National Academies Press: OpenBook

Advancing the Science of Climate Change (2010)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Advancing the Science of Climate Change

America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number DG133R08CQ0062. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agency.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14588-6 (Book)

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14588-0 (Book)

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14589-3 (PDF)

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14589-9 (PDF)

Library of Congress Catalog Control Number: 2010940606

Additional copies of this report are available from the

National Academies Press,

500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Cover images:

Far left: courtesy of Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service. Photograph by Scott Bauer.

Middle left: Borden, K., and S. Cutter. 2008. Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States. International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (1):64.

Middle right: Courtesy of DOE/NREL; Credit - Sandia National Laboratories.

Far right: Courtesy of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of Commerce. Photograph by Commander John Bortniak, NOAA Corps, August 1991.

Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

AMERICA’S CLIMATE CHOICES: PANEL ON ADVANCING THE SCIENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

PAMELA A. MATSON (Chair),

Stanford University, California

THOMAS DIETZ (Vice Chair),

Michigan State University, East Lansing

WALEED ABDALATI,

University of Colorado at Boulder

ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR.,

University of Maryland, College Park

KEN CALDEIRA,

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, California

ROBERT W. CORELL,

H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment, Washington, D.C.

RUTH S. DEFRIES,

Columbia University, New York, New York

INEZ Y. FUNG,

University of California, Berkeley

STEVEN GAINES,

University of California, Santa Barbara

GEORGE M. HORNBERGER,

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

MARIA CARMEN LEMOS,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

SUSANNE C. MOSER,

Susanne Moser Research & Consulting, Santa Cruz, California

RICHARD H. MOSS,

Joint Global Change Research Institute (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/University of Maryland), College Park, Maryland

EDWARD A. PARSON,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

A. R. RAVISHANKARA,

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado

RAYMOND W. SCHMITT,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

B. L. TURNER, II,

Arizona State University, Tempe

WARREN M. WASHINGTON,

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

JOHN P. WEYANT,

Stanford University, California

DAVID A. WHELAN,

The Boeing Company, Seal Beach, California

NRC Staff

IAN KRAUCUNAS, Study Director

PAUL STERN, Director,

Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change

ART CHARO, Senior Program Officer,

Space Studies Board

MAGGIE WALSER, Associate Program Officer

KATHERINE WELLER, Research Associate

GYAMI SHRESTHA, Christine Mirzayan Science and Policy Fellow

ROB GREENWAY, Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Foreword: About America’s Climate Choices

Convened by the National Research Council in response to a request from Congress (P.L. 110-161), America’s Climate Choices is a suite of five coordinated activities designed to study the serious and sweeping issues associated with global climate change, including the science and technology challenges involved, and to provide advice on the most effective steps and most promising strategies that can be taken to respond.


The Committee on America’s Climate Choices is responsible for providing overall direction, coordination, and integration of the America’s Climate Choices suite of activities and ensuring that these activities provide well-supported, action-oriented, and useful advice to the nation. The committee convened a Summit on America’s Climate Choices on March 30–31, 2009, to help frame the study and provide an opportunity for high-level input on key issues. The committee is also charged with writing a final report that builds on four panel reports and other sources to answer the following four overarching questions:

  • What short-term actions can be taken to respond effectively to climate change?

  • What promising long-term strategies, investments, and opportunities could be pursued to respond to climate change?

  • What are the major scientific and technological advances needed to better understand and respond to climate change?

  • What are the major impediments (e.g., practical, institutional, economic, ethical, intergenerational, etc.) to responding effectively to climate change, and what can be done to overcome these impediments?

The Panel on Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change was charged to describe, analyze, and assess strategies for reducing the net future human influence on climate. This report focuses on actions to reduce domestic greenhouse gas emissions and other human drivers of climate change, such as changes in land use, but also considers the international dimensions of climate stabilization.


The Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change was charged to describe, analyze, and assess actions and strategies to reduce vulnerability, increase adaptive

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

capacity, improve resiliency, and promote successful adaptation to climate change in different regions, sectors, systems, and populations. The panel’s report draws on a wide range of sources and case studies to identify lessons learned from past experiences, promising current approaches, and potential new directions.


The Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change was charged to provide a concise overview of past, present, and future climate change, including its causes and its impacts, and to recommend steps to advance our current understanding, including new observations, research programs, next-generation models, and the physical and human assets needed to support these and other activities. This report focuses on the scientific advances needed both to improve our understanding of the integrated human-climate system and to devise more effective responses to climate change.


The Panel on Informing Effective Decisions and Actions Related to Climate Change was charged to describe and assess different activities, products, strategies, and tools for informing decision makers about climate change and helping them plan and execute effective, integrated responses. The panel’s report describes the different types of climate change-related decisions and actions being taken at various levels and in different sectors and regions; it develops a framework, tools, and practical advice for ensuring that the best available technical knowledge about climate change is used to inform these decisions and actions.


America’s Climate Choices builds on an extensive foundation of previous and ongoing work, including National Research Council reports, assessments from other national and international organizations, the current scientific literature, climate action plans by various entities, and other sources. More than a dozen boards and standing committees of the National Research Council were involved in developing the study, and many additional groups and individuals provided additional input during the study process. Outside viewpoints were also obtained via public events and workshops (including the Summit), invited presentations at committee and panel meetings, and comments received through the study website, http://americasclimatechoices.org.


Collectively, the America’s Climate Choices suite of activities involves more than 90 volunteers from a range of communities including academia, various levels of government, business and industry, other nongovernmental organizations, and the international community. Responsibility for the final content of each report rests solely with the authoring panel and the National Research Council. However, the development of each report included input from and interactions with members of all five study groups; the membership of each group is listed in Appendix A.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Preface

The Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change is one of four panels convened under the America’s Climate Choices suite of activities, which is collectively responsible for providing advice on the most effective steps and most promising strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change (see Foreword). Our charge was to provide a concise overview of past, present, and future climate change, including its causes and its impacts, and to recommend steps to advance our current understanding of climate change and the effectiveness of responses to it (see Appendix B).


The panel’s first challenge was to decide how to summarize the large volume of excellent peer-reviewed research by the national and international community to produce a concise overview of what is known. We recognize that this report is not brief; we decided that comprehensiveness was essential to the report’s credibility. In addition to drawing on the new scientific results being published nearly every week, we were aided in this task by the final U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Synthesis and Assessment Product Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (USGCRP, 2009a), the recent National Research Council (NRC) report Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the Challenges of Climate Change (NRC, 2009k), and the four volumes of the fourth assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a-d). In keeping with the overarching goals of the America’s Climate Choices study, we focus on the scientific knowledge that we thought would be of greatest interest to decision makers facing crucial choices about how to respond to climate change. Likewise, in looking to the future, we emphasize the scientific advances that could help decision makers identify, evaluate, and implement effective actions to limit its magnitude and adapt to its impacts.


The body of science reviewed by the Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change makes a compelling case that climate change is occurring and suggests that it threatens not just the environment and ecosystems of the world but the well-being of people today and in future generations. Climate change is thus a sustainability challenge. We hope that, for those who are skeptical or uncertain about what the body of scientific evidence tells us, our report will be informative. The scientific process is never “closed”—new ideas are always part of scientific debate, and there is always more to be learned—but scientific understanding does advance over time as some ideas are supported by multiple lines of evidence while others prove inconsistent with the data

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

or basic principles. Our understanding of climate change and its causes and consequences have advanced in this way.


The panel also examined the adequacy of the science base needed to improve the effectiveness of actions taken to limit the magnitude of future climate change and adapt to its inevitable impacts. Decision makers in the federal government, state governments, tribes, corporations, municipalities, and nongovernmental organizations, as well as citizen decision makers, are beginning to act. Climate research over the past three decades, however, has been driven largely by a need to better understand rather than to explicitly respond to climate change. Until recently, there has been relatively little research focused on the development and implementation of climate-friendly energy sources or land use practices, socioeconomic and behavioral processes that affect responses, adaptation strategies, analytical approaches to evaluate trade-offs and unintended consequences of actions, policy mechanisms, and other response issues. To address the need for new kinds of knowledge, we recommend some significant changes to the nation’s climate change research enterprise.


Our report covers a great deal of scientific territory and has been accomplished over a relatively short time period. For this, we thank our tremendously dedicated panel members and remarkably talented NRC study director Ian Kraucunas. The report also benefitted from the insights and assistance of several members of our sister panels and the Committee on America’s Climate Choices; in particular, we thank Kris Ebi, George Eads, Bob Fri, Linda Mearns, and Susan Solomon. In addition, we thank Mike Behrenfeld, Bill Nordhaus, Michele Betsill, Peter Schultz, Chris Field, and others who contributed written materials or spoke at panel meetings. We also benefitted from many one-on-one discussions throughout the study process and from the comments and perspectives contributed through the America’s Climate Choices website.1


The report also would not have been possible without the dedication and contributions of the NRC staff. In addition to study director Ian Kraucunas, we thank Paul Stern, who provided many good ideas and written contributions throughout the study; Art Charo, who staffed the workshop on geoengineering held in June 2009; Maggie Walser, who assisted with the panel’s response to external review comments; Madeline Woodruff and Joe Casola, who contributed to several chapters; Katie Weller, who compiled the references for the report—a huge job; our science writers/editors Lisa Palmer and Yvonne Baskin; Rob Greenway, who provided logistical support; and Chris Elfring, who provided wise advice at several points in the process.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

There is still much to learn about the physical phenomenon of global climate change and its social, economic, and ecological drivers and consequences. There is also a great deal to learn about how to respond effectively without creating serious unintended consequences and, where possible, creating multiple co-benefits. If the scientific progress of the past few decades is any indication, we can expect amazing progress, but only if there is adequate demand, support, and organization for the nation’s new era of climate change research.


Pamela Matson, Chair, and Thomas Dietz, Vice Chair

Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report:


DOUG ARENT, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

DONALD F. BOESCH, University of Maryland

VIRGINIA BURKETT, U.S. Geological Survey

ROBERT DICKINSON, The University of Texas at Austin

DAVID GOLDSTON, Natural Resources Defense Council

DENNIS HARTMANN, University of Washington

JEANINE A. JONES, California Department of Water Resources

THOMAS R. KARL, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

ARTHUR LEE, ChevronTexaco Corporation, San Ramon

GERALD A. MEEHL, National Center for Atmospheric Research

JERRY M. MELILLO, Marine Biological Laboratory

WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS, Yale University

ARISTIDES A.N. PATRINOS, Synthetic Genomics, Inc.

ORTWIN RENN, Institute of Management and Technology

RICHARD RICHELS, Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.

THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland

ROBERT H. SOCOLOW, Princeton University

AMANDA STAUDT, National Wildlife Federation

MICHAEL TOMAN, The World Bank

JOHN M. WALLACE, University of Washington


Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Andrew Solow (Marine Policy Center) and Robert Frosch (Harvard

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

University). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.


Institutional oversight for this project was provided by:

BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE

ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR. (Chair), University of Maryland, College Park

ROSINA M. BIERBAUM, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

RICHARD CARBONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

WALTER F. DABBERDT, Vaisala, Inc., Boulder, Colorado

KIRSTIN DOW, University of South Carolina, Columbia

GREG S. FORBES, The Weather Channel, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia

ISAAC HELD, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, New Jersey

ARTHUR LEE, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California

RAYMOND T. PIERREHUMBERT, University of Chicago, Illinois

KIMBERLY PRATHER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

KIRK R. SMITH, University of California, Berkeley

JOHN T. SNOW, University of Oklahoma, Norman

THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR, Colorado State University/CIRA, Fort Collins

XUBIN ZENG, University of Arizona, Tucson

Ex Officio Members

GERALD A. MEEHL, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

NRC Staff

CHRIS ELFRING, Director

LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer

IAN KRAUCUNAS, Senior Program Officer

MARTHA MCCONNELL, Program Officer

MAGGIE WALSER, Associate Program Officer

TOBY WARDEN, Associate Program Officer

JOSEPH CASOLA, Postdoctoral Fellow

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator

KATIE WELLER, Research Associate

LAUREN M. BROWN, Research Assistant

ROB GREENWAY, Program Associate

SHELLY FREELAND, Senior Program Assistant

AMANDA PURCELL, Senior Program Assistant

JANEISE STURDIVANT, Program Assistant

RICARDO PAYNE, Program Assistant

SHUBHA BANSKOTA, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

4

 

INTEGRATIVE THEMES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH

 

91

   

 Theme 1:  Climate Forcings, Feedbacks, Responses, and Thresholds in the Earth System,

 

92

   

 Theme 2:  Climate-Related Human Behaviors and Institutions,

 

101

   

 Theme 3:  Vulnerability and Adaptation Analyses of Coupled Human-Environment Systems,

 

107

   

 Theme 4:  Research to Support Strategies for Limiting Climate Change,

 

113

   

 Theme 5:  Effective Information and Decision-Support Systems,

 

121

   

 Theme 6:  Integrated Climate Observing Systems,

 

126

   

 Theme 7:  Improved Projections, Analyses, and Assessments,

 

138

   

 Chapter Conclusion,

 

149

5

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH

 

151

   

 An Integrative, Interdisciplinary, Decision-Relevant Research Program,

 

152

   

 Setting Priorities,

 

155

   

 Infrastructural Elements of the Research Program,

 

158

   

 Organizing the Research,

 

162

   

 Broader Partnerships,

 

171

   

 Capacity Building,

 

177

   

 A New Era of Climate Change Research,

 

180

PART II:
TECHNICAL CHAPTERS

 

 

6

 

CHANGES IN THE CLIMATE SYSTEM

 

183

   

 Factors Influencing Earth’s Climate,

 

184

   

 Observed Climate Change,

 

201

   

 Future Climate Change,

 

216

   

 Research Needs,

 

228

7

 

SEA LEVEL RISE AND THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

 

235

   

 Observed Sea Level Changes,

 

236

   

 Causes of Sea Level Rise,

 

238

   

 Projections of Future Sea Level Rise,

 

243

   

 Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Other Climate Changes on Coastal Environments,

 

247

   

 Responding to Sea Level Rise,

 

251

   

 Research Needs,

 

252

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

13

 

TRANSPORTATION

 

333

   

 Role of Transportation in Driving Climate Change,

 

334

   

 Reducing Transportation-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions,

 

336

   

 Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation,

 

342

   

 Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change in the Transportation Sector,

 

342

   

 Research Needs,

 

344

14

 

ENERGY SUPPLY AND USE

 

349

   

 Energy Consumption,

 

350

   

 Reductions in Energy Demand,

 

352

   

 Energy Efficiency Improvements,

 

353

   

 Energy Sources that Reduce Emissions of Greenhouse Gases,

 

354

   

 Carbon Dioxide Removal Approaches,

 

366

   

 Energy Carriers, Transmission, and Storage,

 

368

   

 Science to Support Technology Deployment,

 

369

   

 Likely Impacts of Climate Change on Energy System Operations,

 

369

   

 Science to Support Adapting to Climate Change,

 

373

   

 Research Needs,

 

374

15

 

SOLAR RADIATION MANAGEMENT

 

377

   

 History of Solar Radiation Management Proposals,

 

378

   

 Proposed Solar Radiation Management Approaches,

 

380

   

 Possible Unintended Consequences,

 

382

   

 Governance issues,

 

384

   

 Ethical Issues,

 

384

   

 Research Needs,

 

385

16

 

NATIONAL AND HUMAN SECURITY

 

389

   

 The Relationship Between Climate and National Security,

 

392

   

 Treaty Verification,

 

395

   

 The Relationship Between Climate and Human Security,

 

396

   

 Research Needs,

 

398

17

 

DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING, AND EVALUATING CLIMATE POLICIES

 

401

   

 Types of Climate Policies and Agreements,

 

402

   

 Research Challenges Associated with Policy Design and Implementation,

 

406

   

 Research Needs,

 

416

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R20
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page R22
Next: Summary »
Advancing the Science of Climate Change Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $49.95 Buy Ebook | $39.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for--and in many cases is already affecting--a broad range of human and natural systems. The compelling case for these conclusions is provided in Advancing the Science of Climate Change, part of a congressionally requested suite of studies known as America's Climate Choices. While noting that there is always more to learn and that the scientific process is never closed, the book shows that hypotheses about climate change are supported by multiple lines of evidence and have stood firm in the face of serious debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.

As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute through research that improves understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change and also is useful to decision makers at the local, regional, national, and international levels. The book identifies decisions being made in 12 sectors, ranging from agriculture to transportation, to identify decisions being made in response to climate change.

Advancing the Science of Climate Change calls for a single federal entity or program to coordinate a national, multidisciplinary research effort aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. Seven cross-cutting research themes are identified to support this scientific enterprise. In addition, leaders of federal climate research should redouble efforts to deploy a comprehensive climate observing system, improve climate models and other analytical tools, invest in human capital, and improve linkages between research and decisions by forming partnerships with action-oriented programs.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!