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Reid, J.S., E.M. Prins, D.L. Westphal, C.C. Schmidt, K.A. Richardson, S.A. Christopher, T.F. Eck, E.A. Reid, C.A. Curtis, and J.P. Hoffman. 2004. Real-time monitoring of South American smoke particle emissions and transport using a coupled remote sensing//box-model approach. Geophysical Research Letters 31:L06107, doi:10.1029/2003GL018845.

Reidmiller, D.R., A.M. Fiore, D.A. Jaffe, D. Bergmann, C. Cuvelier, F.J. Dentener, B.N. Duncan, G. Folberth, M. Gauss, S. Gong, P. Hess, J.E. Jonson, T. Keating, A. Lupu, E. Marmer, R. Park, M.G. Schultz, D.T. Shindell, S. Szopa, M.G. Vivanco, O. Wild, and A. Zuber. 2009a. The influence of foreign vs. North American emissions on surface ozone in the U.S. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 9(2):7927-7969.

Reidmiller, D.R., D.A. Jaffe, D. Chand, S. Strode, P. Swartzendruber, G.M. Wolfe, and J.A. Thornton. 2009b. Interannual variability of long-range transport as seen at the Mt. Bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(2):557-572.

Richter, A., J.P. Burrows, H. Nüß, C. Granier, and U. Niemeier. 2005. Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over china observed from space. Nature 437(7055):129-132.

Rigby, M., R.G. Prinn, P.J. Fraser, P.G. Simmonds, R.L. Langenfelds, J. Huang, D. M. Cunnold, L.P. Steele, P.B. Krummel, R.F. Weiss, S. O’Doherty, P.K. Salameh, H.J. Wang, C.M. Harth, J. Mühle, and L.W. Porter. 2008. Renewed growth of atmospheric methane. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L22805, doi:10.1029/2008GL036037.

Robinson, A.L., N.M. Donahue, M. Shrivastava, E.A. Weitkamp, A.M. Sage, A.P. Grieshop, T.E. Lane, J.R. Pierce, and S.N. Pandis. 2007. Rethinking organic aerosol: Semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315:1259-1262.

Robrock, K.R., P. Korytar, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. 2008. Pathways for the anaerobic microbial debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environmental Science & Technology 42(8):2845-2852.

Rotstayn, L., and U. Lohmann. 2002. Tropical rainfall trends and the indirect aerosol effect. Journal of Climate 15(15):2103-2116.

Royal Society. 2008. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: Future trends, impacts and policy implications. London: The Royal Society.

Saikawa, E., V. Naik, L.W. Horowitz, J. Liu, and D.L. Mauzerall. 2009. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing. Atmospheric Environment 43:2814-2822, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.02.017, 2009.

Sakamoto, M., A. Yasutake, and H. Satoh. 2005. Methyl merury exposure in general populations of Japan, Asia and Oceania. In Dynamics of mercury pollution on regional and global scales : Atmospheric processes and human exposures around the world, edited by N. Pirrone and K. R. Mahaffey. 405-420. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Sakata, M., and K. Marumoto. 2005. Wet and dry deposition fluxes of mercury in Japan. Atmospheric Environment 39(17):3139-3146.

Samet, J., and D. Krewski. 2007. Health effects associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health–Part A: Current Issues 70(3-4):227-242.

Sasaki, J., S.M. Aschmann, E.S.C. Kwok, R. Atkinson, and J. Arey. 1997. Products of the gas-phase oh and no3 radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene. Environmental Science & Technology 31(11):3173-3179.

Satheesh, S.K., and V. Ramanathan. 2000. Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and earth’s surface. Nature 405:60-63.

Schecter, A., S. Johnson-Welch, K.C. Tung, T.R. Harris, O. Papke, and R. Rosen. 2007. Poly-brominated diphenyl ether (pbde) levels in livers of U.S. human fetuses and newborns. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health–Part A 70(1):1-6.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Schecter, A., O. Papke, T.R. Harris, K.C. Tung, A. Musumba, J. Olson, and L. Birnbaum. 2006. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated pbde dietary intake by age and sex. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(10):1515-20.

Schecter, A.H., T.R. Harris, S. Brummitt, N. Shah, and O. Paepke. 2008. PBDE and HBCD brominated flame retardants in the USA, update 2008: Levels in human milk and blood, food, and environmental samples. Epidemiology 19(6):S76-S76.

Schenker, U., M. Scheringer, M. Macleod, J.W. Martin, I.T. Cousins, and K. Hungerbuhlert. 2008. Contribution of volatile precursor substances to the flux of perfluorooctanoate to the arctic. Environmental Science & Technology 42(10):3710-3716.

Scheringer, M. 2009. Long-range transport of organic chemicals in the environment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(4):677-690.

Scheuhammer, A.M., M.W. Meyer, M.B. Sandheinrich, and M.W. Murray. 2007. Effects of environmental methylmercury on the health of wild birds, mammals, and fish. Ambio 36(1):12-18.

Schichtel, B.A., R.B. Husar, S.R. Falke, and W.E. Wilson. 2001. Haze trends over the United States, 1980-1995. Atmospheric Environment 35(30):5205-5210.

Schoeberl, M.R., J.R. Ziemke, B. Bojkov, N. Livesey, B. Duncan, S. Strahan, L. Froidevaux, S. Kulawik, P.K. Bhartia, S. Chandra, P.F. Levelt, J.C. Witte, A.M. Thompson, E. Cuevas, A. Redondas, D.W. Tarasick, J. Davies, G. Bodeker, G. Hansen, B.J. Johnson, S.J. Oltmans, H. Vömel, M. Allaart, H. Kelder, M. Newchurch, S. Godin-Beekmann, G. Ancellet, H. Claude, S.B. Andersen, E. Kyrö, M. Parrondos, M. Yela, G. Zablocki, D. Moore, H. Dier, P. von der Gathen, P. Viatte, R. Stübi, B. Calpini, P. Skrivankova, V. Dorokhov, H. de Backer, F.J. Schmidlin, G. Coetzee, M. Fujiwara, V. Thouret, F. Posny, G. Morris, J. Merrill, C.P. Leong, G. Koenig-Langlo, and E. Joseph. 2007. A trajectory-based estimate of the tropospheric ozone column using the residual method. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(24):D24S49.

Schroeder, W.H., and J. Munthe. 1998. Atmospheric mercury—an overview. Atmospheric Environment 32(5):809-822.

Schulz, M., C. Textor, S. Kinne, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, F. Dentener, S. Guibert, I.S.A. Isaksen, T. Iversen, D. Koch, A. KirkevÃ¥g, X. Liu, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J.E. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, Ã. Seland, P. Stier, and T. Takemura. 2006. Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the aerocom present-day and pre-industrial simulations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(12):5225-5246.

Schuster, P.F., D.P. Krabbenhoft, D.L. Naftz, L.D. Cecil, M.L. Olson, J.F. Dewild, D.D. Susong, J.R. Green, and M.L. Abbott. 2002. Atmospheric mercury deposition during the last 270 years: A glacial ice core record of natural and anthropogenic sources. Environmental Science and Technology 36(11):2303-2310.

Schwartz, J., B. Coull, F. Laden, and L. Ryan. 2008. The effect of dose and timing of dose on the association between airborne particles and survival. Environmental Health Perspectives 116:64-69.

Schwartz, J., F. Laden, and A. Zanobetti. 2002. The concentration-response relation between PM2.5 and daily deaths. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:1025-1029.

Seigneur, C., K. Vijayaraghavan, K. Lohman, P. Karamchandani, and C. Scott. 2004. Global source attribution for mercury deposition in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology 38(2):555-569.

Selden, T.M., and D. Song. 1994. Environmental quality and development: Is there a Kuznets curve for air pollution emissions? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 27(2):147-162.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Selin, N.E., D.J. Jacob, R.M. Yantosca, S. Strode, L. Jaeglé, and E.M. Sunderland. 2008. Global 3-d land-ocean-atmosphere model for mercury: Present-day versus preindustrial cycles and anthropogenic enrichment factors for deposition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(2).

Selin, N.E., D.J. Javob, R.J. Park, R.M. Yantosca, S. Strode, L. Jaeglé, and D. Jaffe. 2007. Chemical cycling and deposition of atmospheric mercury: Global constraints from observations. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112(D02308).

Shindell, D. 2007. Local and remote contributions to arctic warming. Geophysical Research Letters 34(14).

Shindell, D., J.F. Lamarque, N. Unger, D. Koch, G. Faluveg, S. Bauer, and H. Teich. 2008a. Climate forcing and air quality change due to regional emissions reductions by economic sector. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(3):11609-11642.

Shindell, D.T., M. Chin, F. Dentener, R.M. Doherty, G. Faluvegi, A.M. Fiore, P. Hess, D.M. Koch, I.A. MacKenzie, M.G. Sanderson, M.G. Schultz, M. Schulz, D.S. Stevenson, H. Teich, C. Textor, O. Wild, D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey, H. Bian, C. Cuvelier, B.N. Duncan, G. Folberth, L.W. Horowitz, J. Jonson, J.W. Kaminski, E. Marmer, R. Park, K.J. Pringle, S. Schroeder, S. Szopa, T. Takemura, G. Zeng, T.J. Keating, and A. Zuber. 2008b. A multimodel assessment of pollution transport to the arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(17):5353-5372.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, A. Lacis, J. Hansen, R. Ruedy, and E. Aguilar. 2006. Role of tropospheric ozone increases in 20th-century climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(8):D08302.

Shoeib, M., T. Harner, and P. Vlahos. 2006. Perfluorinated chemicals in the arctic atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 40(24):7577-7583.

Sillman, S., F.J. Marsik, K.I. Al-Wali, G.J. Keeler, and M.S. Landis. 2007. Reactive mercury in the troposphere: Model formation and results for florida, the northeastern United States, and the atlantic ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112(23): D23305.

Sillman, S., and P.J. Samson. 1995. Impact of temperature on oxidant photochemistry in urban, polluted rural and remote environments. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(D6):11497-11508.

Simonich, S.L., and R.A. Hites. 1995. Global distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds. Science 269(5232):1851-1854.

Simpson, J.E. 1994. Sea breeze and local winds. New York: Cambridge.

Singh, H.B., L. Salas, D. Herlth, R. Kolyer, E. Czech, M. Avery, J.H. Crawford, R.B. Pierce, G.W. Sachse, and D.R. Blake. 2007. Reactive nitrogen distribution and partitioning in the North American troposphere and lowermost stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D12S04, doi:10.1029/2006JD007664.

Slemr, F., E.G. Brunke, R. Ebinghaus, C. Temme, J. Munthe, I. Wängberg, W. Schroeder, A. Steffen, and T. Berg. 2003. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1977. Geophysical Research Letters 30(10):23-1.

Slemr, F., R. Ebinghaus, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, M. Hermann, H.H. Kock, B.G. Martinsson, T. Schuck, D. Sprung, P. van Velthoven, A. Zahn, and H. Ziereis. 2009. Gaseous mercury distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed onboard the caribic passenger aircraft. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(6):1957-1969.

Smithwick, M., R.J. Norstrom, S.A. Mabury, K. Solomon, T.J. Evans, I. Stirling, M.K. Taylor, and D.C.G. Muir. 2006. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in polar bears (ursus maritimus) from two locations in the North American arctic, 1972-2002. Environmental Science & Technology 40(4):1139-1143.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Sodeman, D.A., S.M. Toner, and K.A. Prather. 2005. Determination of single particle mass spectral signatures from light-duty vehicle emissions. Environmental Science and Technology 39(12):4569-4580.

Spencer, M.T., J.C. Holecek, C.E. Corrigan, V. Ramanathan, and K.A. Prather. 2008. Size-resolved chemical composition of aerosol particles during a monsoonal transition period over the Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 113(16).

Spracklen, D.V., J.A. Logan, L.J. Mickley, R.J. Park, R. Yevich, A.L. Westerling, and D.A. Jaffe. 2007. Wildfires drive interannual variability of organic carbon aerosol in the western U.S. in summer. Geophysical Research Letters 34(16).

Sprovieri, F., M. Andersson, N. Pirrone, and R. Mason. 2008. Spatial coverage and temporal trends of over-water, air-surface exchange, surface and deep sea water mercury measurements. In Mercury fate and transport in the global atmosphere measurements, models and policy implications, N. Pirrone and R. Mason, eds. 243-287. New York: Springer.

Staehelin, J., R. Kegel, and N.R.P. Harris. 1998. Trend analysis of the homogenized total ozone series of Arosa (Switzerland), 1926-1996. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 103(D7):8389-8399.

Steffen, A., T. Douglas, M. Amyot, P. Ariya, K. Aspmo, T. Berg, J. Bottenheim, S. Brooks, F. Cobbett, A. Dastoor, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, C. Ferrari, K. Gardfeldt, M.E. Goodsite, D. Lean, A.J. Poulain, C. Scherz, H. Skov, J. Sommar, and C. Temme. 2008. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry in the atmosphere and snow. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(6):1445-1482.

Stern, D.I. 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8):1419-1439.

Stevenson, D.S., F.J. Dentener, M.G. Schultz, K. Ellingsen, T.P.C. van Noije, O. Wild, G. Zeng, M. Amann, C.S. Atherton, N. Bell, D.J. Bergmann, I. Bey, T. Butler, J. Cofala, W.J. Collins, R.G. Derwent, R.M. Doherty, J. Drevet, H.J. Eskes, A.M. Fiore, M. Gauss, D.A. Hauglustaine, L.W. Horowitz, I.S.A. Isaksen, M.C. Krol, J.-F. Lamarque, M.G. Lawrence, V. Montanaro, J.-F. Müller, G. Pitari, M.J. Prather, J.A. Pyle, S. Rast, J.M. Rodriguez, M.G. Sanderson, N.H. Savage, D.T. Shindell, S.E. Strahan, K. Sudo, and S. Szopa. 2006. Multimodel ensemble simulations of present-day and near-future tropospheric ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111:D08301, doi:10.1029/2005JD006338.

Stock, N.L., V.I. Furdui, D.C.G. Muir, and S.A. Mabury. 2007. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in the Canadian arctic: Evidence of atmospheric transport and local contamination. Environmental Science & Technology 41(10):3529-3536.

Stohl, A. 1999. A textbook example of long-range transport: Simultaneous observation of ozone maxima of stratospheric and North American origin in the free troposphere over Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 104(D23):30445-30462.

Stohl, A., ed. 2004. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution. Berlin: Springer.

———. 2006. Characteristics of atmospheric transport into the arctic troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(11).

Stohl, A., E. Andrews, J.F. Burkhart, C. Forster, A. Herber, S.W. Hoch, D. Kowal, C. Lunder, T. Mefford, J.A. Ogren, S. Sharma, N. Spichtinger, K. Stebel, R. Stone, J. Ström, K. Tørseth, C. Wehrli, and K.E. Yttri. 2006. Pan-arctic enhancements of light absorbing aerosol concentrations due to North American boreal forest fires during summer 2004. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(22).

Stohl, A., S. Eckhardt, C. Forster, P. James, and N. Spichtinger. 2002. On the pathways and timescales of intercontinental air pollution transport. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(23):4684.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Stohl, A., C. Forster, S. Eckhardt, N. Spichtinger, H. Huntrieser, J. Heland, H. Schlager, S. Wilhelm, F. Arnold, and O. Cooper. 2003. A backward modeling study of intercontinental pollution transport using aircraft measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(12).

Stohl, A., C. Forster, H. Huntrieser, H. Mannstein, W.W. McMillan, A. Petzold, H. Schlager, and B. Weinzierl. 2007. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from southeast Asia—aerosol and chemical characterization. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7(3):913-937.

Streets, D.G., Q. Zhang, and Y. Wu. 2009. Projections of global mercury emissions in 2050. Environmental Science and Technology 43(8):2983-2988.

Streets D.G., J. Hao, S. Wang, and Y. Wu. 2008. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in China. In Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason, pp. 51-65. New York: Springer.

Streets, D.G., T.C. Bond, G.R. Carmichael, S.D. Fernandes, Q. Fu, D. He, Z. Klimont, S.M. Nelson, N.Y. Tsai, M.Q. Wang, J.-H. Woo, and K.F. Yarber. 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21):8809, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093.

Strode, S.A., L. Jaeglé, D.A. Jaffe, P.C. Swartzendruber, N.E. Selin, C. Holmes, and R.M. Yantosca. 2008. Trans-pacific transport of mercury. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 113(D15305).

Strode, S.A., L. Jaeglé, N.E. Selin, D.J. Jacob, R.J. Park, R.M. Yantosca, R.P. Mason, and F. Slemr. 2007. Air-sea exchange in the global mercury cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21(1).

Stull, R.B. 1988. An introduction to boundary layer meteorology, Atmospheric sciences library. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Su, Y.S., H. Hung, P. Blanchard, G.W. Patton, R. Kallenborn, A. Konoplev, P. Fellin, H. Li, C. Geen, G. Stern, B. Rosenberg, and L.A. Barrie. 2006. Spatial and seasonal variations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (hchs) and hexachlorobenzene (hcb) in the arctic atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 40(21):6601-6607.

Su, Y.S., H.L. Hung, P. Blanchard, G.W. Patton, R. Kallenborn, A. Konoplev, P. Fellin, H. Li, C. Geen, G. Stern, B. Rosenberg, and L.A. Barrie. 2008. A circumpolar perspective of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides (ocps): Results from six arctic monitoring stations in 2000-2003. Atmospheric Environment 42(19):4682-4698.

Sudo, K., and H. Akimoto. 2007. Global source attribution of tropospheric ozone: Long-range transport from various source regions. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 112(12):12302.

Sudo, K., M. Takahashi, and H. Akimoto. 2003. Future changes in stratosphere troposphere exchange and their impacts on future tropospheric ozone simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 30(24):2256, doi:10.1029/2003GL018526.

Suh, H.H., T. Bahadori, J. Vallarino, and J.D. Spengler. 2000. Criteria Air Pollutants and Toxic Air Pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements 108(S4).

Sun, P., S. Backus, P. Blanchard, and R.A. Hites. 2006a. Temporal and spatial trends of organochlorine pesticides in great lakes precipitation. Environmental Science & Technology 40(7):2135-2141.

Sun, P., P. Blanchard, K. Brice, and R.A. Hites. 2006b. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticide concentrations near the great lakes: Temporal and spatial trends. Environmental Science & Technology 40(21):6587-6593.

Sun, P., P. Blanchard, K.A. Brice, and R.A. Hites. 2006c. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the great lakes atmosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 40(20):6221-6227.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Sun, P., Ilora, Basu, P. Blanchard, K.A. Brice, and R.A. Hites. 2007. Temporal and spatial trends of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations near the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 41(4):1131-1136.

Sunderland, E.M., D.P. Krabbenhoft, J.W. Moreau, S. Strode, and W. Landing. 2009. Mercury sources, distribution, and bioavailability in the North Pacific Ocean: Insights from data and models Global Biogeochemical Cycles in press.

Sunderland, E.M., and R.P. Mason. 2007. Human impacts on open ocean mercury concentrations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21(4).

Swain, E.B., D.R. Engstrom, M.E. Brigham, T.A. Henning, and P.L. Brezonik. 1992. Increasing rates of atmospheric mercury deposition in midcontinental North America. Science 257(5071):784-787.

Swartzendruber, P.C., D. Chand, D.A. Jaffe, J. Smith, D. Reidmiller, L. Gratz, J. Keeler, S. Strode, L. Jaeglé, and R. Talbot. 2008. Vertical distribution of mercury, CO, ozone, and aerosol scattering coefficient in the Pacific Northwest during the spring 2006 intex-b campaign. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D10305.

Swartzendruber, P.C., D.A. Jaffe, E.M. Prestbo, P. Weiss-Penzias, N.E. Selin, R. Park, D.J. Jacob, S. Strode, and L. Jaeglé. 2006. Observations of reactive gaseous mercury in the free troposphere at the mount bachelor observatory. Journal of Geophysical Research 111:D24301.

Talbot, R., H. Mao, E. Scheuer, J. Dibb, and M. Avery. 2007. Total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 34(23).

Tanimoto, H., Y. Sawa, S. Yonemura, K. Yumimoto, H. Matsueda, I. Uno, T. Hayasaka, H. Mukai, Y. Tohjima, K. Tsuboi, and L. Zhang. 2008. Diagnosing recent CO emissions and springtime O3 evolution in East Asia using coordinated ground-based observations of O3 and CO during the East Asian regional experiment (EAREX) 2005 campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(1):3525-3561.

Tao, L., K. Kannan, C.M. Wong, K.F. Arcaro, and J.L. Butenhoff. 2008. Perfluorinated compounds in human milk from Massachusetts, USA. Environmental Science & Technology 42(8):3096-3101.

Tegen, I. 2003. Modeling the mineral dust aerosol cycle in the climate system. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(18-19):1821-1834.

Telmer, K., and M. Veiga. 2008. Knowledge Gaps in Mercury Pollution from Gold Mining. In Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Measurements, models and policy implications, edited by N. Pirrone and R. Mason, pp. 131-172. New York: Springer.

Textor, C., M. Schulz, S. Guibert, S. Kinne, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, H. Feichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, L. Horowitz, P. Huang, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, S. Kloster, D. Koch, A. KirkevÃ¥g, J.E. Kristjansson, M. Krol, A. Lauer, J.F. Lamarque, X. Liu, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, Ã. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie. 2006. Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within aerocom. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(7):1777-1813.

Thiemens, M.H. 2006. History and applications of mass-independent isotope effects. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 34(1):217-262.

Thompson, A.M., K.E. Pickering, R.R. Dickerson, W.G. Ellis Jr., D.J. Jacob, J.R. Scala, W.-K. Tao, D.P. McNamara, and J. Simpson. 1994. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets Journal of Geophysical Research 99(D9):18,703-18,711.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Thouret, V., J.P. Cammas, B. Sauvage, G. Athier, R. Zbinden, P. Nédélec, P. Simon, and F. Karcher. 2006. Tropopause referenced ozone climatology and inter-annual variability (1994-2003) from the MOZAIC programme. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(4):1033-1051.

Toner, S.M., L.G. Shields, D.A. Sodeman, and K.A. Prather. 2008. Using mass spectral source signatures to apportion exhaust particles from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles in a freeway study using uf-atofms. Atmospheric Environment 42(3):568-581.

Toumi, R., J.D. Haigh, and K.S. Law. 1996. A tropospheric ozone-lightning climate feedback. Geophysical Research Letters 23(9):1037-1040.

Travnikov, O. 2005. Contribution of the intercontinental atmospheric transport to mercury pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric Environment 39(39 SPEC. ISS.):7541-7548.

Trickl, T., O.R. Cooper, H. Eisele, P. James, R. Mücke, and A. Stohl. 2003. Intercontinental transport and its influence on the ozone concentration over central Europe: Three case studies. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(12).

Uno, I., K. Eguchi, K. Yumimoto, T. Takemura, A. Shimizu, M. Uematsu, Z. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Hara, and N. Sugimoto. 2009. Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe. Nature Geoscience 2:557-560 doi:10.1038/ngeo583.

Uno, I., Z. Wang, M. Chiba, Y.S. Chun, S.L. Gong, Y. Hara, E. Jung, S.S. Lee, M. Liu, M. Mikami, S. Music, S. Nickovic, S. Satake, Y. Shao, Z. Song, N. Sugimoto, T. Tanaka, and D.L. Westphal. 2006. Dust model intercomparison (DMIP) study over Asia: Overview. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(D12213).

Usenko, S., D.H. Landers, P.G. Appleby, and S.L. Simonich. 2007. Current and historical deposition of pbdes, pesticides, pcbs, and pahs to rocky mountain national park. Environmental Science & Technology 41(21):7235-7241.

Valente, R.J., C. Shea, K. Lynn Humes, and R.L. Tanner. 2007. Atmospheric mercury in the great smoky mountains compared to regional and global levels. Atmospheric Environment 41(9):1861-1873.

van Aardenne, J.A., F.J. Dentener, J.G.J. Olivier, C.G.M.K. Goldewijk, and J. Lelieveld. 2001. A 1° × 1° resolution data set of historical anthropogenic trace gas emissions for the period 1890-1990. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(4):909-928.

van der A, R.J., H.J. Eskes, K.F. Boersma, T.P.C.v. Noije, M.V. Roozendael, I.D. Smedt, D.H.M.U. Peters, and E.W. Meijer. 2008. Trends, seasonal variability and dominant nox source derived from a ten year record of no2 measured from space.Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D04302, doi:10.1029/2007JD009021).

van der Werf, G.R., J.T. Randerson, L. Giglio, C.J. Collatz, P.S. Kasibhatla, and J. Arellano, A.F. 2006. Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6:3421-3441.

van Donkelaar, A., R. V. Martin, W. R. Leaitch, A.M. Macdonald, T.W. Walker, D.G. Streets, Q. Zhang, E.J. Dunlea, J.L. Jimenez, J.E. Dibb, L.G. Huey, R. Weber, and M.O. Andreae. 2008. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8:2999-3014.

van Vuuren, D.P., J. Weyant, and F. de la Chesnaye. 2006. Multi-gas scenarios to stabilize radiative forcing. Energy Economics 28:102-120.

VanCuren, R.A. 2003. Asian aerosols in North America: Extracting the chemical composition and mass concentration of the Asian continental aerosol plume from long-term aerosol records in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(20).

VanCuren, R.A., and T.A. Cahill. 2002. Asian aerosols in North America: Frequency and concentration of fine dust. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 107(24).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

VanCuren, R.A., S.S. Cliff, K.D. Perry, and M. Jimenez-Cruz. 2005. Asian continental aerosol persistence above the marine boundary layer over the eastern north pacific: Continuous aerosol measurements from intercontinental transport and chemical transformation 2002 (itct 2k2). Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 110(9):1-19.

Vander Pol, S.S., P.R. Becker, J.R. Kucklick, R.S. Pugh, D.G. Roseneau, and K.S. Simac. 2004. Persistent organic pollutants in Alaskan murre (uria spp.) eggs: Geographical, species, and temporal comparisons. Environmental Science & Technology 38(5):1305-1312.

Varekamp, J.C., and P.R. Buseck. 1984. The speciation of mercury in hydrothermal systems, with applications to ore deposition. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48(1):177-185.

Venier, M., J. Ferrario, and R.A. Hites. 2009. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere around the great lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 43(4):1036-1041.

Vingarzan, R. 2004. A review of surface ozone background levels and trends. Atmospheric Environment 38(21):3431-3442.

Volz, A., and D. Kley. 1988. Evaluation of the Montsouris series of ozone measurements made in the nineteenth century. Nature 332(6161):240-242.

Wallington, T.J., M.D. Hurley, J. Xia, D.J. Wuebbles, S. Sillman, A. Ito, J.E. Penner, D.A. Ellis, J. Martin, S.A. Mabury, O.J. Nielsen, and M.P.S. Andersen. 2006. Formation of c7f15cooh (pfoa) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids during the atmospheric oxidation of 8 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol. Environmental Science & Technology 40(3):924-930.

Wang, C. 2007. Impact of direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosols on tropical convective precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters 34(5):L05709.

Wang, H., D.J. Jacob, P. Le Sager, D.G. Streets, R.J. Park, A.B. Gilliland, and A. van Donkelaar. 2009a. Surface ozone background in the United States: Canadian and Mexican pollution influences. Atmospheric Environment 43(6):1310-1319.

Wang, K., R.E. Dickinson, and S. Liang. 2009b. Clear sky visibility has decreased over land globally from 1973 to 2007. Science 323(5920):1468-1470.

Wang, Y., D.J. Jacob, and J.A. Logan. 1998. Global simulation of tropospheric O3-Nox -hydrocarbon chemistry 3. Origin of tropospheric ozone and effects of nonmethane hydrocarbons. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 103(D9):10757-10767.

Wängberg, I., J. Munthe, T. Berg, R. Ebinghaus, H.H. Kock, C. Temme, E. Bieber, T.G. Spain, and A. Stolk. 2007. Trends in air concentration and deposition of mercury in the coastal environment of the North Sea area. Atmospheric Environment 41(12):2612-2619.

Wania, F. 2007. A global mass balance analysis of the source of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the Arctic Ocean. Environmental Science & Technology 41(13):4529-4535.

Wania, F., and D. Mackay. 1995. A global distribution model for persistent organic-chemicals. Science of the Total Environment 161:211-232.

Wania, F., D. Mackay, and J.T. Hoff. 1999. The importance of snow scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon vapors. Environmental Science & Technology 33(1):195-197.

Warneke, C., S.A. McKeen, J.A.d. Gouw, P.D. Goldan, W.C. Kuster, J.S. Holloway, E.J. Williams, B.M. Lerner, D.D. Parrish, M. Trainer, F.C. Fehsenfeld, S. Kato, E.L. Atlas, A. Baker, and D.R. Blake. 2007. Determination of urban volatile organic compound emission ratios and comparison with an emissions database. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D10S47, doi:10.1029/2006JD007930.

Watson, J.G., J.C. Chow, and J.E. Houck. 2001. PM2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995. Chemosphere 43:1141-1151.

Weaver, C.P., X.-Z. Liang, and J. Zhu. 2009. A Preliminary Synthesis of Modeled Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional Ozone Concentrations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (in press).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Wedepohl, K. 1995. The composition of continental crust. Cosmochim. Acta. 59:1217-1232.

Weiss-Penzias, P., M.S. Gustin, and S.N. Lyman. 2009. Observations of speciated atmospheric mercury at three sites in Nevada: Evidence for a free tropospheric source of reactive gaseous mercury. Journal of Geophysical Research 114:D14302, doi:10.1029/2008JD011607.

Weiss-Penzias, P., D. Jaffe, P. Swartzendruber, W. Hafner, D. Chand, and E. Prestbo. 2007. Quantifying Asian and biomass burning sources of mercury using the hg/co ratio in pollution plumes observed at the mount bachelor observatory. Atmospheric Environment 41(21):4366-4379.

Weiss-Penzias, P., D.A. Jaffe, P. Swartzendruber, J.B. Dennison, D. Chand, W. Hafner, and E. Prestbo. 2006. Observations of Asian air pollution in the free troposphere at Mount Bachelor observatory during the spring of 2004. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 111(D10304).

Weiss-Penzias, P., D.A. Jaffe, A. McClintick, E.M. Prestbo, and M. Landis. 2003. Gaseous elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer: Evidence for rapid removal in anthropogenic pollution. Environmental Science and Technology 37:3755-3763.

Wells, K.C., M. Witek, P. Flatau, S.M. Kreidenweis, and D.L. Westphal. 2007. An analysis of seasonal surface dust aerosol concentrations in the western us (2001-2004): Observations and model predictions. Atmospheric Environment 41(31):6585-6597.

West, J. J., A.F. Fiore, L.W. Horowitz, and D.L. Mauzerall. 2006. Mitigating ozone pollution with methane emission controls: global health benefits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 103(11):3988-3993.

White, E.M., G.J. Keeler, and M.S. Landis. 2009. Spatial variability of mercury wet deposition in eastern Ohio: Summertime meteorological case study analysis of local source influences. Environmental Science & Technology. In press.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2002. Deaths and DALYs attributable to outdoor air pollution. Available online at http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/national/countryprofile/mapoap/en/.

———. 2003. Health risks of persistent organic pollutants from long-range transboundary air pollution. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Available online at http://www.euro.who.int.

———. 2004. Health Aspects of Air Pollution. Results From the WHO Project “Systematic Review of Health Aspects of Air Pollution in Europe.” Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

———. 2006. Air quality guidelines: Global update 2005: Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization.

Wiedinmyer, C., and H. Friedli. 2007. Mercury emission estimates from fires: An initial inventory for the United States. Environmental Science and Technology 41(23):8092-8098.

Wild, O., and H. Akimoto. 2001. Intercontinental transport of ozone and its precursors in a 3-D global CTM. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:27,729-27,744, doi:10.1029/2000JD000123.

Wild, O., and M.J. Prather. 2000. Excitation of the primary tropospheric chemical mode in a global three-dimensional model. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D20):24647-24660.

Wild, O., M.J. Prather, and H. Akimoto. 2001. Indirect long-term global radiative cooling from NOx emissions. Geophysical Research Letters 28(9):1719-1722.

Wild, O., P. Pochanart, and H. Akimoto. 2004a. Trans-Eurasian transport of ozone and its precursors. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(11):D11302.

Wild, O., M.J. Prather, H. Akimoto, J.K. Sundet, I.S.A. Isaksen, J.H. Crawford, D.D. Davis, M.A. Avery, Y. Kondo, G.W. Sachse, and S.T. Sandholm. 2004b. Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001 over the western pacific: Regional ozone production and its global impacts. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 109(15).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Wild, O., J.K. Sundet, M.J. Prather, I.S.A. Isaksen, H. Akimoto, E.V. Browell, and S.J. Oltmans. 2003. Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001 over the Western Pacific: Comparisons with trace-p lidar, ozonesondes, and total ozone mapping spectrometer columns. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres 108(21):8826, doi:10.1029/2002JD003283.

WMO. 2004. The changing atmosphere : An integrated global chemistry observation theme for the igos partnership. Report of the Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observation Theme Team. September. World Meteorological Organization. Report GAW No. 159 (WMO TD No. 1235). Noordwijk, the Netherlands.

Wong, F., H.A. Alegria, T.F. Bidleman, V. Alvarado, F. Angeles, A.A. Galarza, E.R. Bandala, I.D. Hinojosa, I.G. Estrada, G.G. Reyes, G. Gold-Bouchot, J.V.M. Zamora, J. MurguiaGonzalez, and E.R. Espinoza. 2009. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in mexico. Environmental Science & Technology 43(3):704-710.

Wotawa, G., P.C. Novelli, M. Trainer, and C. Granier. 2001. Inter-annual variability of summertime co concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere explained by boreal forest fires in North America and Russia. Geophysical Research Letters 28(24):4575-4578.

Wotawa, G., and M. Trainer. 2000. The influence of Canadian forest fires on pollutant concentrations in the United States. Science 288(5464):324-328.

Wu, S., L.J. Mickley, D.J. Jacob, D. Rind, and D.G. Streets. 2008a. Effects of 2000-2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone in the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 113: D18312.

Wu, S., L.J. Mickley, E.M. Leibensperger, D.J. Jacob, D. Rind, and D.G. Streets. 2008b. Effects of 2000-2050 global change on ozone air quality in the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D06302.

Wu, Y., S. Wang, D.G. Streets, J. Hao, M. Chan, and J. Jiang. 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in china from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science and Technology 40(17):5312-5318.

Wuebbles, D.J., and K. Hayhoe. 2002. Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth-Science Reviews 57(3-4):177-210.

Xin, M., M. Gustin, and D. Johnson. 2007. Laboratory investigation of the potential for reemission of atmospherically derived hg from soils. Environmental Science and Technology 41(14):4946-4951.

Xu, X., W. Lin, T. Wang, P. Yan, J. Tang, Z. Meng, and Y. Wang. 2008. Long-term trend of surface ozone at a regional background station in eastern China 1991-2006: Enhanced variability. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(1):215-243.

Yang, H., N.L. Rose, R.W. Battarbee, and J.F. Boyle. 2002. Mercury and lead budgets for lochnagar, a scottish mountain lake and its catchment. Environmental Science and Technology 36(7):1383-1388.

Yienger, J.J., M. Galanter, T.A. Holloway, M.J. Phadnis, S.K. Guttikunda, G.R. Carmichael, W.J. Moxim, and H. Levy II. 2000. The episodic nature of air pollution transport from Asia to North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D22):26931-26945.

Yu, H., L. A. Remer, M. Chin, H. Bian, R. G. Kleidman, and T. Diehl. 2008. A satellite-based assessment of transpacific transport of pollution aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research 113:D14S12, doi:10.1029/2007JD009349.

Zeng, X., S.L.M. Simonich, K.R. Robrock, P. Korytar, L. Alvarez-Cohen, and D.F. Barofsky. 2008. Development and validation of a congener-specific photodegradation model for polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(12):2427-2435.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×

Zhang, L., D.J. Jacob, K.F. Boersma, D.A. Jaffe, J.R. Olson, K.W. Bowman, J.R. Worden, A.M. Thompson, M.A. Avery, R.C. Cohen, J.E. Dibb, F.M. Flocke, H.E. Fuelberg, L.G. Huey, W.W. McMillan, H.B. Singh, and A.J. Weinheimer. 2008a. Transpacific transport of ozone pollution and the effect of recent Asian emission increases on air quality in North America: An integrated analysis using satellite, aircraft, ozonesonde, and surface observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8(2):8143-8191.

Zhang, L.S., J.M. Ma, S. Venkatesh, Y.F. Li, and P. Cheung. 2008b. Modeling evidence of episodic intercontinental long-range transport of lindane. Environmental Science & Technology 42(23):8791-8797.

Zhang, Q., D.G. Streets, G.R. Carmichael, K. He, H. Huo, A. Kannari, Z. Klimont, I. Park, S. Reddy, J.S. Fu, D. Chen, L. Duan, Y. Lei, L. Wang, and Z. Yao. 2009a. Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 9:4081-4139.

Zhang, Y., X. Wang, H. Chen, X. Yang, J. Chen, and J.O. Allen. 2009b. Source apportionment of lead-containing aerosol particles in shanghai using single particle mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 74(4):501-507.

Zhang, Y.X., and S. Tao. 2009. Global atmospheric emission inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004. Atmospheric Environment 43(4):812-819.

Zhao, T.L., S.L. Gong, X.Y. Zhang, and D.A. Jaffe. 2008. Asian dust storm influence on North American ambient PM levels: Observational evidence and controlling factors. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(10):2717-2728.

Zhu, J.X., Y. Hirai, S. Sakai, and M.H. Zheng. 2008. Potential source and emission analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in china. Chemosphere 73(1):S72-S77.

Ziemke, J.R., S. Chandra, B.N. Duncan, L. Froidevaux, P.K. Bhartia, P.F. Levelt, and J.W. Waters. 2006. Tropospheric ozone determined from Aura OMI and MLS: Evaluation of measurements and comparison with the global modeling initiative’s chemical transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research 111(19):D19303.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12743.
×
Page 190
Next: Appendix A: Committee Sponsors, Statement of Task, and Schedule »
Global Sources of Local Pollution: An Assessment of Long-Range Transport of Key Air Pollutants to and from the United States Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $64.00 Buy Ebook | $49.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Recent advances in air pollution monitoring and modeling capabilities have made it possible to show that air pollution can be transported long distances and that adverse impacts of emitted pollutants cannot be confined to one country or even one continent. Pollutants from traffic, cooking stoves, and factories emitted half a world away can make the air we inhale today more hazardous for our health. The relative importance of this "imported" pollution is likely to increase, as emissions in developing countries grow, and air quality standards in industrial countries are tightened.

Global Sources of Local Pollution examines the impact of the long-range transport of four key air pollutants (ozone, particulate matter, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants) on air quality and pollutant deposition in the United States. It also explores the environmental impacts of U.S. emissions on other parts of the world. The book recommends that the United States work with the international community to develop an integrated system for determining pollution sources and impacts and to design effective response strategies.

This book will be useful to international, federal, state, and local policy makers responsible for understanding and managing air pollution and its impacts on human health and well-being.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!