National Academies Press: OpenBook

Advancing the Science of Climate Change (2010)

Chapter: References

« Previous: 17 Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Climate Policies
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

References

Ackerman, K. V., and E. T. Sundquist. 2008. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets. Environmental Science & Technology 42(15):5688-5693.

Adams, P. N., and D. L. Inman. 2009. Climate Change and Potential Hotspots of Coastal Erosion Along the Southern California Coast—Final Report. CEC-500-2009-022-F, Sacramento, California Energy Commission.

Adger, W. N., J. Paavola, S. Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. 2006. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adger, W. N., S. Agrawala, M. M. Q. Mirza, C. Conde, K. L. O’Brien, J. Pulhin, R. Pulwarty, B. Smit, and K. Takahashi. 2007. Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, C. E. Hanson, and P. J. Van Der Linden, eds. Cambridge:M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, C. E. Hanson, and P. J. Van Der Linden, eds. Cambridge:Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adger, W. N., I. Lorenzoni, and K. O’Brien. 2009a. Adaptation now. In Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance. W. N. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, and K. L. O’Brien, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adger, W. N., S. Dessai, M. Goulden, M. Hulme, I. Lorenzoni, D. R. Nelson, L. O. Naess, J. Wolf, and A. Wreford. 2009b. Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? Climatic Change 93(3-4):335-354.

Adler, M. D., and E. A. Posner. 2006. New Foundations of Cost-Benefit Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Agrawala, S. 2004. Adaptation, development assistance and planning: Challenges and opportunities. IDS Bulletin—Institute of Development Studies 35:50-54.

Agrawal, A. 2008. The role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. In Social Dimensions of Climate Change Workshop. Washington, DC: Social Development Department, The World Bank.

Agrawal, A., and N. Perrin. 2008. Climate Adaptation, Local Institutions, and Rural Livelihoods. Ann Arbor, MI: International Forestry Resources and Institutions Program, University of Michigan.

AGU (American Geophysical Union). 2009. Geoengineering the Climate System. A Position Statement of the American Geophysical Union (adopted by the AGU Council on December 13, 2009). Washington, DC: AGU.

Airame, S., J. E. Dugan, K. D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, D. A. Mcardle, and R. R. Warner. 2003. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: A case study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13 (1):S170-S184.

Akbari, H., M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha. 2001. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy 70(3):295-310.

Akbari, H., S. Menon, and A. Rosenfeld. 2009. Global cooling: Increasing world-wide urban albedos to offset CO2. Climatic Change 94(3-4):275-286.

Albrecht, A., D. Schindler, K. Grebhan, U. Kohnle, and H. Mayer. 2009. Storminess over the North-Atlantic European region under climate change—a review. Allgemeine Forst Und Jagdzeitung 180(5-6):109-118.

Aldy, J. E., and R. N. Stavins. 2007. Architectures for Agreement. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Alheit, J., and E. Hagen. 1997. Long-term climate forcing of European herring and sardine populations.1997. Long-term climate forcing of European herring and sardine populations. Fisheries Oceanography 6:130-139.

Allan, J. D., M. A. Palmer, and N. L. Poff. 2005. Climate change and freshwater ecosystems. Pp. 272-290 in Climate Change and Biodiversity. T. E. Lovejoy and L. Hannah, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Alley, R. B., J. Marotzke, W. D. Nordhaus, J. T. Overpeck, D. M. Peteet, R. A. Pielke, Jr., R. T. Pierrehumbert, P. B. Rhines, T. F. Stocker, L. D. Talley, and J. M. Wallace. 2003. Abrupt climate change. Science 299(5615):2005-2010.

Alley, W. M. 1984. The Palmer Drought Severity Index—Limitations and assumptions. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 23:1100-1109.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Alley, W. M., T. E. Reilly, and F. O. Lehn. 1999. Sustainability of ground-water resources. In U.S. Geological Survey Circular. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. Available at http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS22429. Accessed December 3, 2009.

AMS (American Meteorological Society). 2009. Geoengineering the Climate System. A Policy Statement of the American Meteorological Society (adopted by the AMS Council on July 20, 2009). Washington, DC: AMS.

Anderies, J. M., M. A. Janssen, and E. Ostrom. 2004. A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecology and Society 9(1):18. Available at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss1/art18/print.pdf. Accessed May 10, 2010.

Anderson, P. J., and J. F. Piatt. 1999. Community reorganization in the Gulf of Alaska following ocean climate regime shift. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 189:117-123.

Andersson, K., and E. Ostrom. 2008. Analyzing decentralized resource regimes from a polycentric perspective. Policy Sciences 41(1):71-93.

Andreadis, K. M., and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2006. Trends in 20th century drought over the continental United States. Geophysical Research Letters 33(10).

Andreae, M. O., and P. Merlet. 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(4):955-966.

Angel, S., S. Sheppard, and D. Civco. 2005. The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion. Washington, DC: Department of Transport and Urban Development, The World Bank.

Angert, A., S. Biraud, C. Bonfils, C. C. Henning, W. Buermann, J. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, and I. Fung. 2005. Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:10823-10827.

Annan, J. D., J. C. Hargreaves, R. Ohgaito, A. Abe-Ouchi, and S. Emori. 2005. Efficiently constraining climate sensitivity with paleoclimate simulations. Scientific Online Letters on the Atmosphere 1:181-184.

Ansolabehere, S., and D. M. Koninsky. 2009. Public attitudes toward construction of new power plants. Public Opinion Quarterly 73(3):566-577.

Anthoff, D., R. S. J. Tol, and G.W. Yohe. 2009. Risk aversion, time preference, and the social cost of carbon. Environmental Research Letters 4(2):024002.

Anthoff, D., R. Nicholls, and R. Tol. 2010. The economic impact of substantial sea-level rise. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(4):321-335.

Antle, J. M. 2009. Agriculture and the Food System. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Archer, C. L., and M. Z. Jacobson. 2005. Evaluation of global wind power. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:D12110.

Archer, D., and B. Buffett. 2005. Time-dependent response of the global ocean clathrate reservoir to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 6.

Armitage, D., F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday, eds. 2007. Adaptive Co-Management: Collaboration, Learning, and Multi-Level Governance. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Arneth, A., N. Unger, M. Kulmala, and M. O. Andreae. 2009. Clean the air, heat the planet? Science 326(5953):672-673.

Arriaga, L., A. E. Castellanos, E. Moreno, and J. Alarcon. 2004. Potential ecological distribution of alien invasive species and risk assessment: A case study of buffel grass in arid regions of Mexico. Conservation Biology 18(6):1504-1514.

Arrigo, K. R., G. Van Dijken, and S. Pabi. 2008. Impact of a shrinking Arctic ice cover on marine primary production. Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19).

Arrow, K., R. Solow, P. R. Portney, E. E. Leamer, R. Radner, and H. Schuman. 1993. Report of the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation. Federal Register 58(1993):4601-4614.

Arrow, K., P. Dasgupta, L. Goulder, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, G. Heal, S. Levin, K.-G. Maler, S. Schneider, D. Starrett, and B. Walker. 2004. Are we consuming too much? Journal of Economic Perspectives 18(3):147-172.

Arunachalam, V. S., and E. L. Fleischer. 2008. The global energy landscape and materials innovation.2008. The global energy landscape and materials innovation. MRS Bulletin 33(4):264-276.

Arvai, J., G Bridge, N. Dolsak, R. Franzese, T. Koontz, A. Luginbuhl, P. Robbins, K. Richards, K. Smith Korfmacher, B. Sohngen, J. Tansey, and A. Thompson. 2006. Adaptive management of the global climate problem: Bridging the gap between climate research and climate policy. Climatic Change 78:217-225.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers). 2009. Report Card for America’s Infastructure. Available at http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/. Accessed April 29, 2010.

Asilomar Scientific Organizing Committee. 2010. Statement from the Asilomare International Conference on Climate Intervention Technologies, March 26, 2010. Climate Response Fund, www.climateresponsefund.org.

Asner, G. P. 2009. Tropical forest carbon assessment: Integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches. Environmental Research Letters 4(3).

Atkinson, G., and S. Mourato. 2008. Environmental cost-benefit analysis. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33(1):317-344.

Auffhammer, M., V. Ramanathan, and J. R. Vincent. 2006. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(52):19668-19672.

Auld, G., L. H. Gulbrandsen, and C. L. McDermott. 2008. Certification schemes and the impacts on forests and forestry.Certification schemes and the impacts on forests and forestry. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33:187-211.

Backlund, P., A. Janetos, and D. Schimel. 2008. Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

Bäckstrand, K. 2006. Democratizing global environmental governance? Stakeholder democracy after the World Summit on Sustainable Development. European Journal of International Relations 12(4):467-498.

Baer, P., J. Harte, B. Haya, A. V. Herzog, J. Holdren, N. E. Hultman, D. M. Kammen, R. B. Norgaard, and L. Raymond. 2000. Climate change: Equity and greenhouse gas responsibility. Science 289:2287.

Baker, D. J., R. W. Schmitt, and C. Wunsch. 2007. Endowments and new institutions for long-term observations. Oceanography 20(4):10-14.

Bakun, A. 1990. Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling Science 247 (4939):198-201.

Bakun, A., and S. J. Weeks. 2004. Greenhouse gas buildup, sardines, submarine eruptions and the possibility of abrupt degradation of intense marine upwelling ecosystems. Ecology Letters 7 (11):1015-1023.

Bala, G., K. Caldeira, M. Wickett, T. J. Phillips, D. B. Lobell, C. Delire, and A. Mirin. 2007. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(16):6550-6555.

Baldocchi, D., and S. Wong. 2008. Accumulated winter chill is decreasing in the fruit growing regions of California. Climatic Change 87:S153-S166.

Bamber, J. L., R. L. Layberry, and S. P. Gogineni. 2001. A new ice thickness and bedrock data set for the Greenland ice sheet, measurement, data reduction, and errors. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D24):33773-33733, 33780.

Bamber, J. L., R. E. M. Riva, B. L. A. Vermeersen, and A. M. Lebrocq. 2009.Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a2009. Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science 324(5929):901-903.

Barbier, E. B., E. W. Koch, B. R. Silliman, S. D. Hacker, E. Wolanski, J. Primavera, E. F. Granek, S. Polasky, S. Aswani, L. A. Cramer, D. M. Stoms, C. J. Kennedy, D. Bael, C. V. Kappel, G. M. E. Perillo, and D. J. Reed. 2008. Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science 319(5861):321-323.

Barker, T., I. Bashmakov, A. Alharthi, M. Amann, L. Cifuentes, J. Drexhage, M. Duan, O. Edenhofer, B. Flannery, M. Grubb, M. Hoogwijk, F. I. Ibitoye, C. J. Jepma, W. A. Pizer, and K. Yamaji. 2007a. Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Barnett, J. 2001. The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era. London: Zed Books.

Barnett, J. 2003. Security and climate change. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 13(1):7-17.

Barnett, J. 2009. The prize of peace (is eternal vigilance): A cautionary editorial essay on climate geopolitics. Climatic Change 96(1-2):1-6.

Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, K. M. Achuta Rao, P. J. Gleckler, B. D. Santer, J. M. Gregory, and W. M. Washington. 2005a. Penetration of a warming signal in the world’s oceans: Human impacts. Science 309:284-287.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Barnett, T. P., J. C. Adam, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2005b. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature 438(7066):303-309.

Barnett, T. P., D. W. Pierce, H. G. Hidalgo, C. Bonfils, B. D. Santer, T. Das, G. Bala, A. W. Wood, T. Nozawa, A. A. Mirin, D. R. Cayan, and M. D. Dettinger. 2008. Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. Science 319(5866):1080-1083.

Bartlett, S. 2008. Climate change and urban children: Impacts and implications for adaptation in low- and middle-income countries. Environment and Urbanization 20(2):501-519.

Baskett, M. L., S. A. Levin, S. D. Gaines, and J. Dushoff. 2005. Marine reserve design and the evolution of size at maturation in harvested fish. Ecological Applications 15 (3):882-901.

Bates, B., and Z. Kundzewicz. 2008. Climate Change and Water, IPCC Technical Paper 6. Geneva: IPCC Secretariat.

Battin, J., M. Wiley, M. Ruckelshaus, R. Palmer, E. Korb, K. Bartz, and H. Imaki. 2007. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(16):6720-6725.

Batty, M. 2008. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science 319(5864):769-771.

Bayley, P. B. 1981. Fish yield from the Amazon in Brazil—comparison with African river yields and management possibilities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110(3):351-359.

Becker, G. S. 2010 (March 17). U.S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues (RL34198). CRS (Congressional Research Service). Text available at LexisNexis Congressional Research Digital Collection. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RS22734.pdf. Accessed July 13, 2010.

Beckley, B. D., F. G. Lemoine, S. B. Luthcke, R. D. Ray, and N. P. Zelensky. 2007. A reassessment of global and regional mean sea level trends from TOPEX and Jason-1 altimetry based on revised reference frame and orbits. Geophysical Research Letters 34(14).

Behrenfeld, M. J., R. T. O’malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. Mcclain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444 (7120):752-755.

Bell, M. L., F. Dominici, and J. M. Samet. 2005. A meta-analysis of time-series studies of ozone and mortality with comparison to the national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Epidemiology 16(4):436-445.

Bell, M. L., R. D. Peng, and F. Dominici. 2006. The exposure-response curve for ozone and risk of mortality and the adequacy of current ozone regulations. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(4):532-536.

Bell, M. L., R. Goldberg, C. Hogrefe, P. L. Kinney, K. Knowlton, B. Lynn, J. Rosenthal, C. Rosenzweig, and J. A. Patz. 2007. Climate change, ambient ozone, and health in 50 US cities. Climatic Change 82(1-2):61-76.

Beller-Simms, N., H. Ingram, D. Feldman, N. Mantua, K. Jacobs, and A. Waples, eds. 2008. Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations Using Seasonal to Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data—A Focus on Water Resources. Synthesis and Assessment Product 5.3. Washington, DC: U.S. Climate Change Science Program, 192 pp.

Bender, M. A., T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya, J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. T. Garner, and I. M. Held. 2010. Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science 327(5964):454-458.

Benestad, R. E. 2005. A review of the solar cycle length estimates. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L15714, doi:10.1029/2005GL023621.

Beniston, M. 2004. The 2003 heat wave in Europe: A shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophysical Research Letters 31(2).

Bernstein, P. L. 1998. Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York: John Wiley.

Betsill, M. M. 2001. Mitigating climate change in US cities: Opportunities and obstacles. Local Environment 6:393-406.

Betsill, M. M., and H. Bulkeley. 2006. Cities and the multilevel governance of global climate change. Global Governance 12(2):141-159.

Betsill, M. M., and B. G. Rabe. 2009. Climate change and multi-level governance: The emerging state and local roles. In Towards Sustainable Communities, 2nd edition. D. A. Mazmanian and M. E. Kraft, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Betts, R. A., O. Boucher, M. Collins, P. M. Cox, P. D. Falloon, N. Gedney, D. L. Hemming, C. Huntingford, C. D. Jones, D. M. H. Sexton, and M. J. Webb. 2007. Projected increase in continental runoff due to plant responses to increasing carbon dioxide. Nature 448(7157):1037-1041.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Biermann, F., M. M. Bestill, J. Gupta, N. Kanie, L. Lebel, D. Liverman, H. Schroeder, and B. Siebenhüner. 2009a. Earth System Governance: People, Places and the Planet. Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project. Bonn: Earth Systems Governance Project.

Biermann, F., P. Pattberg, H. van Asselt, and F. Zelli. 2009b. The fragmentation of global governance architectures: A framework for analysis. Global Environmental Politics 9(4):14-40.

Biermann, F., M. M. Betsill, S. C. Vieira, J. Gupta, N. Kanie, L. Lebel, D. Liverman, H. Schroeder, B. Siebenhüner, P. Z. Yanda, and R. Zondervan. 2010. Navigating the anthropocene: The Earth System Governance Project strategy paper. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(3): 202-208.

Bishr, M., and L. Mantelas. 2008. A trust and reputation model for filtering and classifying knowledge about urban growth. GeoJournal 72(3):229-237.

Bindoff, N. L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A. Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C. K. Shum, L. D. Talley, and A. Unnikrishnan. 2007. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Bingen, J., and L. Busch, eds. 2006. Agricultural Standards: The Shape of the Global Food and Fiber System. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Black, J. S., P. C. Stern, and J. T. Elworth. 1985. Personal and contextual influences on household energy adaptations. Journal of Applied Psychology 70(1):3-21.

Blackford, J. C., and F. J. Gilbert. 2007. pH variability and CO2 induced acidification in the North Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 64 (1-4):229-241.

Blasing, T. J. 2008. Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/current_ghg.html. Accessed December 3, 2009.

Boden, T. A., G. Marland, and R. J. Andres. 2009.2009. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, doi:10.3334/CDIAC/00001.

Boesch. D., J. C. Field, and D. Scavia. 2000. The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. Report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team. U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Washintgon, DC: U.S. Global Change Research Program.

Bonan, G. B. 1999. Frost followed the plow: Impacts of deforestation on the climate of the United States. Ecological Applications 9(4):1305-1315.

Bonan, G. B. 2008. Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320(5882):1444-1449.

Borgerson, S. G. 2008. Arctic meltdown—The economic and security implications of global warming. Foreign Affairs 87(2):63-77.

Borlaug, N. 2007. Feeding a hungry world. Science 318:359-359.

Bosello, F., R. Roson, and R. S. J. Tol. 2007. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: Sea level rise. Environmental & Resource Economics 37(3):549-571.

Bostrom, A., and D. Lashof. 2007. Weather it’s climate change? Pp. 31-43 in Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change. S. C. Moser and L. Dilling, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Bostrom, A., M. G. Morgan, B. Fischhoff, and D. Read. 1994. What do people know about global climate change? 1. Mental models. Risk Analysis 14(6):959-970.

Bounoua, L., R. Defries, G. J. Collatz, P. Sellers, and H. Khan. 2002. Effects of land cover conversion on surface climate. Climatic Change 52(1-2):29-64.

Bower, K., T. Choularton, J. Latham, J. Sahraei, and S. Salter. 2006. Computational assessment of a proposed technique for global warming mitigation via albedo-enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds. Atmospheric Research 82(1-2):328-336.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Boyer, T. P., S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, R. A. Locarnini, and H. E. Garcia. 2005. Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 1955-1998. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L01604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021791.

Boyle, E. A., and L. Keigwin. 1987. North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature. Nature 330:35-40.

Braden, J. B., D. G. Brown, J. Dozier, P. Gober, S. M. Hughes, D. R. Maidment, S. L. Schneider, P. W. Schultz, J. S. Shortle, S. K. Swallow, and C. M. Werner. 2009. Social science in a water observing system. Water Resources Research 45.

Bradley, R. S., M. Vuille, H. F. Diaz, and W. Vergara. 2006. Threats to water supplies in the tropical Andes.2006. Threats to water supplies in the tropical Andes. Science 312(5781):1755-1756.

Brauch, H. G. 2005. Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks in Environmental and Human Security. Bonn, Germany: Institute for Environment and Human Security.

Brazel, A., N. Selover, R. Vose, and G. Heisler. 2000. The tale of two climates—Baltimore and Phoenix urban LTER sites. Climate Research 15(2):123-135.

Brechin, S. R. 2003. Comparative public opinion and knowledge on global climatic change and the Kyoto Protocol: The US versus the rest of the world? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23(10):106-134.

Brewer, T. L. 2008. Climate change technology transfer: A new paradigm and policy agenda. Climate Policy 8(5):516-526.

Briffa, K. R., P. D. Jones, F. H. Schweingruber, and T. J. Osborn. 1998. Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years. Nature 393(6684):450-455.

Broad, K., A. S. P. Pfaff, and M. H. Glantz. 2002. Effective and equitable dissemination of seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts: Policy implications from the Peruvian fishery during El Nino 1997-98. Climatic Change 54(4):415-438.

Brody, S. D., S. Zahran, H. Grover, and A. Vedlitz. 2008. A spatial analysis of local climate change policy in the United States: Risk, stress, and opportunity. Landscape and Urban Planning 87(1):33-41.

Broecker, W. S. 1987. Unpleasant surprises in the greenhouse? Nature 328:123-126.

Broecker, W. S. 1997. Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278(5343):1582-1588.

Broecker, W. S. 2002. The Glacial World According to Wally, 3rd edition. Palisades, NY: Eldigio Press.

Brooke, C. 2008. Conservation and adaptation to climate change. Conservation Biology 22:1471-1476.

Brüker, G. 2005. Vulnerable populations: Lessons learnt from the summer 2003 heat waves in Europe. Eurosurveillance 10(7):147.

Bruinsma, J. 2003. World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030: An FAO Perspective. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Brundtland, G. H. 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: “Our Common Future.” New York: United Nations.

Brutsaert, W., and M. B. Parlange. 1998. Hydrologic cycle explains the evaporation paradox. Nature 396(6706):30.

Bryden, H. L., H. R. Longworth, and S. A. Cunningham. 2005. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25 degrees North. Nature 438(7068):655-657.

BTS (Bureau of Transportation Statistics)/Federal Highway Administration. 2001. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) 2001—National Data and Analysis Tool CD. Washington, DC.

Buesseler, K. O., S. C. Doney, D. M. Karl, P. W. Boyd, K. Caldeira, F. Chai, K. H. Coale, H. J. W. De Baar, P. G. Falkowski, K. S. Johnson, R. S. Lampitt, A. F. Michaels, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Smetacek, S. Takeda, and A. J. Watson. 2008. Environment - Ocean iron fertilization - Moving forward in a sea of uncertainty. Science 319 (5860):162-162.

Bulkeley, H. 2001. Governing climate change: The politics of risk society. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 26(4):430-447.

Bulkeley, H. 2005. Reconfiguring environmental governance: Towards a politics of scales and networks. Political Geography 24(8):875-902.

Burby, R. J. 1998. Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land Use Planning for Sustainable Communities. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Burger, N., L. Ecola, T. Light, and M. Toman. 2009. Evaluating Options for U.S. Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Using Multiple Criteria. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Burke, M. B., D. B. Lobell, and L. Guarino. 2009. Shifts in African crop climates by 2050, and the implications for crop improvement and genetic resources conservation. Global Environmental Change 19(3):317-325.

Burroughs, W. 2003. Climate into the 21st Century. World Meteorological Organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 240 pp.

Burton I, L. Bizikova, T. Dickinson, and Y. Howard. 2007. Integrating adaptation into policy: Upscaling evidence from local to global. Climate Policy 7:371-376.

Busby, J. 2007. Climate Change and National Security: An Agenda for Action. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. CAA (Clean Air Act). 1990. P. L. 101-549.

Caldeira, K., and L. Wood. 2008. Global and Arctic climate engineering: Numerical model studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366(1882):4039-4056.

Camp, C. D., and K. K. Tung. 2007. Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection. Geophysical Research Letters 34(14).

Campbell, K. M., J. Gulledge, J. R. Mcneill, J. Podesta, P. Ogden, L. Fuerth, R. J. Woolsey, A. T. Lennon, J. Smith, and R. Weitz. 2007. The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Ft. Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center.

Campbell-Lendrum, D., and C. Corvalán 2007. Climate change and developing-country cities: Implications for environmental health and equity. Journal of Urban Health 84:109-117.

Campbell, J. E., D. B. Lobell, and C. B. Field. 2009. Greater transportation energy and GHG offsets from bioelectricity than ethanol. Science 324(5930):1055-1057.

Canadell, J. G., and M. R. Raupach. 2008. Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320(5882):1456-1457.

Canadell, J. G., C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, C. B. Field, E. T. Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, N. P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and G. Marland. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(47):18866-18870.

Cao, L., and K. Caldeira. 2008. Atmospheric CO2 stabilization and ocean acidification. Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19):5.

Carrico, A., M. P. Vandenbergh, P. C. Stern, G. T. Gardner, T. Dietz, and J. M. Gilligan. 2010. Energy and climate change: Key lessons for implementing the behavioral wedge. Journal of Energy and Environmental Law 1(10-24).

Carroll, A., and C. Somerville. 2009. Cellulosic biofuels. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60(1):165-182.

Carson, R. T. 1997. Contingent valuation: Theoretical advances and empirical tests since the NOAA panel. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79(5):1501-1507.

Carson, R. T. 2010. The environmental Kuznets curve: Seeking empirical regularity and theoretical structure. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 4:3-23.

Cash, D. W. 2001. “In order to aid in diffusing useful and practical information”: Agricultural extension and boundary organizations. Science, Technology & Human Values 26(4):431-453.

Cash, D. W., and J. Buizer. 2005. Knowledge-Action Systems for Seasonal to Interannual Climate Forecasting: Summary of a Workshop. Report to the Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability, Policy and Global Affairs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Cash, D. W., W. C. Clark, F. Alcock, N. M. Dickson, N. Eckley, D. H. Guston, J. Jãger, and R. B. Mitchell. 2003. Knowledge systems for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14):8086-8091.

Cash, D. W., J. C. Borck, and A. G. Patt. 2006a. Countering the loading-dock approach to linking science and decision making—comparative analysis of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasting systems. Science, Technology & Human Values 31(4):465-494.

Cash, D. W., N. W. Adger, F. Berkets, P. Garden, L. Lebel, P. Olsson, L. Pritchard, and O. Young. 2006b. Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society 11(2).

Cashore, B. 2002. Legitimacy and the privatization of environmental governance: How non-state market-driven (NSMD) governance systems gain rule-making authority. Governance 15(4):503-529.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Catarious, D. M., Jr., and R. H. Espach. 2009. Impacts of Climate Change on Colombia’s National and Regional Security. CNA Corporation. Available at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA509086&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Cavlovic, T., K. H. Baker, R. P. Berrens, and K. Gawande. 2000. A meta-analysis of Kuznets curve studies. Agriculture and Resource Economics Review 29:32-42.

Cayan, D., M. Tyree, M. Dettinger, H. Hidalgo, T. Das, E. Maurer, P. Bromirski, N. Graham, and R. Flick. 2009. Climate Change Scenarios and Sea Level Rise Estimates for the California 2008 Climate Change Scenarios Assessment. PIER Research Report CEC-500-2009-014. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.

Cazenave, A., and R. S. Nerem. 2004. Present-day sea level change: Observations and causes. Reviews of Geophysics 42(3).

Cazenave, A., D. P. Chambers, P. Cipollini, L. L. Fu, J. W. Hurell, M. Merrifield, S. Nerem, H. P. Plag, C. K. Shum, and J. Willis. 2010. The Challenge for Measuring Sea Level Rise and Regional and Global Trends. Plenary Paper presented at OceanObs09, September 21-25, 2009, Venice, Italy.

CCSP (Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research). 2003. Strategic plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Washington, D.C: U.S. Climate Change Science Program.

CCSP (Climate Change Science Program). 2007a. The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR): The North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.2. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. A. W. King, L. Dilling, G. P. Zimmerman, D. M. Fairman, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, A. Z. Rose, and T. J. Wilbanks, eds. Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 242 pp.

CCSP. 2007b. Global Change Scenarios: Their Development and Use. Sub-report 2.1B of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, E. A. Parson, V. R. Burkett, K. Fisher-Vanden, D. W. Keith, L. O. Mearns, H. M. Pitcher, C. E. Rosenzweig, and M. D. Webster, eds. Washington, DC: Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy.

CCSP. 2007c. Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations. Sub-report 2.1A of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, L. Clarke, J. Edmonds, H. Jacoby, H. Pitcher, J. Reilly, and R. Richels, eds. Washington, DC: Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Department of Energy.

CCSP. 2008a. Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J. L. Gamble, ed., and K. L. Ebi, F. G. Sussman, and T. J. Wilbanks, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

CCSP. 2008b. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, P. Backlund, A. Janetos, D. Schimel, J. Hatfield, K. Boote, P. Fay, L. Hahn, C. Izaurralde, B. A. Kimball, T. Mader, J. Morgan, D. Ort, W. Polley, A. Thomson, D. Wolfe, M. G. Ryan, S. R. Archer, R. Birdsey, C. Dahm, L. Heath, J. Hicke, D. Hollinger, T. Huxman, G. Okin, R. Oren, J. Randerson, W. Schlesinger, D. Lettenmaier, D. Major, L. Poff, S. Running, L. Hansen, D. Inouye, B. P. Kelly, L. Meyerson, B. Peterson, and R. Shaw, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 362 pp.

CCSP. 2008c. Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, D. C. Bader, C. Covey, W. J. Gutowski, I. M. Held, K. E. Kunkel, R. L. Miller, R. T. Tokmakian, and M. H. Zhang, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

CCSP. 2008d. Preliminary Review of Adaptation Options for Climate-Sensitive Ecosystems and Resources. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.4 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, S. H. Julius and J. M. West, eds.; J. S. Baron, L. A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B. D. Keller, M. A. Palmer, C. H. Peterson, and J. M. Scott, authors. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 873 pp.

CCSP. 2008e. Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure. Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.4 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, A. R. Ravishankara, M. J. Kurylo, and C. A. Ennis, eds. Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, Department of Commerce, 240 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

CCSP. 2008f. Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate. Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, T. R. Karl, G. A. Meehl, C. D. Miller, S. J. Hassol, A. M. Waple, and W. L. Murray, eds. Washington, DC: National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, Department of Commerce, 164 pp.

CCSP, 2009a. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, J. G. Titus (coordinating lead author), K. E. Anderson, D. R. Cahoon, D. B. Gesch, S. K. Gill, B. T. Gutierrez, E. R. Thieler, and S. J. Williams (lead authors). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 320 pp.

CCSP. 2009b. Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.2 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, D. B. Fagre, C. W. Charles, C. D. Allen, C. Birkeland, F. S. Chapin III, P. M. Groffman, G. R. Guntenspergen, A. K. Knapp, A. D. McGuire, P. J. MulhollandD. P. C. Peters, D. D. Roby, and G. Sugihara, eds. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006. Heat-related deaths—United States, 1999-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55(29):796-798. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5529a2.htm. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

CDWR (California Deptartment of Water Resources). 2008. Managing an Uncertain Future: Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for California’s Water. Sacremento, CA: CDWR. Available at http://www.water.ca.gov/climatechange/docs/ClimateChangeWhitePaper.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010..

CNA Corporation. 2007. National Security and the Threat of Climate Change. Available at http://securityandclimate.cna.org/report/. Accessed May 13, 2010.

CNA Corporation. 2009. Socioeconomic and Security Implications of Climate Change in China. Conference Paper. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 24 pp.

Chameides, W. L., P. S. Kasibhatla, J. Yienger, and H. Levy. 1994. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution and world food-production. Science 264(5155):74-77.

Chan, F., J. A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W. T. Peterson, and B. A. Menge. 2008. Emergence of Anoxia in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Science 319 (5865):920.

Changnon, S. 1969. Recent studies of urban effects on precipitation in the U.S. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 50(6): 411-421.

Changnon, S. A., K. E. Kunkel, and B. C. Reinke. 1996.Impacts and responses to the 1995 heat wave:A call to action.1996. Impacts and responses to the 1995 heat wave: A call to action. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(7):1497-1506.

Chao, B. F., Y. H. Wu, and Y. S. Li. 2008. Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science 320(5873):212-214.

Chapin, F. S. I., P. A. Matson, and H. A. Mooney. 2002. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer.

Chapin, F. S., T. S. Rupp, A. M. Starfield, L. O. Dewilde, E. S. Zavaleta, N. Fresco, J. Henkelman, and A. D. Mcguire. 2003. Planning for resilience: Modeling change in human-fire interactions in the Alaskan boreal forest. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(5):255-261.

Chavez, F. P., J. Ryan, S. E. Lluch-Cota, and M. Niquen C. 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299(5604):217-221.

Cheung, W. W. L., V. W. Y. Lam, J. L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R. Watson, and D. Pauly. 2009. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries 10(3):235-251.

Chhatre, A., and A. Agrawal. 2008. Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(36):13286-13291.

Christensen, J. H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R. K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C. G. Menéndez, J. Räisänen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr, and P. Whetton. 2007. Regional climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Christensen, N. S., A. W. Wood, N. Voisin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and R. N. Palmer. 2004 The effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin. Climatic Change 62(1-3):337-363.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Christy, J. R., R. W. Spencer, and W. D. Braswell. 2000. MSU tropospheric temperatures: Dataset construction and radiosonde comparisons. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 17:1153-1170.

Christy, J. R., R. W. Spencer, W. B. Norris, and W. D. Braswell. 2003. Error estimates of version 5.0 of MSU-AMSU bulk atmospheric temperatures. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 20:613-629.

Church, J. A., and N. J. White. 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 33(1).

Church, J. A., N. J. White, T. Aarup, W. S. Wilson, P. L. Woodworth, C. M. Domingues, J. R. Hunter, and K. Lambeck. 2008. Understanding global sea levels: Past, present and future. Sustainability Science 3(1):9-22, doi:10.1007/s11625-008-0042-4.

Cifuentes, L., V. H. Borja-Aburto, N. Gouveia, G. Thurston, and D. L. Davis. 2001a. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Suppl 3):419-425.

Cifuentes, L., V. H. Borja-Aburto, N. Gouveia, G. Thurston, and D. Lee Davis. 2001b. Hidden health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. Science 293(5533):1257-1259.

Clark, B., A. Jorgenson, and J. Kentor. 2010. Militarization and energy consumption: A test of treadmill of destruction theory in comparative perspective. International Journal of Sociology 40(2):23-43.

Clark, G., S. C. Moser, S. J. Ratick, K. Dow, W. B. Meyer, S. Emani, W. Jin, J. X. Kasperson, R. E. Kasperson, and H. E. Schwarz. 1998. Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: The case of Revere, MA, USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 3:59-82.

Clarke, L., J. Edmonds, V. Krey, R. Richels, S. Rose, and M. Tavoni. 2009. International climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 international scenarios. Energy Economics 31(2):S64-S81.

Cohen, B. 2006. Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technology in Society 28:63-80.

Cole, C. V., J. Duxbury, J. Freney, O. Heinemeyer, K. Minami, A. Mosier, K. Paustian, N. Rosenberg, N. Sampson, D. Sauerbeck, and Q. Zhao. 1997. Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49(1-3):221-228.

Cole, M. A., and E. Neumayer. 2004. Examining the impact of demographic factors on air pollution. Population and Environment 26(1):5-21.

Collins, T. W. 2005. Households, forests, and fire hazard vulnerability in the American West: A case study of a California community. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1):23-37.

Confalonieri, U. 2007. Specific vulnerabilities. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85:827-828.

Confalonieri, U., B. Menne, R. Akhtar, K. L. Ebi, M. Hauengue, R. S. Kovats, B. Revich, and A. Woodward. 2007. Human health. Pp. 391-431 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.:Cambridge University Press.

Conroy, M. S. 2006. Branded: How the “Certification Revolution” Is Transforming Global Corporations. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society, Xvi, 335 pp.

Cook, B. I., R. L. Miller, and R. Seager. 2009. Amplification of the North American “Dust Bowl” drought through humaninduced land degradation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(13):4997-5001.

Cooper, T. F., G. De ‘Ath, K. E. Fabricius, and J. M. Lough. 2008. Declining coral calcification in massive Porites in two nearshore regions of the northern Great Barrier Reef. Global Change Biology 14 (3):529-538.

Cooper, O. R., D. D. Parrish, A. Stohl, M. Trainer, P. Nedelec, V. Thouret, J. P. Cammas, S. J. Oltmans, B. J. Johnson, D. Tarasick, T. Leblanc, I. S. Mcdermid, D. Jaffe, R. Gao, J. Stith, T. Ryerson, K. Aikin, T. Campos, A. Weinheimer, and M. A. Avery. 2010. Increasing springtime ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere over western North America. Nature 463(7279):344-348.

Costanza, R., W. J. Mitsch, and J. W. Day. 2006. A new vision for New Orleans and the Mississippi delta: Applying ecological economics and ecological engineering. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(9):465-472.

Crabtree, G. W., and N. S. Lewis. 2007. Solar energy conversion. Physics Today 60(3):37-42.

Cramer, J. C., B. Hackett, P. P. Craig, E. Vine, M. Levine, T. M. Dietz, and D. Kowalczyk. 1984. Structural behavioral determinants of residential energy use: Summer electricity use in Davis. Energy 9(3):207-216.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Critchley, C. R. 2008. Public opinion and trust in scientists: The role of the research context, and the perceived motivation of stem cell researchers. Public Understanding of Science 17(3):309-327.

Crossett, K. M., T. J. Culliton, P. C. Wiley, and T. R. Goodspeed. 2004. Population Trends Along the Coastal United States: 1980-2008. Silver Spring, MD: National Ocean Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Crowell, M., S. Edelman, K. Coulton, and S. McAfee. 2007. How many people live in coastal areas? Journal of Coastal Research 23(5):iii-vi.

Crowell, M., K. Coulton, C. Johnson, J. Westcott, D. Bellomo, S. Edelman, and E. Hirsch. 2010. An Estimate of the U.S. Population Living in 100-Year Coastal Flood Hazard Areas. Journal of Coastal Research 26(2): 201-211.

Crutzen, P. 2006. Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma? Climatic Change 77(3):211-220.

Crutzen, P. J., A. R. Mosier, K. A. Smith, and W. Winiwarter. 2008. N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(2):389-395.

Csatho, B. M., J. F. Bolzan, C. J. Van Der Veen, A. F. Schenk, and D.-C. Lee. 1999. Surface velocities of a Greenland outlet glacierSurface velocities of a Greenland outlet glacier from high-resolution visible satellite imagery. Polar Geography 23(1):71-82.

Curriero, F. C., K. S. Heiner, J. M. Samet, S. L. Zeger, L. Strug, and J. A. Patz. 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the eastern United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 155:80-87.

Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev. 2003. A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 426:826-829.

Cutter, S. L., J. T. Mitchell, and M. S. Scott. 2000. Revealing the vulnerability of people and places: A case study of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90(4):713-737.

Cvetkovich, G., and R. E. Loefstedt, eds. 1999. Social Trust and the Management of Risk. London: Earthscan.

Dabelko, G. D. 2009. Planning for climate change: The security community’s precautionary principle. Climatic Change 96(1-2):13-21.

Dai, A. G., K. E. Trenberth, and T. T. Qian. 2004. A global dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5(6):1117-1130.

Dai, A. G., T. T. Qian, K. E. Trenberth, and J. D. Milliman. 2009. Changes in continental freshwater discharge from 1948 to 2004. Journal of Climate 22(10):2773-2792.

Daily, G. C., and P. A. Matson. 2008. Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28):9455-9456.

Daily, G. C., S. Polasky, J. Goldstein, P. M. Kareiva, H. A. Mooney, L. Pejchar, T. H. Ricketts, J. Salzman, and R. Shallenberger. 2009. Ecosystem services in decision making: Time to deliver. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1):21-28.

Dailey, P. S., G. Zuba, G. Ljung, I. M. Dima, and J. Guin. 2009. On the relationship between North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and US hurricane landfall risk. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48(1):111-129.

Dalby, S. 2009. Security and Environmental Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Daley, R. 1991. Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series. New York: Cambridge University Press, 457 pp.

Darwin, R., M. Tsigas, J. Lewandrowski, and A. Raneses. 1995. World Agriculture and Climate Change: Economic Adaptations. Agricultural Economics Reports 33933, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Darwin, R. F., and R. S. J. Tol. 2001. Estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise. Environmental and Resource Economics 19(2):113-129.

Das, S., and J. R. Vincent. 2009. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(18):7357-7360.

Dasgupta, P., and F. Ramsey. 2008. Comments on the Stern Review’s Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. Available at http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/faculty/dasgupta/STERN.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

Dasgupta, S., B. Laplante, H. Wang, and D. Wheeler. 2002. Confronting the environmental Kuznets curve. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(1):147-168.

Davis, B., and D. Belkin. 2008. Food inflation, riots spark worries for world leaders: IMF, World Bank push for solutions; Turmoil in Haiti. The Wall Street Journal, April 14.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Davis, R. E., P. C. Knappenberger, P. J. Michaels, and W. M. Novicoff. 2004. Seasonality of climate-human mortality relationships in US cities and impacts of climate change. Climate Research 26(1):61-76.

Davis, S. C., S. W. Diegel, and R. G. Boundy. 2008. Transportation Energy Data Book, 27th ed. ORNL-6981. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy.

Davis, S. C., K. J. Anderson-Teixeira, and E. H. DeLucia. 2009. Life-cycle analysis and the ecology of biofuels. Trends in Plant Science 14(3):140-146.

Day, J. W., D. F. Boesch, E. J. Clairain, G. P. Kemp, S. B. Laska, W. J. Mitsch, K. Orth, H. Mashriqui, D. J. Reed, L. Shabman, C. A. Simenstad, B. J. Streever, R. R. Twilley, C. C. Watson, J. T. Wells, and D. F. Whigham. 2007. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Science 315(5819):1679-1684.

Delta Vision Blue Ribbon Task Force. 2007. Delta Vision: Our Vision for the California Delta. Sacramento, CA: Resources Agency.

Defries, R., and L. Bounoua. 2004. Consequences of land use change for ecosystem services: A future unlike the past. GeoJournal 61(4):345-351.

Defries, R., F. Achard, S. Brown, M. Herold, D. Murdiyarso, B. Schlamadinger, and C. De Souza. 2007. Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. Environmental Science and Policy 10(4):385-394.

DeFries, R. S., T. Rudel, M. Uriarte, and M. Hansen. 2010. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience 3:178-181, doi:10.1038/NGEO756.

Denholm, P., E. Ela, B. Kirby, and M. Milligan. 2010. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation. NREL Report TP-6A2-47187. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, 61 pp.

Department of Commerce. 1975. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States.

Dessai, S., and M. Hulme. 2007. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: A case study on water resources management in the east of England. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 17(1):59-72.

Dessai, S., W. N. Adger, M. Hulme, J. Turnpenny, J. Kohler, and R. Warren. 2004. Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change—an editorial essay. Climatic Change 64(1-2):11-25.

Diamond, J. M. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking.

Dickson, B., I. Yashayaev, J. Meincke, B. Turrell, S. Dye, and J. Holfort. 2002. Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 416:832-837.

Dietz, S., and N. Stern. 2008. Why economic analysis supports strong action on climate change: A response to the Stern Review’s critics. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 2(1):94-113.

Dietz, T. 1994. What should we do? Human ecology and collective decision making. Human Ecology Review 1:301-309.

Dietz, T., and A. D. Henry. 2008. Context and the commons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:13189-13190.

Dietz, T., E. Ostrom, and P. C. Stern. 2003. The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302(5652):1907-1912.

Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2007. Driving the human ecological footprint. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(1):13-18.

Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2009a. Environmentally efficient well-being: Rethinking sustainability as the relationship between human well-being and environmental impacts. Human Ecology Review 16(1):114-123.

Dietz, T., G. T. Gardner, J. Gilligan, P. C. Stern, and M. P. Vandenbergh. 2009b. Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(44):18452-18456.

Dietz, T., E. A. Rosa, and R. York. 2009c. Human driving forces of global change: Dominant perspectives. In Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Diffenbaugh, N. S., C. H. Krupke, M. A. White, and C. E. Alexander. 2008. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management. Environmental Research Letters 3(4).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Dilling, L., and B. Farhar. 2007. Making it easy: Establishing energy efficiency and renewable energy as routine best practice. In Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change, S. Moser and L. Dilling, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Dlugokencky, E. J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans. 2003. Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state?, Geophysical Research Letters 30(19):1992, doi:10.1029/2003GL018126.

Dlugokencky, E. J., L. Bruhwiler, J. W. C. White, L. K. Emmons, P. C. Novelli, S. A. Montzka, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, A. M. Crotwell, J. B. Miller, and L. V. Gatti. 2009. Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (18):L18803.

DOD (U.S. Department of Defense). 2010 (February 1). The Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC: DOD.

Dodman, D. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Environment and Urbanization 21(1):185-201.

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2004. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Wind and Hydropower Technologies. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2006. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Wind and Hydropower Technologies. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2008a. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://www.20percentwind.org/20percent_wind_energy_report_revOct08.pdf. Accessed May 8, 2010.

DOE. 2008b. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale. Report from the Workshop Held November 6-7. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2009a. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EPreports/Shale_Gas_Primer_2009.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

DOE. 2009b. Science Challenges and Future Directions: Climate Change Integrated Assessment Research. Report from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Workshop on Integrated Assessment, November 2008.

DOE. 2009c. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices. Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration. Washington, DC: DOE.

DOE. 2010. Fossil Energy Techline: DOE Awards Cooperative Agreement for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project. Washington, DC: DOE. Available at http://fossil.energy.gov/news/techlines/2010/10007-DOE_Awards_Cooperative_Agreement.html. Accessed March 12, 2010.

DOI (Department of the Interior). 2009. Salazar Launches DOI Climate Change Response Strategy. Available at http://www.doi.gov/archive/news/09_News_Releases/091409.html. Accessed May 3, 2010.

Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas. 2009. Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1:169-192.

Donner, L. J., and W. G. Large. 2008. Climate modeling. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33(1):1-17.

Donoghue, E. R., M. Nelson, G. Rudis, R. I. Sabogal, J. T. Watson, G. Huhn, and G. Luber. 2003. Heat-related deaths—Chicago, Illinois, 1996-2001, and United States, 1979-1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 52(26);610-613

DOT (Department of Transportation). 2008. Research and Innovative Technology Administration. National Transportation Statistics. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Available at http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics. Accessed May 3, 2010.

Douglas, M. 1985. Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences. Social Research Perspectives: Occasional Reports on Current Topics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Dow, K., R. Kasperson, and M. Bohn. 2006. Exploring the social justice implications of adaptation and vulnerability. Pp. 79-96 in Fairness in Adaptation to Climatic Change, N. Adger, J. Paavola, S. Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dueck, T. A., R. D. Visser, H. Poorter, S. Persijn, A. Gorissen, W. D. Visser, A. Schapendonk, J. Verhagen, J. Snel, F. J. M. Harren, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. Verstappen, H. Bouwmeester, L. A. C. J. Voesenek, and A. V. D. Werf. 2007. No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: A 13C-labelling approach. New Phytologist 175(1):29-35.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Durfee, J. L. 2006. “Social change” and “status quo” framing effects on risk perception: An exploratory experiment. Science Communication 27(4) :459-495.

Durieux, L., L. A. T. Machado, and H. Laurent. 2003. The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of2003. The impact of deforestation on cloud cover over the Amazon arc of deforestation. Remote Sensing of Environment 86(1):132-140.

Dutta, K., E. A. G. Schuur, J. C. Neff, and S. A. Zimov. 2006. Potential carbon release from permafrost soils of Northeastern Siberia. Global Change Biology 12(12):2336-2351.

Dyurgerov, M., and M. Meier. 2005. Glaciers and the changing earth system: A 2004 snapshot. Occasional Paper, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Boulder, CO: Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado. Available at http://instaar.colorado.edu/other/download/OP58%5Fdyurgerov%5Fmeier.pdf.

Eagle, N., A. Pentland, and D. Lazer. 2009. Inferring friendship network structure by using mobile phone data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(36):15274-15278.

Eakin, H., and J. Conley. 2002. Climate variability and the vulnerability of ranching in southeastern Arizona: A pilot study. Climate Research 21(3):271-281.

Eakin, H., and M. C. Lemos. 2006. Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change 16:7-18.

Eakin, H., and A. L. Luers. 2006. Assessing the vulnerability of social-environmental systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:365-394.

Eakin, H., E. L. Tompkins, D. R. Nelson, and J. M. Anderies. 2009. Hidden costs and disparate uncertainties: Trade-offs in approaches to climate policy. Pp. 212-226 in Living with Climate Change: Are There Limits to Adaptation? W. N. Adger et al., eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Early, J. T. 1989. Space-based solar shield to offset greenhouse effect. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 42:567-569.

Easterling, D. R., and M. F. Wehner. 2009. Is the climate warming or cooling? Geophysical Research Letters 36:L08706, doi:10.1029/2009GL037810.

Easterling, W. E., P. K. Aggarwal, P. Batima, K. M. Brander, L. Erda, S. M. Howden, A. Kirilenko, J. Morton, J.-F. Soussana, J. Schmidhuber, and F. N. Tubiello. 2007. Food, fibre and forest products. Pp. 273-313 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Ebi, K. L., and G. Mcgregor. 2008. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(11):1449-1455.

Ebi, K. L., J. Balbus, P. L. Kinney, E. Lipp, D. Mills, M. S. Oneill, and M. L. Wilson. 2009. US funding is insufficient to address the human health impacts of and public health responses to climate variability and change. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(6):857-862.

Eddy, J. A. 1976. Maunder minimum. Science 192(4245):1189-1202.

Eden, S. 2009. The work of environmental governance networks: Traceability, credibility and certification by the Forest Stewardship Council. Geoforum 40:383-394.

EIA (Energy Information Agency). 2007. Renewable Energy Annual, 2005. Washington, DC: DOE.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2009. Annual Energy Review 2008. Washington, DC: EIA. Available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer/pdf/aer.pdf. Accessed May 5, 2010.

EISA (Energy Independence and Security Act) of 2007. P. L. 110-140, December 19, 2007.

Eliasson, I. 2000. The use of climate knowledge in urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 48(1-2):31-44.

Elliott, D. L., L. L. Wendell, and G. L. Gower. 1991. An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States. Report PNL-7789. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Ellis, E. C., and N. Ramankutty. 2008. Putting people in the map: Anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8):439-447.

Emanuel, K. 2005. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436(7051):686-688.

Enfield, D. B., A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, and P. J. Trimble. 2001. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophysical Research Letters 28:2077-2080.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Engle, N. L., and M. C. Lemos. 2010. Unpacking governance: Building adaptive capacity to climate change of river basins in Brazil. Global Environmental Change 20(1):4-13.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2002 (August). Estimated Per Capita Fish Consumption in the United States. Report EPA-821-C-02-003, Washington, DC.

EPA. 2006. Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2020. Washington, DC: Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division.

EPA. 2008. A Screening Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Mitigation in the Great Lakes and New England Regions. Global Change Research Program, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Report EPA/600/R-07/033F, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ncea. Accessed on October 26, 2010. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.

EPA. 2009a. ENERGY STAR Programmable Thermostat Suspension Memo. Available at http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/prod_development/revisions/downloads/thermostats/Spec_Suspension_Memo_May2009.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

EPA. 2009b. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007. EPA Report 430-R-09-004, Washington, DC.

EPA. 2009c. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2009. Washington, DC: EPA.

EPA. 2010a. LCA Resources. Available at http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/lcaccess/resources.html. Accessed September 10, 2010.

EPA. 2010b. EPA and NHTSA to Propose Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks; Begin Process for Further Light-Duty Standards: Regulatory Announcement. Available at http://www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10038.htm. Accessed July 13, 2010.

EPICA community members. 2004. Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature 429(6992):623-628.

EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). 2007a. Assessment of Waterpower Potential and Development Needs. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI. Available at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/docs/07_06_1ERPI_report.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

Epstein, P. R. 2005. Climate change and human health. New England Journal of Medicine 353(14):1433-1436.

Erikson, K. 1994. A New Species of Trouble: Explorations in Disaster, Trauma, and Community, 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton.

Etheridge, D. M., L. P. Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, R. J. Francey, J.-M. Barnola, and V. I. Morgan. 1996. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:4115-4128.

Etheridge, D. M., L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and R. L. Langenfelds. 2002. Historical CH4 records since about 1000 A.D. from ice core data. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Oak Ridge, TN: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE.

European Commission Joint Research Centre. 2010. LCA Tools, Services, and Data. Available at http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/datasetArea.vm. Accessed September 10, 2010.

Evans, P. B. 2002. Livable Cities? Urban Struggles for Livelihood and Sustainability. Berkelely, CA: University of California Press.

Eviner, V. T., and F. S. Chapin. 2003. Functional matrix: A conceptual framework for predicting multiple plant effects on ecosystem processes. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 34:455-485.

Ewing, R., and F. Rong. 2008. The impact of urban form on US residential energy use. Housing Policy Debate 19(1):1-30.

Ewing, R., K. Bartholomew, S. Winkelman, J. Walters, and D. Chen. 2007. Growing Cooler: Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.

Fabry, V. J., B. A. Seibel, R. A. Feely, and J. C. Orr. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65(3):414-432.

Fairbanks, R. G. 1989. A 17,000 year glacial euststic sea level record: Influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature 342:637-641.

Falkner, R. 2003. Private environmental governance and international relations: Exploring the links. Global Environmental Politics 3(2):72-87.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2009. The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2008. Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Farber, S. C., R. Costanza, and M. A. Wilson. 2002. Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 41(3):375-392.

Fargione, J., J. Hill, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and P. Hawthorne. 2008. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319(5867):1235-1238.

Farrell, A. E., and J. Jäger, eds. 2005. Assessments of Regional and Global Environmental Risks: Designing Processes for the Effective Use of Science in Decisionmaking. Washington, DC: RFF Press.

Farrell, A. E., R. J. Plevin, B. T. Turner, A. D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D. M. Kammen. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311(5760):506-508.

Fawcett, A., K. Calvin, P. Delachesnaye, J. Reilly, and J. Weyant. 2009. U.S. climate policy architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 U.S. scenarios. Energy Economics 31:S198-S211.

Fawcett, R. 2007. Has the world cooled since 1998? Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society 20:141-148.

Fernandes, L., J. Day, A. Lewis, S. Slegers, B. Kerrigan, D. Breen, D. Cameron, B. Jago, J. Hall, D. Lowe, J. Innes, J. Tanzer, V. Chadwick, L. Thompson, K. Gorman, M. Simmons, B. Barnett, K. Sampson, G. De’ath, B. Mapstone, H. Marsh, H. Possingham, I. Ball, T. Ward, K. Dobbs, J. Aumend, D. Slater, and K. Stapleton. 2005. Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: Large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas. Conservation Biology 19 (6):1733-1744.

FHA (Federal Highway Administration). 2008. Highway Statistics 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2008/. Accessed May 7, 2010.

Fiala, N. 2008. Meeting the demand: An estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production. Ecological Economics 67(3):412-419.

Ficke, A. D., C. A. Myrick, and L. J. Hansen. 2007. Potential impacts of global climate change on freshwater fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 17(4):581-613.

Field, C. B., M. J. Behrenfeld, J. T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281 (5374):237-240.

Field, C. B., G. C. Daily, F. W. Davis, S. Gaines, P. A. Matson, J. Melack, and N. L. Miller. 1999. Confronting Climate Change in California: Ecological Impacts on the Golden State. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists and the Ecological Society of America.

Field, C. B., D. B. Lobell, H. A. Peters, and N. R. Chiariello. 2007a. Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32:1-29.7

Field, C. B., L. D. Mortsch, M. Brklacich, D. L. Forbes, P. Kovacs, J. A. Patz, S. W. Running, and M. J. Scott. 2007b. North America. Pp. 617-652 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Filion, Y. R. 2008. Impact of urban form on energy use in water distribution systems. Journal of Infrastructure Systems 14(4):337-346.

Filleul, L., S. Cassadou, S. Medina, P. Fabres, A. Lefranc, D. Eilstein, A. Le Tertre, L. Pascal, B. Chardon, M. Blanchard, C. Declercq, J. F. Jusot, H. Prouvost, and M. Ledrans. 2006. The relation between temperature, ozone, and mortality in nine French cities during the heat wave of 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(9):1344-1347.

Finnveden, G., M. Z. Hauschild, T. Ekvall, J. Guinée, R. Heijungs, S. Hellweg, A. Koehler, D. Pennington, and S. Suh. 2009. Recent developments in life cycle assessment. Journal of Environmental Management 91:1-21.

Firestone, J., W. Kempton, and A. B. Krueger. 2009. Public acceptance of offshore wind power projects in the United States. Wind Energy 12(2):183-202.

Fischhoff, B. 1981. Acceptable Risk. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fischhoff, B. 2007. Nonpersuasive communication about matters of greatest urgency: Climate change. Environmental Science & Technology 41:7204-7208.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Fischlin, A., G. F. Midgley, J. T. Price, R. Leemans, B. Gopal, C. Turley, M. D. A. Rounsevell, O. P. Dube, J. Tarazona, and A. A. Velichko. 2007. Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. Pp. 211-272 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Flanner, M. G., C. S. Zender, J. T. Randerson, and P. J. Rasch. 2007.Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon2007. Present-day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(D11).

Fletcher, E. A. 2001. Solar thermal processing: A review. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 123(2):63-74.

Flick, R. E. 1998. Comparison of California tides, storm surges, and mean sea level during the El Niño winters of 1982-83 and 1997-98. Shore & Beach 6(3):7-11.

Flick, R. E., J. F. Murray, and L. C. Ewing. 1999. Trends in U.S. Tidal Datum Statistics and Tide Range: A Data Report Atlas (SIO Reference Series 99-20). La Jolla, CA: Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Flick, R. E., J. F. Murray, and L. C. Ewing. 2003. Trends in U.S. tidal datum statistics and tide range. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering 129(4):155-164.

Fofonoff, N. P. 1985. Physical-properties of seawater—a new salinity scale and equation of state for seawater. Journal of Geophysical Research 90(NC2):3332-3342.

Foley, J. A., R. Defries, G. P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S. R. Carpenter, F. S. Chapin, M. T. Coe, G. C. Daily, H. K. Gibbs, J. H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E. A. Howard, C. J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J. A. Patz, I. C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, and P. K. Snyder. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309(5734):570-574.

Folke, C., A. Jansson, J. Larsson, and R. Costanza. 1997. Ecosystem appropriation by cities. Ambio 26(3):167-172.

Ford, L. H. 2003. Challenging global environmental governance: Social movement agency and global civil society. Global Environmental Politics 3:120-134.

Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, R. Van Dorland, G. Bodeker, O. Boucher, W. D. Collins, T. J. Conway, E. Dlugokencky, J. W. Elkins, D. Etheridge, P. Foukal, P. Fraser, M. Geller, F. Joos, C. D. Keeling, S. Kinne, K. Lassey, U. Lohmann, A. C. Manning, S. Montzka, D. Oram, K. O’shaughnessy, S. Piper, G. K. Plattner, M. Ponater, N. Ramankutty, G. Reid, D. Rind, K. Rosenlof, R. Sausen, D. Schwarzkopf, S. K. Solanki, G. Stenchikov, N. Stuber, T. Takemura, C. Textor, R. Wang, R. Weiss, and T. Whorf. 2007. Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

FRA (Federal Railroad Administration). 2009. Vision for High Speed Rail in America. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Available at http://www.fra.dot.gov/downloads/rrdev/hsrstrategicplan.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

Freudenburg, W. R., and S. K. Pastor. 1992. Public responses to technological risks. Sociological Quarterly 33(3):389-412.

Frey, B. S. 2008. Happiness: A Revolution in Economics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Friedlingstein, P., P. Cox, R. Betts, L. Bopp, W. Von Bloh, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, S. Doney, M. Eby, I. Fung, G. Bala, J. John, C. Jones, F. Joos, T. Kato, M. Kawamiya, W. Knorr, K. Lindsay, H. D. Matthews, T. Raddatz, P. Rayner, C. Reick, E. Roeckner, K. G. Schnitzler, R. Schnur, K. Strassmann, A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng. 2006. Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: Results from the (CMIP)-M-4 model intercomparison. Journal of Climate 19(14):3337-3353.

Frische, M., K. Garofalo, T. H. Hansteen, R. Borchers, and J. Harnisch. 2006. The origin of stable halogenated compounds in volcanic gases. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 13:406-413.

Frumhoff, P. C. 2007. Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast: Science, Impacts, and Solutions. Cambridge, MA: UCS Publications.

Fu, Q., and C. M. Johanson. 2005. Satellite-derived vertical dependence of tropical tropospheric temperature trends. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L10703, doi:10.1029/2004GL022266.

Fu, Q, C. M. Johanson, S. G. Warren, and D. J. Seidel. 2004. Contribution of stratospheric cooling to satellite-inferred tropospheric temperature trends. Nature 429:55-58.

Fu, Q., C. M. Johanson, J. M. Wallace, and T. Reichler. 2006. Enhanced mid-latitude tropospheric warming in satellite measurements. Science 312(5777):1179, doi:10.1126/science.1125566.

Fu, G. B, S. P. Charles, and J. J. Yu 2009. A critical overview of pan evaporation trends over the last 50 years. Climatic Change 97:193-214.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Füssel, H. M., and R. J. T. Klein. 2006. Climate change vulnerability assessments: An evolution of conceptual thinking. Climatic Change 75(3):301-329.

Füssel, H.-M., F. L. Toth, J. G. van Minnen, and F. Kaspar. 2003. Climate impact response functions as impact tools in the2003. Climate impact response functions as impact tools in the tolerable windows approach. Climatic Change 56(1-2):91-117.

Gaedke, U., D. Ollinger, E. Bauerle, and D. Straile. 1998. The Impact of the Interannual Variability in Hydrodynamic Conditions on the Plankton Development in Lake Constance in Spring and Summer. Universitat Konstanz.Universitat Konstanz.

Gage, K. L., T. R. Burkot, R. J. Eisen, and E. B. Hayes. 2008. Climate and vectorborne diseases.2008. Climate and vectorborne diseases. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5):436-450.

Gardiner, S. 2010. Is “arming the future” with geoengineering really the lesser evil? Some doubts about the ethics of intentionally manipulating the climate system. In Climate Ethics: Essential Readings, S. M. Gardiner, S. Caney, D. Jamieson, and H. Shue, eds. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gardner, G. T., and P. C. Stern. 1996. Environmental Problems and Human Behavior. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Garrett, K. A., S. P. Dendy, E. E. Frank, M. N. Rouse, and S. E. Travers. 2006. Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 44:489-509.

Gazeau, F., C. Quiblier, J. M. Jansen, J. P. Gattuso, J. J. Middelburg, and C. H. R. Heip. 2007. Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification. Geophysical Research Letters 34(7).

GCRA (Global Change Research Act). 1990. P. L. 101-606, Title 15, Chapter 56A: Global Change Research.

Gedney, N., P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, O. Boucher, C. Huntingford, and P. A. Stott. 2006. Continental runoff: A quality-controlled global runoff data set (Reply). Nature 444(7120):E14-E15.

Georgakakos, K. P., N. E. Graham, E. M. Carpenter, A. P. Georgakakos, and H. Yao. 2005. Integrating climate-hydrology forecasts and multi-objective reservoir management for northern California. EOS 86(12):4.

Gerten, D., S. Rost, W. Von Bloh, and W. Lucht. 2008. Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge.2008. Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge. Geophysical Research Letters 35(20):5.

Gibbard, S., K. Caldeira, G. Bala, T. J. Phillips, and M. Wickett. 2005. Climate effects of global land cover change. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L23705.

Gibbs, C., J. E. Fry, C. Oliver, and E. F. McGarrell. 2009. Carbon trading markets: An overview. Presentation to the Interpol Environmental Crimes Committee Pollution Working Group, Lyon, France.

Gigerenzer, G. 2008. Rationality for Mortals: How People Cope with Uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gille, S. T. 2002. Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s. Science 295 (5558):1275-1277.

Gilles, J. L., and C. Valdivia. 2009. Local forecast communcation in the altiplano. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(1):85-91.

Gillett, N. P., A. J. Weaver, F. W. Zwiers, and M. F. Wehner. 2004. Detection of volcanic influence on global precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters 31.

Gine, X., R. Townsend, and J. Vickery. 2008. Patterns of rainfall insurance participation in rural India. World Bank Economic Review 22(3):539.

Ginley, D., M. A. Green, and R. Collins. 2008. Solar energy conversion toward 1 terawatt. MRS Bulletin 33(4):355-364.

Gleick, P. H. 2000. Water—The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change for the Water Resources of the United States. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Available at http://www.gcrio.org/NationalAssessment/water/water.pdf.

Gleick, P. H. 2003a. Global freshwater resources: Soft-path solutions for the 21st century. Science 302(5650):1524-1528.

Gleick, P. H. 2003b. Water use. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28:275-314.

Glynn, P. W. 1991. Coral-Reef Bleaching in the 1980s and Possible Connections with Global Warming. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6 (6):175-179.

GOFC-GOLD. 2008. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring, Measuring and Reporting. GOFC-GOLD Project Office, Report COP13-2, Alberta, Canada, hosted by Natural Resources Canada.

GOFC-GOLD. 2009. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring, Measuring and Reporting. GOFC-GOLD Project Office, Report COP14-2, Alberta, Canada, hosted by Natural Resources Canada.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Golubev, V. S., J. H. Lawrimore, P. Y. Groisman, N. A. Speranskaya, S. A. Zhuravin, M. J. Menne, T. C. Peterson, and R. W. Malone. 2001. Evaporation changes over the contiguous United States and the former USSR: A reassessment. Geophysical Research Letters 28(13):2665-2668.

Gornitz,V., 2009. Sea level change, post-glacial. Pp. 887-893 in Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology & Ancient Environments, V. Gornitz, ed. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Gornitz, V., S. Lebedeff, and J. Hansen. 1982. Global sea level trend in the past century. Science 215(4540):1611-1614.

Gough, C. M., C. S. Vogel, H. P. Schmid, and P. S. Curtis. 2008. Controls on annual forest carbon storage: Lessons from the past and predictions for the future. Bioscience 58(7):609-622.

Goulder, L. H. 2004. Induced Technological Change and Climate Policy. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

Govindasamy, B., and K. Caldeira. 2000. Geoengineering Earth’s radiation balance to mitigate CO2-induced climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 27(14): 2141-2144.

Grantham, B. A., F. Chan, K. J. Nielsen, D. S. Fox, J. A. Barth, A. Huyer, J. Lubchenco, and B. A. Menge. 2004. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific. Nature 429 (6993):749-754.

Graves, P. E. 2007. Environmental Economics: A Critique of Benefit-Cost Analysis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gray, L. J., J. D. Haigh and R. G. Harrison, 2005. The influence of solar changes on the Earth’s climate, Hadley Centre technical note 62, Publisher: MET Office, pp. 1-81.

Grebmeier, J. M., J. E. Overland, S. E. Moore, E. V. Farley, E. C. Carmack, L. W. Cooper, K. E. Frey, J. H. Helle, F. A. Mclaughlin, and S. L. Mcnutt. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the northern Bering Sea. Science 311(5766):1461-1464.

Green, M. A. 2003. Crystalline and thin-film silicon solar cells: State of the art and future potential. Solar Energy 74(3):181-192.

Green, R. 2005. Electricity and markets. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 21(1):67-87.

Gregory, J. M., P. Huybrecht, and S. Raper. 2004. Threatened loss of the Greenland ice sheet. Nature 428:616.

Gregory, P. J., S. N. Johnson, A. C. Newton, and J. S. Ingram. 2009. Integrating pests and pathogens into the climate change/food security debate. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(10):2827-2838.

Grimm, N. B., S. H. Faeth, N. E. Golubiewski, C. L. Redman, J. G. Wu, X. M. Bai, and J. M. Briggs. 2008. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319(5864):756-760.

Grimmond, S. 2007. Urbanization and global environmental change: Local effects of urban warming. Geographical Journal 173:83-88.

Grinsted, A., J. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva. 2009. Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 Ad. Climate Dynamics 34( 4): 461-472,.

Groisman, P. Y., and R. W. Knight. 2008. Prolonged dry episodes over the conterminous United States: New tendencies emerging during the last 40 years. Journal of Climate 21:1850-1862.

Grossman, G. M., and A. B. Krueger. 1995. Economic growth and the environment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 110(2):353-377.

Grove, J. M. 2009. Cities: Managing densely settled biological systems. In Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: Resilience-Based Natural Resource Management in a Changing World, F. S. Chapin III, G. P. Kofinas, and C. Folke, eds. New York: Springer.

Grübler, A., N. Nakicenovic, and W. D. Nordhaus, eds. 2002. Technological Change and the Environment. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Gryparis, A., B. Forsberg, K. Katsouyanni, A. Analitis, G. Touloumi, J. Schwartz, E. Samoli, S. Medina, H. R. Anderson, E. M. Niciu, H. E. Wichmann, B. Kriz, M. Kosnik, J. Skorkovsky, J. M. Vonk, and Z. Dortbudak. 2004. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the “Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach” project. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170(10):1080-1087.

Gu, L., D. D. Baldocchi, S. C. Wofsy, J. W. Munger, J. J. Michalsky, S. P. Urbanski, and T. A. Boden. 2003. Response of a deciduous forest to the Mount Pinatubo eruption: Enhanced photosynthesis. Science 299(5615):2035-2038.

Guan, B., and S. Nigam. 2008. Pacific sea surface temperatures in the twentieth century: An evolution-centric analysis of variability and trend. Journal of Climate 21:2790-2809.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Guan, B., and S. Nigam. 2009. Analysis of Atlantic SST variability factoring inter-basin links and the secular trend: Clarified structure of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Journal of Climate 22(15):4228-4240.

Guinotte, J. M., and V. J. Fabry. 2008. Ocean acidification and its potential effects on marine ecosystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1134(2008):320-342.

Gullison, R. E., P. C. Frumhoff, J. G. Canadell, C. B. Field, D. C. Nepstad, K. Hayhoe, R. Avissar, L. M. Curran, P. Friedlingstein, C. D. Jones, and C. Nobre. 2007. Environment: Tropical forests and climate policy. Science 316(5827):985-986.

Guneralp, B., and K. C. Seto. 2008. Environmental impacts of urban growth from an integrated dynamic perspective: A case study of Shenzhen, South China. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 18(4):720-735.

Gupta, J., and H. Van Asselt. 2006. Helping operationalise Article 2: A transdisciplinary methodological tool for evaluating when climate change is dangerous. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 16(1):83-94.

Gupta, S., D. A. Tirpak, N. Burger, J. Gupta, N. Höhne, A. I. Boncheva, G. M. Kanoan, C. Kolstad, J. A. Kruger, A. Michaelowa, S. Murase, J. Pershing, T. Saijo, and A. Sari. 2007. Policies, instruments, and co-operative arrangements. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gurgel, A., J. M. Reilly, and S. Paltsev. 2007. Potential land use implications of a global biofuels industry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Industrial Organization 5(2).

Gutowski, W. J., G. C. Hegerl, G. J. Holland, T. R. Knutson, L. O. Mearns, R. J. Stouffer, P. J. Webster, M. F. Wehner, and F. W. Zwiers. 2008. Causes of Observed Changes in Extremes and Projections of Future Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate: Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3. T. R. Karl, G. A. Meehl, C. D. Miller, S. J. Hassol, A. M. Waple, and W. L. Murray, eds. Washington, DC: Climate Change Science Program.

Guttman, N. B. 1989. Statistical descriptors of climate. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 70:602-607.

Haines, A., and J. A. Patz. 2004. Health effects of climate change. Journal of the American Medical Association 291(1):99-103.

Hall, M. H. P., and D. B. Fagre. 2003. Modeled climate-induced glacier change in Glacier National Park, 1850-2100. Bioscience 53(2):131-140.

Halpern, B. S., S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe, C. V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D’Agrosa, J. F. Bruno, K. S. Casey, C. Ebert, H. E. Fox, R. Fujita, D. Heinemann, H. S. Lenihan, E. M. P. Madin, M. T. Perry, E. R. Selig, M. Spalding, R. Steneck, and R. Watson. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319(5865):948-952.

Hamilton, L. C., and B. D. Keim. 2009. Regional variation in perceptions about climate change. International Journal of Climatology 29(15):2348-2352.

Hamin, E. M., and N. Gurran. 2009. Urban form and climate change: Balancing adaptation and mitigation in the U.S. and Australia. Habitat International 33(3):238-245.

Hamlet, A. F., P. W. Mote, M. P. Clark, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2007. Twentieth-century trends in runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in the western United States. Journal of Climate 20(8):1468-1486.

Hanna, E., J. Cappelen, X. Fettweis, P. Huybrechts, A. Luckman, and M. H. Ribergaard. 2009. Hydrologic response of the Greenland ice sheet: The role of oceanographic warming. Hydrological Processes 23(1):7-30.

Hansen, J., and S. Lebedev. 1987. Global trends of measured surface air temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research 92(D11):13345-13372.

Hansen, J., and M. Sato. 2004. Greenhouse gas growth rates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(46):16109-16114.

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, J. Glascoe, and M. Sato. 1999. GISS analysis of surface temperature change. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D24):30997-31022.

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, M. Sato, M. Imhoff, W. Lawrence, D. Easterling, T. Peterson, and T. Karl. 2001. A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:23947-23963, doi:10.1029/2001JD000354.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. Efficacy of climate forcings. Journal of Geophysical Research 110(D18):D18104.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, D. W. Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade. 2006. Global temperature change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(39):14288-14293.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Kharecha, D. Beerling, R. Berner, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Pagani, M. Raymo, D. L. Royer, and J. C. Zachos. 2008. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim? The Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2:217-231.

Hansen, J. E. 2005. A slippery slope: How much global warming constitutes “dangerous anthropogenic interference”? Climatic Change 68(3):269-279.

Hardoy, J., and G. Pandiella. 2009. Urban poverty and vulnerability to climate change in Latin America. Environment and Urbanization 21(1):203-224.

Hare, S. R., N. J. Mantua, and R. C. Francis. 1999. Inverse production regimes: Alaska and West Coast Pacific salmon. Fisheries 24(1):6-14.

Harries, J. E., and J. M. Futyan. 2006. On the stability of the Earth’s radiative energy balance: Response to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L23814, doi:10.1029/2006GL027457.

Harris, J., and C. Blumstein, eds. 1984. What Works: Documenting Energy Conservation in Buildings. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.

Hatanaka, M., C. Bain, and L. Busch. 2005. Third-party certification in the global agrifood system. Food Policy 30(3):354-369.

Haupt, B. J., and D. Seidov. 2007. Strengths and weaknesses of the global ocean conveyor: Inter-basin freshwater disparities as the major control. Progress in Oceanography 73(3-4):358-369.

Hay, S. I., J. Cox, D. J. Rogers, S. E. Randolph, D. I. Stern, G. D. Shanks, M. F. Myers, and R. W. Snow. 2002. Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands. Nature 415(6874):905-909.

Hayden, B. P. 1999. Climate change and extratropical storminess in the United States: An assessment. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35(6):1387-1397.

Hayhoe, K., D. Cayan, C. B. Field, P. C. Frumhoff, E. P. Maurer, N. L. Miller, S. C. Moser, S. H. Schneider, K. N. Cahill, E. E. Cleland, L. Dale, R. Drapek, R. M. Hanemann, L. S. Kalkstein, J. Lenihan, C. K. Lunch, R. P. Neilson, S. C. Sheridan, and J. H. Verville. 2004. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(34):12422-12427.

Hayhoe, K., C. P. Wake, T. G. Huntington, L. F. Luo, M. D. Schwartz, J. Sheffield, E. Wood, B. Anderson, J. Bradbury, A. Degaetano, T. J. Troy, and D. Wolfe. 2007. Past and future changes in climate and hydrological indicators in the US Northeast. Climate Dynamics 28(4):381-407.

Hayhoe, K., S. Sheridan, L. Kalkstein, and S. Greene. 2010. Climate change, heat waves, and mortality projections for Chicago. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36(2):65-73, doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2009.12.009.

Heal, G. 1997. Discounting and climate change: An editorial comment. Climatic Change 37(2):335-343.

Heal, G. 2009. The economics of climate change: A post-Stern perspective. Climatic Change 96(3):275-297.

Heberger, M., H. Cooley, P. Herrera, and P. H. Gleick. 2009. The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast—Final Report. Sacramento: California Energy Commission Report CEC-500-2009-024-F.

Hecht, J. E. 2005. National Environmental Accounting: Bridging the Gap Between Ecology and Economy. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Hegerl, G. C., and S. Solomon. 2009. Risks of climate engineering. Science 325(5943):955-956.

Hegerl, G. C., T. R. Karl, M. Allen, N. L. Bindoff, N. Gillett, D. Karoly, X. Zhang, and F. Zwiers. 2006. Climate change detection and attribution: Beyond mean temperature signals. Journal of Climate 19:5058-5077.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Hegerl, G. C., F. W. Zwiers, P. Braconnot, N. P. Gillett, Y. Luo, J. A. Marengo Orsini, N. Nicholls, J. E. Penner, and P. A. Stott. 2007. Understanding and attributing climate change. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K. and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Heinz Center. 2008a. The State of the Nation’s Ecosystems 2008. Washington, DC: Island Press and Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment.

Heinz Center. 2008b. A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning. Washington, DC: H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment.

Held, I. M., and B. J. Soden. 2006. Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming. Journal of Climate 19(21):5686-5699.

Helly, J. J., and L. A. Levin. 2004. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers 51 (9):1159-1168.

Henry, A. D. 2009. The challenge of learning for sustainability: A prolegomenon to theory. Human Ecology Review 16(2):131-140.

Hermann, W. A. 2006. Quantifying global exergy resources. Energy 31(12):1685-1702.

Hess, J. J., J. N. Malilay, and A. J. Parkinson. 2008. Climate change: The importance of place. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5):468-478.

Hesselbjerg, J., and B. Hewitson. 2007. Regional climate projections. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Hill, M., and P. Hupe. 2009. Implementing Public Policy: An Introduction to the Study of Operational Governance. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Hiltermann, T. J. N., J. Stolk, S. C. Van Der Zee, B. Brunekreef, C. R. De Bruijne, P. H. Fischer, C. B. Ameling, P. J. Sterk, P. S. Hiemstra, and L. Van Bree. 1998. Asthma severity and susceptibility to air pollution. European Respiratory Journal 11(3):686-693.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50 (8):839-866.

Hofmann, G. E., M. J. O’Donnell, and A. E. Todgham. 2008. Using functional genomics to explore the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying marine organisms. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 373:219-225.

Holbrook, S. J., R. J. Schmitt, and J. S. Stephens. 1997. Changes in an assemblage of temperate reef fishes associated with a climate shift. Ecological Applications 7(4):1299-1310.

Holgate, S. J., and P. L. Woodworth. 2004. Evidence for enhanced coastal sea level rise during the 1990s. Geophysical Research Letters 31(7):L07305.

Holland, D. M., R. H. Thomas, B. De Young, M. H. Ribergaard, and B. Lyberth. 2008. Acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbrae triggered by warm subsurface ocean waters. Nature Geoscience 1(10):659-664.

Horne, R., T. Grant, and K. Verghese. 2009. Life Cycle Assessment: Principles, Practices and Prospects. Colingwood, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.

Horton, R., C. Herweijer, C. Rosenzweig, J. Liu, V. Gornitz, and A. C. Ruane. 2008. Sea level rise projections for current generation CGCMs based on the semi-empirical method. Geophysical Research Letters 35: L02715, doi:10.1029/2007GL032486.

Houghton, R. A. 2005. Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance. Global Change Biology 11(6):945-958.

Houser, T., R. Bradley, B. Childs Staley, J. Werksman, and R. Heilmayr. 2008. Leveling the Carbon Playing Field: International Competition and U.S. Climate Policy Design. Washington, DC: World Resouces Institute.

Houweling, S., T. Rockmann, I. Aben, F. Keppler, M. Krol, J. F. Meirink, E. J. Dlugokencky, and C. Frankenberg. 2006. Atmospheric constraints on global emissions of methane from plants. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L15821, doi:10.1029/2006GL026162.

Howat, I. M., I. Joughin, and T. A. Scambos. 2007. Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers. Science 315(5818):1559-1561.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Hu, P. S., and T. R. Reuscher. 2005. Summary of Travel Trends: 2001 National Household Travel Survey, Report FHWA-PL-07-010. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.

Hu, W., K. Mengersen, A. Mcmichael, and S. Tong. 2008. Temperature, air pollution and total mortality during summers in Sydney, 1994-2004. International Journal of Biometeorology 52(7):689-696.

Huang, R. X. 1999. Mixing and energetics of the oceanic thermohaline circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography 29(4):727-746.

Hughes, T. P., A. H. Baird, D. R. Bellwood, M. Card, S. R. Connolly, C. Folke, R. Grosberg, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. B. C. Jackson, J. Kleypas, J. M. Lough, P. Marshall, M. Nystrom, S. R. Palumbi, J. M. Pandolfi, B. Rosen, and J. Roughgarden. 2003. Climate Change, Human Impacts, and the Resilience of Coral Reefs. Science 301 (5635):929-933.

Huijbregts, M. A. J., S. Hellweg, R. Frischknecht, K. Hungerbühler, and A. J. Hendriks. 2008. Ecological footprint accounting2008. Ecological footprint accounting in the life cycle assessment of products. Ecological Economics 64:798-807.

Huitema, D., E. Mostert, W. Egas, S. Moellenkamp, C. Pahl-Wostl, and R. Yalcin. 2009. Adaptive water governance: Assessing the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management from a governance perspective and defining a research agenda. Ecology and Society 14(1).

Hunt, G. L., and P. J. Stabeno. 2002. Climate change and the control of energy flow in the southeastern Bering Sea. Progress in Oceanography 55 (1-2):5-22.

Hunt, R., D. W. Hand, M. A. Hannah, and A. M. Neal. 1991. Response to CO2 enrichment in 27 herbaceous species. Functional Ecology 5(3):410-421.

Huntington, T. G. 2004. Climate change, growing season length, and transpiration: Plant response could alter hydrologic regime. Plant Biology 6(6):651-653.

ICSU-IGFA (International Council for Science—International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research). 2009. Review of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Paris: International Council for Science, 57 pp. Avaliable at http://www.icsu.org.

IHDP (International Human Dimensions Programme). 2005. Science Plan: Urbanization and Global Environmental Change. International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change Report 15. Bonn, Germany: IHDP Secretariat.

IHDP. 2009. International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change Annual Report for 2009. Available at http://www.ihdp.unu.edu/.

IEA (International Energy Agency). 2009. Key World Energy Statistics 2009. Paris. Available at http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2009/key_stats_2009.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

INECE (International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement). 2009. INECE Special Report on Climate Compliance: United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen—COP 15. Washington, DC: INECE.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Cliamte Change). 2005. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. B. Metz, O. Davidson, H. de Coninck, M. Loos, and L. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 431 pp.

IPCC. 2007a. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

IPCC. 2007b. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri, and A. Reisinger, eds. Geneva, 104 pp.

IPCC. 2007c. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 976 pp.

IPCC. 2007d. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 851 pp.

IPCC. 2009. Chapter Outline of the Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), IPCC-XXXI/Doc. 20, Rev. 1 (28.X.2009), Bali, October 26-29. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/meeting_documentation/meeting_documentation_31th_session.htm. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Ito, K., S. F. De Leon, and M. Lippmann. 2005. Associations between ozone and daily mortality: Analysis and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 16(4):446-457.

Jack, B. K., C. Kousky, and K. R. E. Sims. 2008. Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28):9465-9470.

Jackson, R. B., J. T. Randerson, J. G. Canadell, R. G. Anderson, R. Avissar, D. D. Baldocchi, G. B. Bonan, K. Caldeira, N. S. Diffenbaugh, C. B. Field, B. A. Hungate, E. G. Jobbagy, L. M. Kueppers, M. D. Nosetto, and D. E. Pataki. 2008. Protecting climate with forests. Environmental Research Letters 3(4).

Jacob, D. J., and D. A. Winner. 2009. Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43(1):51-63.

Jacques, P. 2006. Downscaling climate models and environmental policy: From global to regional politics. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 49(2):301-307.

Jaeger, C., O. Renn, E. A. Rosa, and T. Webler. 2001. Risk, Uncertainty and Rational Action. London: Earthscan.

Jaffe, A. B., and R. N. Stavins. 1994. The energy efficienct gap—What does it mean? Energy Policy 22(10):804-810.

Jaffe, A. B., R. G. Newell, and R.N. Stavins. 2005. A tale of two market failures: Technology and environmental policy. Ecological Economics 54(2-3):164-174.

Jamieson, D. 1996. Ethics and intentional climate change. Climatic Change 33(3):323-336.

Janetos, A., L. Hansen, D. Inouye, B. P. Kelly, L. Meyerson, B. Peterson, and R. Shaw. 2008. Biodiversity. In The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Washington, DC: Climate Change Science Program.

Jansen, E., J. Overpeck, K. R. Briffa, J.-C. Duplessy, F. Joos, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Olago, B. Otto-Bliesner, W. R. Peltier, S. Rahmstorf, R. Ramesh, D. Raynaud, D. Rind, O. Solomina, R. Villalba, and D. Zhang. 2007. Palaeoclimate. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Janzen, H. H. 2004. Carbon cycling in earth systems—a soil science perspective. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 104(3):399-417.

Jaramillo, P., C. Samaras, H. Wakeley, and K. Meisterling. 2009. Greenhouse gas implications of using coal for transportation: Life cycle assessment of coal-to-liquids, plug-in hybrids, and hydrogen pathways. Energy Policy 37(7):2689-2695.

Jauregui, E., and E. Romales. 1996. Urban effects on convection precipitation in Mexico City. Atmospheric Environment 30:3382-3389.

Jenkins, A., and D. Holland. 2007. Melting of floating ice and sea level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 34(16).

Jin, M. L., R. E. Dickinson, and D. L. Zhang. 2005. The footprint of urban areas on global climate as characterized by MODIS. Journal of Climate 18(10):1551-1565.

Johnston, P. A., E. R. M. Archer, C. H. Vogel, C. N. Bezuidenhout, W. J. Tennant, and R. Kuschke. 2004. Review of seasonal forecasting in South Africa: Producer to end-user. Climate Research 28(1):67-82.

Joireman, J., H. Truelove, and B. Deull. In press. Effect of outdoor temperature, heat primes and anchoring on belief in global warming. Journal of Environmental Psychology.

Jones, P. G., and P. K. Thornton. 2003. The potential impacts of climate change on maize production in Africa and Latin America in 2055. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 13(1):51-59.

Jones, T. S., A. P. Liang, E. M. Kilbourne, M. R. Griffin, P. A. Patriarca, S. G. F. Wassilak, R. J. Mullan, R. F. Herrick, H. D. Donnell, K. W. Choi, and S. B. Thacker. 1982. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE JULY 1980 HEAT-WAVE IN ST-LOUIS AND KANSAS-CITY, MO. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association 247 (24):3327-3331.

Jorgenson, A. K. 2007. Does foreign investment harm the air we breathe and the water we drink? A cross-national study of carbon dioxide emissions and organic water pollution in less-developed countries, 1975 to 2000. Organization & Environment 20(2):137-156.

Jorgenson, A. K. 2009. The transnational organization of production, the scale of degradation, and ecoefficiency: A study of carbon dioxide emissions in less-developed countries. Human Ecology Review 16(1):64-74.

Joughin, I., S. Tulaczyk, R. Bindschadler, and S. F. Price. 2002. Changes in west Antarctic ice stream velocities: Observation and analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 107(B11).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Joughin, I., S. B. Das, M. A. King, B. E. Smith, I. M. Howat, and T. Moon. 2008. Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet. Science 320(5877):781-783.

Jouzel, J., V. Masson-Delmotte, O. Cattani, G. Dreyfus, S. Falourd, G. Hoffmann, B. Minster, J. Nouet, J. M. Barnola, J. Chappellaz, H. Fischer, J. C. Gallet, S. Johnsen, M. Leuenberger, L. Loulergue, D. Luethi, H. Oerter, F. Parrenin, G. Raisbeck, D. Raynaud, A. Schilt, J. Schwander, E. Selmo, R. Souchez, R. Spahni, B. Stauffer, J. P. Steffensen, B. Stenni, T. F. Stocker, J. L. Tison, M. Werner, and E.W. Wolff. 2007. Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years. Science 317(5839):793-797.

JSOST (Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology). 2007. Charting the Course for Ocean Science for the United States for the Next Decade: An Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy. Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, 84 pp. Available at http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/niehs/JSOST_briefings_general.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010..

Kalff, J. 2002. Limnology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kalkstein, L. S., J. S. Greene, D. M. Mills, A. D. Perrin, J. P. Samenow, and J.-C. Cohen. 2008. Analog European heat waves for U.S. cities to analyze impacts on heat-related mortality. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89(1):75-85.

Kalnay, E. 2002. Atmospheric Modeling, Data Assimilation and Predictability. New York: Cambridge University Press, 350 pp.

Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, B. Reynolds, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(3):437-471.

Kapnick, S., and A. Hall. 2009. Observed Changes in the Sierra Nevada Snowpack: Potential Causes and Concerns. Sacramento: California Energy Commission. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-500-2009-016/CEC-500-2009-016-F.PDF. Accessed June 16, 2010.

Karl, T. R., and C. N. Williams, Jr. 1987. An approach to adjusting climatological time series for discontinuous inhomogeneities. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 20:1744-1763.

Kasperson, J. X., R. E. Kasperson, and B. L. Turner. 2009. Vulnerability of coupled human-ecological systems to global environmental change. Pp. 231-294 in Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kates, R., W. Hohenemser, and C. Kasperson. 1984.1984. Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology. A Westview Special Studies in Science, Technology and Public Policy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Kates, R. W. 2000. Cautionary tales: Adaptation and the global poor. Climatic Change 45(1):5-17.

Kates, R. W., W. C. Clark, R. Corell, J. M. Hall, C. C. Jaeger, I. Lowe, J. J. Mccarthy, H. J. Schellnhuber, B. Bolin, N. M. Dickson, S. Faucheux, G. C. Gallopin, A. Grübler, B. Huntley, J. Jager, N. S. Jodha, R. E. Kasperson, A. Mabogunje, P. Matson, H. Mooney, B. Moore, T. O’riordan, and U. Svedin. 2001. Sustainability science. Science 292(5517):641-642.

Kates, R. W., C. E. Colten, S. Laska, and S. P. Leatherman. 2006. Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A research perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(40):14653-14660.

Katsman, C., W. Hazeleger, S. Drijfhout, G. Oldenborgh, and G. Burgers. 2008. Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: A study including the effects of ocean dynamics and gravity changes induced by ice melt. Climatic Change 91(3-4):351-374.

Katsouyanni, K., G. Touloumi, C. Spix, J. Schwarte, F. Balducci, S. Medina, G. Rossi, B. Wojtyniak, J. Sunyer, L. Bacharova, J. P. Schouten, A. Ponka, and H. R. Anderson. 1997. Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities: Results from time series data from the APHEA project. British Medical Journal 314(7095):1658-1663.

Kaufman, D. S., D. P. Schneider, N. P. Mckay, C. M. Ammann, R. S. Bradley, K. R. Briffa, G. H. Miller, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. T. Overpeck, B. M. Vinther, and Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members. 2009. Recent warming reverses long-term Arctic cooling. Science 325(5945):1236-1239.

Keeling, C. D., S. C. Piper, R. B. Bacastow, M. Wahlen, T. P. Whorf, M. Heimann, and H. A. Meijer. 2005. Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 exchange with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000: Observations and carbon cycle implications. Pp. 83-113 in A History of Atmospheric CO2and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems, J. R. Ehleringer, T. E. Cerling, and M. D. Dearing, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Keeling, R. F., S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher, and J.S. Walker. 2009. Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, doi:10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035.

Kehrwald, N. M., L. G. Thompson, T. D. Yao, E. Mosley-Thompson, U. Schotterer, V. Alfimov, J. Beer, J. Eikenberg, and M. E. Davis. 2008. Mass loss on Himalayan glacier endangers water resources. Geophysical Research Letters 35(22).

Keith, D. W. 2000. Geoengineering the climate: History and prospect. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25:245-284.

Keith, D. W., J. F. Decarolis, D. C. Denkenberger, D. H. Lenschow, S. L. Malyshev, S. Pacala, and P. J. Rasch. 2004. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(46):16115-16120.

Kelly, P. M., and W. N. Adger. 2000. Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Climatic Change 47(4):325-352.

Kempton, W. 1991. Lay perspectives on global climate change. Pp. 29-69 in Energy Efficiency and the Environment: Forging the Link, E. L. Vine, D. Crawley, and P. Centolella, eds. Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.

Keppler, F., J. T. G. Hamilton, M. Braãÿ, and T. Rockmann. 2006. Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions. Nature 439(7073):187-191.

Keutartz, J. 1999. Engineering the environment: The politics of nature development. Pp. 83-102 in Living with Nature: Environmental Politics as Cultural Discourse, F. Fischer and M. Hajer, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Khagram, S. 2004. Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Khagram, S., and S. Ali. 2006. Environment and security. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:395-411.

Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau, and T. Hall. 2009. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO2 concentrations in the ocean. Nature 462(7271):346-349.

Khvorostyanov, D. V., P. Ciais, and G. Krinner. 2008. Vulnerability of east Siberia’s frozen carbon stores to future warming. Geophysical Research Letters 35(10):L10703, doi:10710.11029/12008GL033639.

Kildow, J., and C. S. Colgan. 2005. California’s Ocean Economy. Monterey, CA: National Ocean Economics Program.

Kim, H., S. Kim, and B. E. Dale. 2009. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: Some unexplored variables. Environmental Science and Technology 43:961-967.

Kim, J., and D. Waliser. 2009. A Projection of the Cold Season Hydroclimate in California in Mid-Twenty-First Century Under the SRES-A1B Emission Scenario. Draft Paper. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.

King County. 2008. Vulnerability of Major Wastewater Facilities to Flooding from Sea-Level Rise. Seattle, WA: King County, Department of Natural Resources and Parks, Wastewater Treatment Division.

Kingston, D. G., M. C. Todd, R. G. Taylor, J. R. Thompson, and N. W. Arnell. 2009. Uncertainty in the estimation of potential evapotranspiration under climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L20403.

Kinlan, B. P., and S. D. Gaines. 2003. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: A community perspective. Ecology 84 (8):2007-2020.

Kirllenko, A. and R. Sedjo. 2007. Climate change impacts on forestry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(50):19697-19702.

Kirshen, P., C. Watson, E. Douglas, A. Gontz, J. Lee, and Y. Tian. 2008. Coastal flooding in the northeastern United States due to climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13(5):437-451.

Klein, R. J. T., S. E. H. Eriksen, L. O. Naess, A. Hammill, T. M. Tanner, C. Robledo, K. L. O’Brien. 2007. Portfolio screening to support the mainstreaming of adaptation to climate change into development assistance. Climatic Change, 84:23-44.

Klopper, E., C. H. Vogel, and W. A. Landman. 2006. Seasonal climate forecasts—Potential agricultural-risk management tools? Climatic Change 76(1-2):73-90.

Knight, J., J. J. Kennedy, C. Folland, G. Harris, G. S. Jones, M. Palmer, D. Parker, A. Scaife, and P. Stott. 2009. Do global temperature trends over the last decade falsify climate predictions? In “State of the Climate in 2008,” T. C. Peterson and M. O. Baringer, eds. Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Knowles, N., M. D. Dettinger, and D. R. Cayan. 2006. Trends in snowfall versus rainfall in the western United States. Journal of Climate 19(18):4545-4559.

Knutson, T. R., J. L. Mcbride, J. Chan, K. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J. P. Kossin, A. K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi. 2010. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience 3(3):157-163.

Knutti, R., G. A. Meehl, M. R. Allen, and D. A. Stainforth. 2006. Constraining climate sensitivity from the seasonal cycle in surface temperature. Journal of Climate 19:4224-4233.

Kok, M., B. Metz, J. Verhagen, and S. Van Rooijen. 2008. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits. Climate Policy 8:103-118.

Kopp, R. E., F. J. Simons, J. X. Mitrovica, A. C. Maloof, and M. Oppenheimer. 2009. Probabilistic assessment of sea level during the last interglacial stage. Nature 462:863-868, doi:10.1038/nature08686.

Krueger, A. B. 2009. Measuring the Subjective Well-Being of Nations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kubiszewski, I.,C. J. Cleveland, and P. K. Endres. 2010. Meta-analysis of net energy return for wind power systems. Renewable Energy 35:218-225.

Kundzewicz, Z. W., U. Ulbrich, T. Brucher, D. Graczyk, A. Kruger, G. C. Leckebusch, L. Menzel, I. Pinskwar, M. Radziejewski, and M. Szwed. 2005. Summer floods in central Europe: Climate change track? Natural Hazards 36(1-2):165-189.

Kundzewicz, Z. W., L. J. Mata, N. W. Arnell, P. Döll, P. Kabat, B. Jiménez, K. A. Miller, T. Oki, Z. Sen, and I. A. Shiklomanov. 2007. Freshwater resources and their management. Pp. 173-210 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Kundzewicz, Z. W., L. J. Mata, N. W. Arnell, P. Dall, B. Jimenez, K. Miller, T. Oki, and Z. Åžen. 2009. Reply to “Climate, hydrology and freshwater: Towards an interactive incorporation of hydrological experience into climate research”: Water and climate projections. Hydrological Sciences Journal 54(2):406-415.

Kunreuther, H. 2008. Reducing Losses from Catastrophic Risks Through Long-Term Insurance and Mitigation. Philadelphia: Risk Management and Decision Processes Center, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

Kverndokk, S., and A. Rose. 2008. Equity and Justice in Global Warming Policy. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) Working Paper 80.2008. Milan, Italy: FEEM.

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock. 2009. Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958-2008. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L15501, doi:10.1029/2009GL039035.

Lackner, K. S., P. Grimes, and H.-J. Ziock. 1999. The case for carbon dioxide extraction from air. SourceBook—The Energy Industry’s Journal of Issues 57(9):6-10.

Lake, J. A., and R. N. Wade. 2009. Plant-pathogen interactions and elevated CO2: Morphological changes in favour of pathogens. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(11):3123-3131.

Lambeck, K., and J. Chappell. 2001. Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292(5517):679-686, doi:10.1126/science.1059549.

Lambert, F. H., N. P. Gillett, D. I. A. Stone, and C. Huntingford. 2005. Attribution studies of observed land precipitation changes with nine coupled models. Geophysical Research Letters 32:L18704.

Lane, L., K. Caldeira, R. Chatfield, and S. Langhoff, eds. 2007. Workshop Report on Managing Solar Radiation. NASA/CP-2007-214558. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.

Larsen, P. H., S. Goldsmith, O. Smith, M. L. Wilson, K. Strzepek, P. Chinowsky, and B. Saylor. 2008. Estimating future costs for Alaska public infrastructure at risk from climate change. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 18(3):442-457.

Larson, E. D. 2007. Sustainable Bioenergy: A Framework for Decision Makers: UN-Energy. Available at http://esa.un.org/unenergy/pdf/susdev.Biofuels.FAO.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2010.

Latham, J. 2002. Amelioration of global warming by controlled enhancement of the albedo and longevity of low-level maritime clouds. Atmospheric Science Letters 3(2-4):52-58.

Laurance, W. F. 2007. A new initiative to use carbon trading for tropical forest conservation. Biotropica 39(1):20-24.

Laurenti, G. 2007. Fish and Fishery Products. World Apparent Consumption Statistics Based on Food Balance Sheets (1961-2003). FAO Fisheries Circular 821, Revison 8. Rome: FAO.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Lawrence, D. M., and A. G. Slater. 2005. A projection of severe near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. Geophysical Research Letters 32(24).

Le Quéré, C., M. R. Raupach, J. G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, P. Foster, P. Friedling-stein, K. Gurney, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, C. Huntingford, P. E. Levy, M. R. Lomas, J. Majkut, N. Metzl, J. P. Ometto, G. P. Peters, I. C. Prentice, J. T. Randerson, S. W. Running, J. L. Sarmiento, U. Schuster, S. Sitch, T. Takahashi, N. Viovy, G. R. van der Werf, and F. I. Woodward. 2009. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience 2:831-836, doi:10.1038/ngeo689.

Leakey, A. D. B., E. A. Ainsworth, C. J. Bernacchi, A. Rogers, S. P. Long, and D. R. Ort. 2009. Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: Six important lessons from FACE. Journal of Experimental Botany (published online April 28), doi:10.1093/jxb/erp096.

Lean, J. L. and T. N. Woods. 2010. Solar total and spectral irradiance: Measurements and models. In Evolving Solar Physics and the Climates of Earth and Space, K. Schrijver and G. Siscoe, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Lehmann, J., and S. Joseph, eds. 2009. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. London: Earthscan.

Lehmann, J., and S. Sohi. 2008. Comment on “Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus.” Science 321(5894).

Lehman, S. J., and L. D. Keigwin. 1992. Sudden changes in North Atlantic circulation during the last deglaciation. Nature 356:757-762.

Leiserowitz, A. 2007. International Public Opinion, Perception, and Understanding of Global Climate Change. Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper 2007/31. New York: United Nations.

Leiserowitz, A. 2010. Climate change risk perceptions and behavior in the United States. In Climate Change Science and Policy, S. Schneider, A. Rosencranz, and M. Mastrandrea, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Lemke, P., J. Ren, R. B. Alley, I. Allison, J. Carrasco, G. Flato, Y. Fujii, G. Kaser, P. Mote, R. H. Thomas, and T. Zhang. 2007. Observations: Changes in snow, ice and frozen ground. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Lemos, M. C. 2008. What influences innovation adoption by water managers? Climate information use in Brazil and the United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(6):1388-1396.

Lemos, M. C., and A. Agrawal. 2006. Environmental governance. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31(3):1-329.

Lemos, M. C., and L. Dilling. 2007. Equity in forecasting climate: Can science save the world’s poor? Science and Public Policy 34:109-116.

Lempert, R. J. 2002. A new decision sciences for complex systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:7309-7313.

Lempert, R. J., and M. T. Collins. 2007. Managing the risk of uncertain threshold responses: Comparison of robust, optimum, and precautionary approaches. Risk Analysis 27(4):1009-1026.

Lempert, R. J., S. W. Popper, and S. C. Bankes. 2003. Shaping the next one hundred years: New methods for quantitative, long-term policy analysis. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Available at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1626/. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

Lenton, T. M., and N. E. Vaughan. 2009. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(15):5539-5561.

Lenton, T. M., H. Held, E. Kriegler, J. W. Hall, W. Lucht, S. Rahmstorf, and H. J. Schellnhuber. 2008. Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(6):1786-1793.

Lenzen, M. 2008. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions of nuclear energy: A review. Energy Conversion and Management 49: 2178-2199.

Lester, S. E., B. S. Halpern, K. Grorud-Colvert, J. Lubchenco, B. I. Ruttenberg, S. D. Gaines, S. Airame, and R. R. Warner. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 384:33-46.

Leuliette, E. W., R. S. Nerem, and G. T. Mitchum. 2004. Calibration of TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimeter data to construct a continuous record of mean sea level change. Marine Geodesy 27(1-2):79-94.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Leung, L. R., L. O. Mearns, F. Giorgi, and R. L. Wilby.2003.Regional climate research: Needs and opportunities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84(1):89-95.

Levitus, S. 1989. Interpentadal variability of salinity in the upper 150 m of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1970-74 versus 1955-59, Journal of Geophysical Research 94:9679-9685.

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, J. L. Wang, T. L. Delworth, K. W. Dixon, and A. J. Broccoli. 2001. Anthropogenic warming of Earth’s climate system. Science 292(5515):267-270.

Levitus, S., J. Antonov, and T. Boyer. 2005. Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003, Geophysical Research Letters 32:L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592.

Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, H. E. Garcia, and A. V. Mishonov. 2009. Global ocean heat content 1955-2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L07608.

Levy, J. I., S. M. Chemerynski, and J. A. Sarnat. 2005. Ozone exposure and mortality: An empiric Bayes metaregression analysis. Epidemiology 16(4):458-468.

Lewis, N. S. 2007. Toward cost-effective solar energy use. Science 315(5813):798-801.

Lewis, C. L., and M. A. Coffroth. 2004. The acquisition of exogenous algal symbionts by an octocoral after bleaching. Science 304 (5676):1490-1492.

Li, W. H., R. Fu, and R. E. Dickinson. 2006. Rainfall and its seasonality over the Amazon in the 21st century as assessed by the coupled models for the IPCC AR4. Journal of Geophysical Research 111(D2).

Lima, F. P., N. Queiroz, P. A. Ribeiro, S. J. Hawkins, and A. M. Santos. 2006. Recent changes in the distribution of a marine gastropod, Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, and their relationship to unusual climatic events. Journal of Biogeography 33(5):812-822.

Lin, C. Y., F. Chen, J. C. Huang, W. C. Chen, Y. A. Liou, W. N. Chen, and S. C. Liu. 2008. Urban heat island effect and its impact on boundary layer development and land-sea circulation over northern Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment 42(22):5635-5649.

Lindseth, G. 2004. The Cities for Climate Protection Campaign (CCPC) and the framing of local climate policy. Local Environment 9(4):325-336.

Lins, H. F., and J. R. Slack. 2005. Seasonal and regional characteristics of US streamflow trends in the United States from 1940 to 1999. Physical Geography 26(6):489-501.

Littell, J.S., M. McGuire Elsner, L.C. Whitely Binder, and A.K. Snover, eds. 2009. The Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment: Evaluating Washington’s Future in a Changing Climate. Seattle, WA: Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington.

Liu, J. G., G. C. Daily, P. R. Ehrlich, and G. W. Luck. 2003. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity. Nature 421(6922):530-533.

Liverman, D. 2009. The geopolitics of climate change: Avoiding determinism, fostering sustainable development. Climatic Change 96(1-2):7-11.

Lobell, D. B., K. N. Cahill, and C. B. Field. 2007. Historical effects of temperature and precipitation on California crop yields. Climatic Change 81(2):187-203.

Lobell, D. B., M. B. Burke, C. Tebaldi, M. D. Mastrandrea, W. P. Falcon, and R. L. Naylor. 2008. Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319(5863):607-610.

Logan, J. A., J. Regniere, and J. A. Powell. 2003. Assessing the impacts of global warming on forest pest dynamics. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(3):130-137.

Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter. 2005. Global indirect aerosol effects: A review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5:715-737.

Long, S. P., E. A. Ainsworth, A. D. B. Leakey, J. Nosberger, and D. R. Ort. 2006. Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations. Science 312 (5782):1918-1921.

Lonsdale, K., T. Downing, R. Nicholls, D. Parker, A. Vafeidis, R. Dawson, et al. 2008. Plausible responses to the threat of rapid sea-level rise in the Thames Estuary. Climatic Change 91(1):145-169.

Loreau, M., S. Naeem, P. Inchausti, J. Bengtsson, J. P. Grime, A. Hector, D. U. Hooper, M. A. Huston, D. Raffaelli, B. Schmid, D. Tilman, and D. A. Wardle. 2001. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: Current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294(5543):804-808.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Lorenzoni, I., and N. Pidgeon. 2006. Public views on climate change: European and USA perspectives. Climatic Change 77(1):73-95.

Lorenzoni, I., N. F. Pidgeon, and R. E. O’Connor. 2005. Dangerous climate change: The role for risk research. Risk Analysis 25(6):1387-1398.

Lovelock, J. 2008. A geophysiologist’s thoughts on geoengineering. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 366(1882):3883-3890.

Lowe, D. C. 2006. Vicarious Experiences vs. Scientific Information in Climate Change Risk Perception and Behaviour: A Case Study of Undergraduate Students in Norwich, UK. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.

Lozier, M. S., S. Leadbetter, R. G. Williams,V. Roussenov, M. S. C. Reed, and N. J. Moore. 2008. The spatial pattern and mechanisms of heat-content change in the North Atlantic. Science 319(5864):800-803, doi:10.1126/science.1146436.

Lubell, M., S. Zahran, and A. Vedlitz. 2007. Collective action and citizen responses to global warming. Political Behavior 29(3):391-413.

Luedeling, E., M. Zhang, and E. H. Givetz. 2009. Climatic changes lead to declining winter chill for fruit and nut trees in California during 1950-2099. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6166.

Luers, A. L., D. B. Lobell, L. S. Sklar, C. L. Addams, and P. A. Matson. 2003. A method for quantifying vulnerability, applied to the agricultural system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 13(4):255-267.

Lüthi, D., M. Le Floch, B. Bereiter, T. Blunier, J.-M. Barnola, U. Siegenthaler, D. Raynaud, J. Jouzel, H. Fischer, K. Kawamura, and T. F. Stocker. 2008. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present. Nature 453(7193):379-382, doi:10.1038/nature06949.

Lythe, M. B., and D. G. Vaughan. 2001. BEDMAP: A new ice thickness and subglacial topographic model of Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(B6):11335-11351.

Mackenbach, J. P., A. E. Kunst, and C. W. N. Looman. 1992. Seasonal-variation in mortality in the Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46(3):261-265.

Mage, D., G. Ozolins, P. Peterson, A. Webster, R. Orthofer, V. Vandeweerd, and M. Gwynne. 1996. Urban air pollution in megacities of the world. Atmospheric Environment 30(5):681-686.

Maibach, E., K. Wilson, and J. Witte. 2010. A National Survey of Television Meteorologists About Climate Change: Preliminary Findings. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University, Center for Climate Change Communication.

Malhi, Y., J. T. Roberts, R. A. Betts, T. J. Killeen, W. H. Li, and C. A. Nobre. 2008. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon. Science 319(5860):169-172.

Manning, M., M. Petit, D. Easterling, J. Murphy, A. Patwardhan, H.-H. Rogner, R. Swart, and G. Yohe, eds. 2004. Describing Scientific Uncertainties in Climate Change to Support Analysis of Risk and of Options. May 2004 IPCC Workshop Report. Boulder, CO: IPCC Working Group I Technical Support Unit, 138 pp. Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

Mantua, N. J., and S. R. Hare. 2002. The Pacific decadal oscillation. Journal of Oceanography 58(1):35-44.

Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace, and R. C. Francis. 1997. A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78:1069-1079.

Marenco, A., H. Gouget, P. Nedelec, J. P. Pages, and F. Karcher. 1994. Evidence of a long-term increase in tropospheric ozone from Pic Du Midi data series - consequences - positive radiative forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research 99(D8):16617-16632.

Margreta, M., C. Ford, and M. A. Dipo. 2009. U.S. Freight on the Move: Highlights from the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey Preliminary Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Available at http://www.bts.gov/publications/bts_special_report/2009_09_30/. Accessed May 7, 2010.

Mari, X. 2008. Does ocean acidification induce an upward flux of marine aggregates? Biogeosciences 5(4):1023-1031.

Martin, J. H., and S. E. Fitzwater. 1988. Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic. Nature 331 (6154):341-343.

Marx, S. M., and E. U. Weber. 2009. Decision making under climate uncertainty: The power of understanding judgment and decision processes. In Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region: Decision Making under Uncertainty. East Lansing, MI: MSU Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Marx, S. M., E. U. Weber, B. S. Orlove, A. Leiserowitz, D. H. Krantz, C. Roncoli, and J. Phillips. 2007. Communication and mental processes: Experiential and analytic processing of uncertain climate information. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 17(1):47-58.

Matson, P. A., R. Naylor, and I. Ortiz-Monasterio. 1998. Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science 280(5360):112-115.

Matthes, F. E. 1939. Report of the Committee on Glaciers. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 518-523.

Matthews, H. D., and K. Caldeira. 2007. Transient climate-carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(24):9949-9954.

Mauget, S. A. 2003. Multidecadal regime shifts in US streamflow, precipitation, and temperature at the end of the twentieth century. Journal of Climate 16(23):3905-3916.

Maurer, E. P., and P. B. Duffy. 2005. Uncertainty in projections of streamflow changes due to climate change in California. Geophysical Research Letters 32(3):5.

Mazmanian, D., and P. A. Sabatier. 1981. Effective Policy Implementation. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

McCarl, B. A. 2008. U.S. Agriculture in the Climate Change Squeeze: Part I: Sectoral Sensitivity and Vulnerability. Report to the National Environmental Trust.

McCarthy, M. P., H. A. Titchner, P. W. Thorne, S. F. B. Tett, L. Haimberger, and D. E. Parker. 2008. Assessing bias and uncertainty in the HadAT-adjusted radiosonde climate record. Journal of Climate 21(4):817-832.

McCay, B. J., and S. Jentoft. 2009. Uncommon ground: Critical perspectives on common property. In Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McConnell, J. R., R. Edwards, G. L. Kok, M. G. Flanner, C. S. Zender, E. S. Saltzman, J. R. Banta, D. R. Pasteris, M. M. Carter, and J. D. W. Kahl. 2007. 20th-century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing. Science 317(5843):1381-1384.

McDonald A, Riha S, DiTommaso A, and A. DeGaetano. 2009. Climate change and the geography of weed damage: Analysis of US maize systems suggests the potential for significant range transformations. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 130(3-4):131-140.

McDowall, R. M. 1992. Particular problems for the conservation of diadromous fish. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 2(4):351-355.

McGowan, J. A., D. R. Cayan, and L. M. Dorman. 1998. Climate-ocean variability and ecosystem response in the northeast Pacific. Science 281(5374):210-217.

McGranahan, G., D. Balk, and B. Anderson. 2007. The rising tide: Assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization 19(1):17-37.

McGuire, A. D., F. S. Chapin, J. E. Walsh, and C. Wirth. 2006. Integrated regional changes in Arctic climate feedbacks: Implications for the global climate system. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31:61-91.

McLaughlin, S. B., D. Ugarte, C. T. Garten, L. R. Lynd, M. A. Sanderson, V. R. Tolbert, and D. D. Wolf. 2002. High-value renewable energy from prairie grasses. Environmental Science & Technology 36(10):2122-2129.

McManus, J. F., R. Francois, J.-M. Gherardi, L. D. Keigwin, and S. Brown-Leger. 2004. Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature 428:834-837, doi:10.1038/nature02494.

McMichael, A. J., R. E. Woodruff, and S. Hales. 2006. Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet 367(9513):859-869.

MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment series. Washington, DC: Island Press, 4 vols.

Mears, C. A. and F. J. Wentz. 2005. The Effect of Drifting Measurement Time on Satellite-Derived Lower Tropospheric Temperature Science, 309: 1548-1551

Meehl, G. A., T. F. Stocker, W. D. Collins, P. Friedlingstien, A. T. Gaye, et al. 2007a. Global climate projections. In Climate Change 2007a: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Meehl, G. A., C. Covey, T. Delworth, M. Latif, B. McAvaney, J. F. B. Mitchell, R. J. Stouffer, and K. E. Taylor. 2007b. The WCRP CMIP3 multi-model dataset: A new era in climate change research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88:1383-1394.

Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, K. Matthes, F. Sassi, and H. van Loon. 2009a. Amplifying the Pacific climate system response to a small 11-year solar cycle forcing. Science 325(5944):1114-1118.

Meehl, G. A., L. Goddard, J. Murphy, R. J. Stouffer, G. Boer, G. Danabasoglu, K. Dixon, M. A. Giorgetta, A. M. Greene, E. Hawkins, G. Hegerl, D. Karoly, N. Keenlyside, M. Kimoto, B. Kirtman, A. Navarra, R. Pulwarty, D. Smith, D. Stammer, and T. Stockdale. 2009b. Decadal prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(10):1467-1485.

Meehl, G. A., C. Tebaldi, G. Walton, D. Easterling, and L. Mcdaniel. 2009c. Relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the U.S. Geophysical Research Letters 36(23):L23701.

Meinke, H., S. M. Howden, P. C. Struik, R. Nelson, D. Rodriguez, and S. C. Chapman. 2009. Adaptation science for agriculture and natural resource management—urgency and theoretical basis. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1(1):69-76.

Mendelsohn, R., and S. Olmstead. 2009. The economic valuation of environmental amenities and disamenities: Methods and applications. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34:325-347, doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-011509-135201.

Menne, M. J., and C. N. Williams. 2009. Homogenization of Temperature Series via Pairwise Comparisons. Journal of Climate 22 (7):1700-1717.

Menne, M. J., C. N. Williams, Jr., and R. S. Vose. 2009. The U.S. historical climatology network monthly temperature data, version 2. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90:993-1007, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2613.1.

Menon, S., J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. F. Luo. 2002. Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science 297(5590):2250-2253.

Mileti, D. S. 1999. Disasters by design: A reassessment of natural hazards in the United States. In Natural Hazards and Disasters. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Miller, A. W., A. C. Reynolds, C. Sobrino, and G. F. Riedel. 2009. Shellfish face uncertain future in high CO2 world: Influence of acidification on oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries. PLoS One 4(5):e5661.

Miller, L., and B. C. Douglas. 2004. Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise. Nature 428(6981):406-409.

Milly, P. C. D., R. T. Wetherald, K. A. Dunne, and T. L. Delworth. 2002. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature 415(6871):514-517.

Milner, A. M., L. E. Brown, and D. M. Hannah. 2009. Hydroecological response of river systems to shrinking glaciers. Hydrological Processes 23(1):62-77.

Mirza, M. M. Q. 2003. Climate change and extreme weather events: Can developing countries adapt? Climate Policy 3(3):233-248.

MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). 2003. The Future of Nuclear Power. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

MIT. 2006. The Future of Geothermal Energy in the 21st Century: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mitchell, D. L., and W. Finnegan. 2009. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming. Environmental Research Letters 4(4):045102.

Mitchell, R. B. 2003. International environmental agreements: A survey of their features, formation, and effects. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28:429-461.

Mitrovica, J. X., M. E. Tamisiea, J. L. Davis, and G. A. Milne. 2001. Recent mass balance of polar ice sheets inferred from patterns of global sea-level change. Nature 409(6823):1026-1029.

MMS (Minerals Management Service). 2006. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. Renewable Energy and Alternate Use Program. U.S. Department of the Interior. Available at http://ocsenergy.anl.gov. Accessed July 13, 2010.

Mohan, J. E., L. H. Ziska, W. H. Schlesinger, R. B. Thomas, R. C. Sicher, K. George, and J. S. Clark. 2006. Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(24):9086-9089.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Moore, S. E., and H. P. Huntington. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: Impacts and resilience. Ecological Applications 18 (2):S157-S165.

Mora, C., R. A. Myers, M. Coll, S. Libralato, T. J. Pitcher, R. U. Sumaila, D. Zeller, R. Watson, K. J. Gaston, and B. Worm. 2009. Management effectiveness of the world’s marine fisheries. PLoS Biology 7(6):e1000131.

Moran, E. 2009. Progress in the last ten years in the study of land use/cover change and the outlook for the next decade. In Human Footprints on the Global Environment: Threats to Sustainability, E. A. Rosa, A. Diekmann, T. Dietz, and C. C. Jaeger, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Moran, E. F., and E. Ostrom. 2005. Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Human-Environment Interactions in Forest Ecosystems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Morgan, M. G., B. Fischhoff, A. Bostrom, and C. J. Atman. 2001. Risk Communication: A Mental Models Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Moser, S. 2009b. Whether our levers are long enough and the fulcrum strong? Exploring the soft underbelly of adaptation decisions and actions. In Living with Climate Change, N. W. Adger, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moser, S., and A. Luers. 2008. Managing climate risks in California: The need to engage resource managers for successful adaptation to change. Climatic Change 87(0):309-322.

Moser, S., R. Kasperson, G. Yohe, and J. Agyeman. 2008. Adaptation to climate change in the Northeast United States: Opportunities, processes, constraints. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13(5):643-659.

Moser, S. C. 2009a. Good Morning, America! The Explosive U.S. Awakening to the Need for Adaptation. Charleston, SC: Coastal Services Center, National Ocean Service, NOAA.

Moser, S. C. 2010. Communicating climate change: History, challenges, process and future directions. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 1(1):31-53.

Moser, S. C., and L. Dilling. 2007. Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moser, S. C., and J. Tribbia. 2006. Vulnerability to inundation and climate change impacts in California: Coastal managers’ attitudes and perceptions. Marine Technology Society Journal 40(4):35-44.

Moser, S. C., and J. Tribbia. 2007. Vulnerability to Coastal Impacts of Climate Change: Coastal Managers’ Attitudes, Knowledge, Perceptions, and Actions. PIER Project Report CEC-500-2007-082 prepared for the California Energy Commission.

Mosier, A., and C. Kroeze. 2000. Potential impact on the global atmospheric N2O budget of the increased nitrogen input required to meet future global food demands. Chemosphere—Global Change Science 2(3-4):465-473.

Mosier, A. R., J. M. Duxbury, J. R. Freney, O. Heinemeyer, K. Minami, and D. E. Johnson. 1998. Mitigating agricultural emissions of methane. Climatic Change 40(1):39-80.

Moss, R. H., and S. H. Schneider. 2000. Uncertainties in the IPCC TAR: Recommendations to lead authors for more consistent assessment and reporting. Pp. 33-51 in Guidance Papers on the Cross Cutting Issues of the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC, R. Pachauri, T. Taniguchi, and K. Tanaka, eds. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.

Moss, R. H., B. Lim, E. L. Malone, and A. L. Brenkert. 2002. Developing Socio-Economic Scenarios for Use in Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments. New York: United Nations Development Programme.

Moss, R. H., J. A. Edmonds, K. A. Hibbard, M. R. Manning, S. K. Rose, D. P. Van Vuuren, T. R. Carter, S. Emori, M. Kainuma, T. Kram, G. A. Meehl, J. F. B. Mitchell, N. Nakicenovic, K. Riahi, S. J. Smith, R. J. Stouffer, A. M. Thomson, J. P. Weyant, and T. J. Wilbanks. 2010. The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature 463(7282):747-756.

Mote, P. W., A. F. Hamlet, M. P. Clark, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86(1):39-49..

Mote, T. L. 2007. Greenland surface melt trends 1973-2007: Evidence of a large increase in 2007. Geophysical Research Letters 34(22).

Mudway, I. S., and F. J. Kelly. 2000. Ozone and the lung: A sensitive issue. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 21(1-2):1-48.

Mueter, F. J., and M. A. Litzow. 2008. Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea Continental Shelf. Ecological Applications 18(2):309-320.

Murphy, D. M., S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, K. H. Rosenlof, P. M. Forster, and T. Wong. 2009. An observationally based energy balance for the Earth since 1950. Journal of Geophysical Research 114: D17107.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Murphy, J. M., D. M. H. Sexton, D. N. Barnett, G. S. Jones, M. J. Webb, M. Collins, and D. A. Stainforth. 2004. Quantification of modelling uncertainties in a large ensemble of climate change simulations. Nature 430:768-772.

Miyamoto, K. 1997. Renewable Biological Systems for Alternative Sustainable Energy Production, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 128. Rome: FAO.

Najjar, R., L. Patterson, and S. Graham. 2009. Climate simulations of major estuarine watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Climatic Change 95(1):139-168.

Nakicenovic, N. 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2001. Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio, “Earth at Night 2001.” Available at http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=11795. Access on October 26, 2010.

NASA. 2008. Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE). Sponsored by NASA’s Atmospheric Composition Focus Area in Earth Science. Available at http://agage.eas.gatech.edu/index.htm. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NASA GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies). 2010. Datasets and Images. Global Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature Change. Available at http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Naughton, M. P., A. Henderson, M. C. Mirabelli, R. Kaiser, J. L. Wilhelm, S. M. Kieszak, C. H. Rubin, and M. A. Mcgeehin. 2002. Heat-related mortality during a 1999 heat wave in Chicago. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 22(4):221-227.

NCDC (National Climatic Data Center). 2006. Federal Climate Complex Global Surface Summary of Day Data. Version 7. Available at ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/gsod/readme.txt. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Neftel, A., H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Lötscher, H. Oeschger, U. Siegenthaler, and B. Stauffer. 1994. Historical CO1994. Historical CO2 record from the Siple Station ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Oak Ridge, TN: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE.

Nelson, E., G. Mendoza, J. Regetz, S. Polasky, H. Tallis, D. R. Cameron, K. M. A. Chan, G. C. Daily, J. Goldstein, P. M. Kareiva, E. Lonsdorf, R. Naidoo, T. H. Ricketts, and M. R. Shaw. 2009. Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1):4-11.

Nepstad, D. C., C. M. Stickler, and O. T. Almeida. 2006. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: Opportunities for conservation. Conservation Biology 20(6):1595-1603.

NIC (National Intelligence Council). 2009a. China: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030—Geopolitical Implications: Conference Report. NIC-CR 2009-09, June. Prepared jointly by CENTRA Technology, Inc. and Scitor Corporation. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/cr200909_china_climate_change.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NIC. 2009b. China: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030: Special Report. NIC-2009-02D. Prepared by Joint Global Change Research Institute and Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/climate2030_china.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NIC. 2009c. India: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030—Geopolitical Implications: Conference Report. NIC-CR 2009-07, May. Prepared jointly by CENTRA Technology, Inc. and Scitor Corporation. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/cr200907_india_climate_change.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NIC. 2009d. India: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030: Special Report. NIC-2009-03D. Prepared By Joint Global Change Research Institute and Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/climate2030_india.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NIC. 2009e. North Africa: Special Report. NIC-2009-07D. Prepared By Joint Global Change Research Institute and Battelle Mem orial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/climate2030_north_africa.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NIC. 2009f. Russia: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030—Geopolitical Implications: Conference Report. NIC-CR 2009-16, September. Prepared jointly by CENTRA Technology, Inc. and Scitor Corporation. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/cr200916_russia_climate_change.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NIC. 2009g. Russia: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030: Special Report. NIC-2009-04D. Prepared by Joint Global Change Research Institute and Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/climate2030_russia.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

NIC. 2009h. Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands: Special Report. NIC-2009-06D. Prepared by Joint Global Change Research Institute and Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division. Available at http://www.dni.gov/nic/PDF_GIF_otherprod/climate_change/climate2030_southeast_asia_pacific_islands.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Nichols, N. 1999. Cognitive illusions, heuristics, and climate prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80(7):1385-1396.

Nicholls, R. J. 2004. Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st century: Changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 14(1):69-86.

Nicholls, R. J., and R. S. J. Tol. 2006. Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: A global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 364(1841):1073-1095.

Nicholls, R. J., F. M. J. Hoozemans, and M. Marchand. 1999. Increasing flood risk and wetland losses due to global sea-level rise: Regional and global analyses. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 9:S69-S87.

Nicholls, R. J., P. P. Wong, V. R. Burkett, J. O. Codignotto, J. E. Hay, R. F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden, and C. D. Woodroffe. 2007. Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Pp. 315-356 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Nick, F. M., A. Vieli, I. M. Howat, and I. Joughin. 2009. Large-scale changes in Greenland outlet glacier dynamics triggered at the terminus. Nature Geoscience 2(2):110-114.

NIFC (National Interagency Fire Center). 2008. Total Wildland Fires and Acres(1960-2007). National Interagency Coordination Center 2008. Available at http://www.nifc.gov/fire_info/fires_acres.htm. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

Nilsson, J., G. Brostrom, and G. Walin. 2003. The thermohaline circulation and vertical mixing: Does weaker density stratification give stronger overturning? Journal of Physical Oceanography 33(12):2781-2795.

Nisbet, M. C., and C. Mooney. 2007. Framing science. Science 316(5821) :56.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2010. Commerce Department Proposes Establishment of NOAA Climate Service. Available at http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2010/20100208_climate.html. Accessed May 3, 2010.

NOAA/ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory). 2009. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI). Available at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi/. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

NOAA/NCDC. 2008. The USHCN Version 2 Serial Monthly Dataset. Available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/ushcn/. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Noerdlinger, P. D., and K. R. Brower. 2007. The melting of floating ice raises the ocean level. Geophysical Journal International 170(1):145-150.

Norby, R. J., E. H. DeLucia, B. Gielen, C. Calfapietra, C. P. Giardina, J. S. King, J. Ledford, H. R. McCarthy, D. J. P. Moore, R. Ceulemans, P. De Angelis, A. C. Finzi, D. F. Karnosky, M. E. Kubiske, M. Lukac, K. S. Pregitzer, G. E. Scarascia-Mugnozza, W. H. Schlesinger, and R. Oren. 2005. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(50):18052-18056.

Nordhaus, W. 2008. A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Norman, E., and K. Bakker. 2009. Transgressing scales: Water governance across the Canada-U.S. borderland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99:99-117.

NRC (National Research Council). 1980a. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1980b. Energy in Transition, 1985-2010: Final Report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC. 1980c. Strategy for the National Climate Program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1986. The National Climate Program: Early Achievements and Future Directions. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC. 1988. Toward an Understanding of Global Change: Initial Priorities for U.S. Contributions to the International Geosphere - Biosphere Program. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC. 1990a. Research Strategies for the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1990b. Sea-Level Change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

NRC. 1992a. Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1992b. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1993. Research to Protect, Restore, and Manage the Environment. Committee on Environmental Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1997a. Environmentally Significant Consumption: Research Directions. Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1997b. Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999a. Hydrologic Science Priorities for the U.S. Global Change Research Program: An Initial Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999b. Making Climate Forecasts Matter. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999c. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000. Clean Coastal Waters Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2001. Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2002a. Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2002b. The Drama of the Commons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2003a. Planning Climate and Global Change Research: A Review of the Draft U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2003b. Understanding Climate Change Feedbacks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2004a. Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2004b. Implementing Climate and Global Change Research: A Review of the Final U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005a. Decision Making for the Environment: Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005b. Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005c. Population, Land Use, and Environment: Research Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005d. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005e. Review of NOAA’s Plan for the Scientific Stewardship Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005f. Thinking Strategically: The Appropriate Use of Metrics for the Climate Change Science Program. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

NRC. 2006a. Commuting in America III. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2006b. Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007a. Analysis of Global Change Assessments: Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007b. Colorado River Basin Water Management: Evaluating and Adjusting to Hydroclimatic Variability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007c. Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007d. Environmental Data Management at NOAA: Archiving, Stewardship, and Access. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007e. Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007f. Evaluating Progress of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program: Methods and Preliminary Results. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007g. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

NRC. 2007h. Research and Networks for Decision Support in the NOAA Sectoral Applications Research Program. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2007i. Putting People on the Map: Protecting Confidentiality with Linked Social-Spatial Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008a. Bioinspired Chemistry for Energy: A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008b. Ecological Impacts of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008c. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press

NRC. 2008d. Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008e. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008f. Minerals, Critical Minerals, and the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008g. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on US Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008h. Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008i. Transitioning to Sustainability Through Research and Development on Ecosystem Services and Biofuels: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009a. America’s Energy Future: Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009b. America’s Energy Future: Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009c. America’s Energy Future: Real Prospects for Energy Efficiency in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009d. America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009e. Driving and the Built Environment: The Effects of Compact Development on Motorized Travel, Energy Use, and CO2Emissions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009f. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009g. Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009h. Letter Report on the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009i. A New Biology for the 21st Century: Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009j. Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009k. Restructuring Federal Climate Research to Meet the Challenges of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2009l. Scientific Value of Arctic Sea Ice Imagery Derived Products. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010a. America’s Climate Choices: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010b. America’s Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010c. America’s Climate Choices: Limiting the Magnitude of Future Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010d. Certifiably Sustainable?: The Role of Third-Party Certification Systems: Report of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010e. National Security Implications of Climate Change for U.S. Naval Forces: Letter Report. Washington, DC: The Na-tional Academies Press

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

NRC. 2010f. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010g (in press). Potential Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010h. Realizing the Energy Potential of Methane Hydrate for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010i. Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010j. Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010k. Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press.

NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2010. Sea Ice Extent. Available at http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/. Accessed May 13, 2010.

NYCDEP (New York City Department of Environmental Protection). 2008. Assessment and Action Plan. Report 1. New York: NYCDEP.

O’Brien, K. L., and R. M. Leichenko. 2000. Double exposure: Assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of globalization. Global Environmental Change 10:221-232.

O’Brien, K., and R. M. Leichenko. 2003. Winners and losers in the context of global change. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 93:89-103.

O’Brien, K., R. Leichenko, U. Kelkar, H. Venema, G. Aandahl, H. Tompkins, A. Javed, S. Bhadwal, S. Barg, L. Nygaard, and J. West. 2004. Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: Climate change and globalization in India. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 14(4):303-313.

O’Brien, K., S. Eriksen, L. Sygna, and L. O. Naess. 2006. Questioning complacency: Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in Norway. Ambio 35(2):50-56.

O’Brien, K., Et Al. 2008. Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Human Security. Oslo, Norway: Report prepared for the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs by the Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS) Project.

O’Brien, K., J. Wolf, and L. Sygna. 2009. Global environmental change and human security (GECHS) in a decade that matters. IHDP Update June:2.

Oladosu, G., and A. Rose. 2007. Income distribution impacts of climate change mitigation policy in the Susquehann River Basin Economy. Energy Economics 29:520-544.

Oldenburg, C. M., J.-P. Nicot, and S. L. Bryant. 2009. Case studies of the application of the Certification Framework to two geologic carbon sequestration sites. Energy Procedia 1:63-70.

Ollinger, S. V., A. D. Richardson, M. E. Martin, D. Y. Hollinger, S. E. Frolking, P. B. Reich, L. C. Plourde, G. G. Katul, J. W. Munger, R. Oren, M.-L. Smith, K. T. Paw, P. V. Bolstad, B. D. Cook, M. C. Day, T. A. Martin, R. K. Monson, and P. Schmid. 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(49):19336-19341.

Olsen, K. A. 2007. The clean development mechanism’s contribution to sustainable development: A review of the literature. Climatic Change (84):59-73.

Olsthoorn, X., P. van der Werff, L. Bouwer, and D. Huitema. 2008. Neo-Atlantis: The Netherlands under a 5-m sea level rise. Climatic Change 91(1):103-122.

O’Neill, S., and S. Nicholson-Cole. 2009. “Fear won’t do it”: Promoting positive engagement with climate change through visual and iconic representations. Science Communication 30(3):355-379.

Oppenheimer, M. 2005. Defining dangerous anthropogenic interference: The role of science, the limits of science. Risk Analysis 25(6):1399-1407.

Orians, G. H., and D. Policansky. 2009. Scientific bases of macroenvironmental indicators. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34:375-404.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Orr, J. C., V. J. Fabry, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F. Joos, R. M. Key, K. Lindsay, E. Maier-Reimer, R. Matear, P. Monfray, A. Mouchet, R. G. Najjar, G. K. Plattner, K. B. Rodgers, C. L. Sabine, J. L. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R. D. Slater, I. J. Totterdell, M. F. Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Yool. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437(7059):681-686.

Ostrom, E. 2005. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Ostrom, E. 2007. A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:15181-15187.

Ostrom, E. 2010. A multi-scale approach to coping with climate change and other collective action problems. Solutions 1(2):27-36. Available at http://thesolutionsjournal.com/node/565. Accessed May 10, 2010.

Ostrom, E., and H. Nagendra. 2006. Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(51):19224-19231.

Overland, J. E., and P. J. Stabeno. 2004, Is the climate of the Bering Sea warming and affecting the ecosystem?, Eos Transactions. AGU, 85:309-316.

Overpeck, J. T., and J. E. Cole. 2006. Abrupt change in Earth’s climate system. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31(1):1-31.

Overpeck, J. T., and J. L. Weiss. 2009. Projections of future sea level becoming more dire. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(51):21461-21462.

Overpeck, J. T., B. L. Otto-Bliesner, G. H. Miller, D. R. Muhs, R. B. Alley, and J. T. Kiehl. 2006. Paleoclimatic evidence for future ice-sheet instability and rapid sea-level rise. Science 311(5768):1747-1750.

Paaijmans, K. P., A. F. Read, and M. B. Thomas. 2009. Understanding the link between malaria risk and climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(33):13844-13849.

Pabi, S., G. L. Van Dijken, and K. R. Arrigo. 2008. Primary production in the Arctic Ocean, 1998-2006. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 113 (C8).

Pagano, T. C., H. C. Hartmann, and S. Sorooshian. 2002. Factors affecting seasonal forecast use in Arizona water management: A case study of the 1997-98 El Nino. Climate Research 21(3):259-269.

Page, E. A. 2008. Distributing the burdens of climate change. Environmental Politics 17(4):556-575.

Palecki, M. A., S. A. Changnon, and K. E. Kunkel. 2001. The nature and impacts of the July 1999 heat wave in the midwestern United States: Learning from the lessons of 1995. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82(7):1353-1367.

Pardey, P. G., and N. M. Beintema. 2002. Slow Magic: Agricultural R&D a Century After Mendel. University of Minnesota, Center

for International Food and Agricultural Policy.

Parks, B.C., and J.T. Roberts, 2010. Climate change, social theory and justice. Theory, Culture & Society 27(2-3):1-32.

Parmesan, C., and H. Galbraith. 2004. Observed Impacts of Global Climate Change in the U.S. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

Parmesan, C., and G. Yohe. 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421(6918):37-42.

Parola, P., C. Socolovschi, L. Jeanjean, I. Bitam, P. E. Fournier, A. Sotto, P. Labauge, and D. Raoult. 2008. Warmer weather linked to tick attack and emergence of severe Rickettsioses. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2(11).

Parris, T. M., and R. W. Kates. 2003. Characterizing and measuring sustainable development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28:559-586.

Parry, M. L., C. Rosenzweig, A. Iglesias, M. Livermore, and G. Fischer. 2004. Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 14(1):53-67.

Parson, E. A. 2008. Useful global-change scenarios: current issues and challenges. Environmental Research Letters 3(4).

Pascual, M., J. A. Ahumada, L. F. Chaves, X. Rodo, and M. Bouma. 2006. Malaria resurgence in the East African highlands: Temperature trends revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(15):5829-5834.

Paskal, C. 2007. How climate change is pushing the boundaries of security and foreign policy. London, UK: Chatham House.

Paterson, M. 2009. Post-hegemonic climate politics? British Journal of Politics & International Relations 11(1):140-158.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Patz, J. A., D. Campbell-Lendrum, T. Holloway, and J. A. Foley. 2005. Impacts of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438:310-317.

Patz, J. A., S. J. Vavrus, C. K. Uejio, and S. L. Mclellan. 2008. Climate change and waterborne disease risk in the Great Lakes region of the US. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(5):451-458.

Paustian, K., et al. 2004. Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options. Council on Agricultural Science and Technology(CAST) Report R141 2004, 120 pp.

Pearson, B. 2007. Market failure: Why the clean development mechanism won’t promote clean development. Journal of Clean Development 15:247-252.

Pederson, G. T., S. T. Gray, D. B. Fagre, and L. J. Graumlich. 2006. Long-duration drought variability and impacts on ecosystem services: A case study from Glacier National Park, Montana. Earth Interactions 10.

Pelling, M. 2003. The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience. London: Earthscan.

Pellow, D. N., and R. J. Brulle. 2007. Poisoning the planet: The struggle for environmental justice. Contexts 6(1):37-41.

Peltier, W. R., and R. G. Fairbanks. 2006. Global glacial ice volume and Last Glacial Maximum duration from an extended Barbados sea level record. Quaternary Science Reviews 25:3322.

Pendleton, L., P. King, C. Mohn, D. G. Webster, R. K. Vaughn, and P. Adams. 2009. Estimating the Potential Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Southern California Beaches—Final Report, CEC-500-2009-033-F. California Energy Commission.

Perkins, C. and A.W. Weimer. 2004. Likely near-term solar-thermal water splitting technologies. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 29:1587-1599.

Perkins, C., and A.W. Weimer. 2009. Solar-thermal production of renewable hydrogen. AIChE Journal 55(2):286-293.

Perry, A. L., P. J. Low, J. R. Ellis, and J. D. Reynolds. 2005. Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science 308(5730):1912-1915.

Peterson, T., and A. Rose. 2006. Reducing the conflict between climate policy and energy policy in the U.S.: The important role of states. Energy Policy 34:619-631.

Pew Oceans Commission. 2003 (May). America’s Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change. A Report to the Nation. Arlington, VA: Pew Oceans Commission.

Pfeffer, W. T., J. T. Harper, and S. O’Neel. 2008. Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science 321(5894):1340-1343.

Piao, S., P. Friedlingstein, P. Ciais, N. De Noblet-Ducoudra, D. Labat, and S. Zaehle. 2007.Changes in climate and land use have2007. Changes in climate and land use have a larger direct impact than rising CO2 on global river runoff trends. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Untied States of America 104(39):15242-15247.

Pickett, S. T. A., M. L. Cadenasso, J. M. Grove, P. M. Groffman, L. E. Band, C. G. Boone, W. R. Burch, C. S. B. Grimmond, J. Hom, J. C. Jenkins, N. L. Law, C. H. Nilon, R. V. Pouyat, K. Szlavecz, P. S. Warren, and M. A. Wilson. 2008. Beyond urban legends: An emerging framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Bioscience 58(2):139-150.

Pidgeon, N., R. E. Kasperson, and P. Slovic, eds. 2003. The Social Amplification of Risk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pidgeon, N. F., I. Lorenzoni, and W. Poortinga. 2008. Climate change or nuclear power—No thanks! A quantitative study of public perceptions and risk framing in Britain. Global Environmental Change 18(1):69-85.

Pielke, R. A., R. Avissar, M. Raupach, A. J. Dolman, X. B. Zeng, and A. S. Denning. 1998. Interactions between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems: Influence on weather and climate. Global Change Biology 4(5):461-475.

Pierce, D. W., T. P. Barnett, H. G. Hidalgo, T. Das, C. Bonfils, B. D. Santer, G. Bala, M. D. Dettinger, D. R. Cayan, A. Mirin, A. W. Wood, and T. Nozawa. 2008. Attribution of declining western US snowpack to human effects. Journal of Climate 21(23):6425-6444.

Pinter, N., A. A. Jemberie, J. W. F. Remo, R. A. Heine, and B. S. Ickes. 2008. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L23404.

Pinto, R. F., and J. A. P. De Oliveira. 2008. Implementation challenges in protecting the global environmental commons: The case of climate change policies in Brazil. Public Administration and Development 28(5):340-350.

Pirard, P., S. Vandentorren, M. Pascal, K. Laaidi, A. Le Tertre, S. Cassadou, and M. Ledrans. 2005. Summary of the mortality impact assessment of the 2003 heat wave in France. Eurosurveillance 10(7):153-156.

Platt, R. H. 1996. Land Use and Society: Geography, Law, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Platt, R. H. 1999. Disasters and Democracy: The Politics of Extreme Natural Events. Washington, DC: Island Press.

PNWA (Pacific Northwest Waterways Association). 2009. The Role of Hydropower in the Northwest. Available at http://www.pnwa.net/new/Articles/Hydropower.pdf. Accessed December 2, 2009.

Poff, N. L., J. D. Olden, D. M. Merritt, and D. M. Pepin. 2007. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(14):5732-5737.

Pohl, C. 2008. From science to policy through transdisciplinary research. Environmental Science & Policy 11:45-63.

Polovina, J. J., G. T. Mitchum, and G. T. Evans. 1995. Decadal and basin-scale variation in mixed layer depth and the impact on biological production in the Central and North Pacific, 1960-88. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers 42 (10):1701-1716.

Polsky, C., R. Neff, and B. Yarnal. 2007. Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: The vulnerability scoping diagram. Global Environmental Change 17(3-4):472-485.

Porfiriev, B. 2009. Community resilience and vulnerability to disasters: Qualitative models and megacities—a comparison with small towns. Environmental Hazards 8:23-27.

Portmann, R. W., S. Solomon, and G. C. Hegerl. 2009. Spatial and seasonal patterns in climate change, temperatures, and precipitation across the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(18):7324-7329.

Portney, P., and J. P. Weyant, eds. 1999. Discounting and Intergenerational Equity. Washington, DC: RFF Press.

Poumadère, M., C. Mays, G. Pfeifle, and A. T. Vafeidis. 2008. Worst case scenario as stakeholder decision support: A 5- to 6-m sea level rise in the Rhone delta, France. Climatic Change 91(1-2):123-143.

Prakash, A., and M. Potoski. 2006. The Voluntary Environmentalists: Green Clubs, ISO 14001, and Voluntary Environmental Regulations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Pressman, J. L., and A. Wildavsky. 1984. Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland; or, Why It’s Amazing that Federal Programs Work at All, This Being a Saga of the Economic Development Administration as Told by Two Sympathetic Observers Who Seek to Build Morals on a Foundation of Ruined Hopes, revised 3rd ed. The Oakland Project series. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Pritchard, H. D., R. J. Arthern, D. G. Vaughan, and L. A. Edwards. 2009. Extensive dynamic thinning on the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Nature 461:971-975.

PSAC (President’s Science Advisory Committee). 1965. Restoring the Quality of Our Environment: Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel. Washington, DC: The White House, 317 pp.

Rabalais, N. N. and R. E. Turner (eds.). 2001. Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 58, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.

Rabe, B.G. 2008. States on steroids: The intergovernmental odyssey of American climate policy. Review of Policy Research 25(2):105-128.

Raento, M., A. Oulasvirta, and N. Eagle. 2009. Smartphones: An emerging tool for social scientists. Sociological Methods and Research 37:426-454.

Rahmstorf, S. 1995. Bifurcations of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological cycle. Nature 378:145-149.

Rahmstorf, S. 2007. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315(5810):368-370.

Rahmstorf, S. 2010. A new view on sea level rise. Nature Reports Climate Change (1004):44-45.

Rahmstorf, S., A. Cazenave, J. A. Church, J. E. Hansen, R. F. Keeling, D. E. Parker, and R. C. J. Somerville. 2007. Recent climate observations compared to projections. Science 316(5825):709-709.

Ramaswami, A., T.Hillman, B.Janson, M.Reiner, and G.Thomas. 2008. A demand-centered, hybrid life-cycle methodology for city-scale greenhouse gas inventories. Environmental Science and Technology 42:6455-6461.

Randall, D. A., R. A. Wood, S. Bony, R. Colman, T. Fichefet, J. Fyfe, V. Kattsov, A. Pitman, J. Shukla, J. Srinivasan, R. J. Stouffer, A. Sumi, and K. E. Taylor. 2007. Climate models and their evaluation. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cam-bridge University Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Rasch, P. J., S. Tilmes, R. P. Turco, A. Robock, L. Oman, C. C. Chen, G. L. Stenchikov, and R. R. Garcia. 2008. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 366(1882):4007-4037.

Rau, G. H. 2009. Electrochemical CO2 capture and storage with hydrogen generation. Energy Procedia 1(1):823-828.

Rau, G. H., K. G. Knauss, W. H. Langer, and K. Caldeira. 2007. Reducing energy-related CO2007. Reducing energy-related CO2 emissions using accelerated weathering of limestone. Energy 32(8):1471-1477.

Ravishankara, A. R., S. Solomon, A. A. Turnipseed, and R. F. Warren. 1993. Atmospheric lifetimes of long-lived halogenated species. Science 259(5092):194-199.

Ravishankara, A. R., J. S. Daniel, and R. W. Portmann. 2009. Nitrous oxide (N2O): The dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 326(5949):123-125.

Rayner, S., D. Lach, and H. Ingram. 2005. Weather forecasts are for wimps: Why water resource managers do not use climate forecasts. Climatic Change 69(2):197-227.

Rees, W., and M. Wackernagel. 2008. Urban ecological footprints: Why cities cannot be sustainable—and why they are a key to sustainability. Pp. 537-555 in Urban Ecology. An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature, J. M. Marzluff, E. Shulenberger, W. Endlicher, M. Alberti, G. Bradley, C. Ryan, U. Simon, and C. ZumBrunnen. New York: Springer.

Reich, P. B., B. A. Hungate, and Y. Q. Luo. 2006. Carbon-nitrogen interactions in terrestrial ecosystems in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37:611-636.

Reilly, J., F. Tubiello, B. Mccarl, D. Abler, R. Darwin, K. Fuglie, S. Hollinger, C. Izaurralde, S. Jagtap, J. Jones, L. Mearns, D. Ojima, E. Paul, K. Paustian, S. Riha, N. Rosenberg, and C. Rosenzweig. 2003. US agriculture and climate change: New results. Climatic Change 57(1-2):43-69.

Renn, O. 2005. Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach. Geneva: International Risk Governance Council.

Renn, O. 2008. Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Repetto, R. C. 2008. The Climate Crisis and the Adaptation Myth. New Haven, CT: Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.

Revelle, R., and H. E. Suess. 1957. Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades. Tellus 9:18-27.

Rhemtulla, J. M., D. J. Mladenoff, and M. K. Clayton. 2009. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(15):6082-6087.

Richels, R.G., T. F. Rutherford, G. J. Blanford, and L. Clarke. 2007. Managing the transition to climate stabilization. Climate Policy 7:409-428.

Ricke, K., M. G. Morgan, J. Apt, D. Victor, and J. Steinbruner. 2008. Unilateral Geoengineering: Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop at the Council on Foreign Relations. Washington D.C., May 05, 2008. Available at http://www.cfr.org/content/thinktank/GeoEng_041209.pdf. Accessed on November 16, 2010.

Ridgwell, A., J. S. Singarayer, A. M. Hetherington, and P. J. Valdes. 2009. Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo biogeoengineering. Current Biology 19(2):146-150.

Riebesell, U., K. G. Schulz, R. G. J. Bellerby, M. Botros, P. Fritsche, M. Meyerhofer, C. Neill, G. Nondal, A. Oschlies, J. Wohlers, and E. Zollner. 2007.Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2007. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean. Nature 450(7169):545-548.

Rignot, E., and P. Kanagaratnam. 2006. Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland ice sheet. Science 311(5763):986-990.

Rignot, E., G. Casassa, P. Gogineni, W. Krabill, A. Rivera, and R. Thomas. 2004. Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the collapse of Larsen B ice shelf. Geophysical Research Letters 31(18).

Rignot, E., J. E. Box, E. Burgess, and E. Hanna. 2008. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from 1958 to 2007. Geophysical Research Letters 35(20).

Rignot, E., M. Koppes, and I. Velicogna, 2010. Rapid submarine melting of the calving faces of West Greenland glaciers. Nature Geoscience 3:187-191, doi:10.1038/ngeo765.

Roberts, J. T., and B. C. Parks. 2007. A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequality, North-South Politics, and Climate Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Robertson, G. P., and S. M. Swinton. 2005. Reconciling agricultural productivity and environmental integrity: A grand challenge for agriculture. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(1):38-46.

Robertson, G. P., and P. M. Vitousek. 2009. Nitrogen in agriculture: Balancing the cost of an essential resource. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34(1).

Robertson, G. P., E. A. Paul, and R. R. Harwood. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: Contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289(5486):1922-1925.

Robertson, G. P., V. H. Dale, O. C. Doering, S. P. Hamburg, J. M. Melillo, M. M. Wander, W. J. Parton, P. R. Adler, J. N. Barney, R. M. Cruse, C. S. Duke, P. M. Fearnside, R. F. Follett, H. K. Gibbs, J. Goldemberg, D. J. Mladenoff, D. Ojima, M. W. Palmer, A. Sharpley, L. Wallace, K. C. Weathers, J. A. Wiens, and W. W. Wilhelm. 2008. Agriculture: Sustainable biofuels redux. Science 322:49-50.

Roble, R. G., and R. E. Dickinson. 1989. How will changes in carbon dioxide and methane modify the mean structure of the mesosphere and thermosphere? Geophysical Research Letters 16:1441-1444.

Robock, A., M. Q. Mu, K. Vinnikov, I. V. Trofimova, and T. I. Adamenko. 2005. Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet). Geophysical Research Letters 32(3).

Robock, A., L. Oman, and G. L. Stenchikov. 2008. Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(D16):15.

Robock, A., A. Marquardt, B. Kravitz, and G. Stenchikov. 2009. Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering. Geophysical Research Letters 36.

Roderick, M. L., G. D. Farquhar, S. L. Berry, and I. R. Noble. 2001. On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles on the productivity and structure of vegetation. Oecologia 129(1):21-30.

Roe, G. H., and M. B. Baker. 2007. Why is climate sensitivity so unpredictable? Science 318(5850):629-632.

Rogers, W., and J. Gulledge. 2010. Lost in Translation: Closing the Gap Between Climate Science and National Security Policy. Center for New American Security. Available at http://www.cnas.org/files/documents/publications/Lost%20in%20Translation_Code406_Web_0.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2010.

Rohling, E. J., K. Grant, C. Hemleben, M. Siddall, B. A. A. Hoogakker, M. Bolshaw, and M. Kucera. 2008. High rates of sea-level rise during the last interglacial period. Nature Geoscience 1(1):38-42.

Rosa, E. A. 2007. The Public Climate for Nuclear Power: The Changing of Seasons. The Role of Nuclear Power in Global and Domestic Energy Policy: Recent Developments and Future Expectations. Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy.

Rosa, E. A., and D. L. Clark, Jr. 1999. Historical routes to technological gridlock: Nuclear technology as prototypical vehicle. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 7:21-57.

Rosenberg, S., A. Vedlitz, D. F. Cowman, and S. Zahran. 2010. Climate change: A profile of US climate scientists’ perspectives. Climatic Change 101:311-329.

Rosenzweig, C., and D. Hillel. 1998. Climate Change and the Global Harvest: Potential Impacts of the Greenhouse Effect on Agriculture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rosenzweig, C., A. Iglesias, X. B. Yang, P. R. Epstein, and E. Chivian. 2001. Climate change and extreme weather events: Implications for food production, plant diseases, and pests. Global Change & Human Health 2(2):90-104.

Rosenzweig, C., W. D. Solecki, L. Parshall, M. Chopping, G. Pope, and R. Goldberg. 2005. Characterizing the urban heat island in current and future climates in New Jersey. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1):51-62.

Rosenzweig, C., G. Casassa, D. J. Karoly, A. Imeson, C. Liu, A. Menzel, S. Rawlins, T. L. Root, B. Seguin, and P. Tryjanowski. 2007. Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. Pp. 79-131 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Roy, S. B., S. W. Pacala, and R. L. Walko. 2004. Can large wind farms affect local meteorology? Journal of Geophysical Research 109:D19101, doi:10.1029/2004JD004763.

The Royal Society. 2009 (September). Geoengineering the Climate: Science, Governance and Uncertainty. London: The Royal Society.

Rudel, T. K. 2005. Tropical Forests: Regional Paths of Destruction and Regeneration in the Late Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

RUSI (Royal United Services Institute). 2009. Climate-Related Impacts on National Security in Mexico and Central America, Interim Report. Prepared by S. Fetzek. London, Great Britain: Stephen Austin & Sons.

Sabatier, P. A. 1986. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to implementation research: A critical analysis and suggested synthesis. Journal of Public Policy 6:21-48.

Sabine, C., and R. Feely. 2005. The oceanic sink for carbon dioxide. In Greenhouse Gas Sinks, edited by N. H. D Reay, J Grace, K Smith. Oxfordshire: CABI Publishing.

Sabine, C. L., R. A. Feely, N. Gruber, R. M. Key, K. Lee, J. L. Bullister, R. Wanninkhof, C. S. Wong, D. W. R. Wallace, B. Tilbrook, F. J. Millero, T. H. Peng, A. Kozyr, T. Ono, and A. F. Rios. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305 (5682):367-371.

Sagarin, R. D., J. P. Barry, S. E. Gilman, and C. H. Baxter. 1999. Climate-related change in an intertidal community over short and long time scales. Ecological Monographs 69(4):465-490.

Sailor, D. J., and H. Fan. 2002. Modeling the diurnal variability of effective albedo for cities. Atmospheric Environment 36(4):713-725.

Salehyan, I., 2008. From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. Journal of Peace Research 45(3):315-326.

Sallenger, A. H., W. Krabill, J. Brock, R. Swift, S. Manizade, and H. Stockdon. 2002. Sea-cliff erosion as a function of beach changes and extreme wave runup during the 1997-1998 El Nino. Marine Geology 187(3-4):279-297.

Salter, S., G. Sortino, and J. Latham. 2008. Sea-going hardware for the cloud albedo method of reversing global warming. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 366(1882):3989-4006.

Saltman, T., R. Cook, M. Fenn, R. Haeuber, B. Bloomer, C. Eagar, T. Huntington, B. J. Cosby, A. Watkins, S. McLaughlin, and Executive Office of the President. 2005. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment. Washington, DC: National Science and Technology Council.

Samaras, C., and K. Meisterling. 2008. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: Implications for policy. Environmental Science and Technology 42(9):3170-3176.

Santilli, M., P. Moutinho, S. Schwartzman, D. Nepstad, L. Curran, and C. Nobre. 2005. Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. Climatic Change 71(3):267-276.

Satterthwaite, D. 2008. Cities’ contribution to global warming: Notes on the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment and Urbanization 20(2):539-549.

Scambos, T. A., J. A. Bohlander, C. A. Shuman, and P. Skvarca. 2004. Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters 31(18).

Scheberle, D. 2004. Federalism and Environmental Policy: Trust and the Politics of Implementation, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Scherr, S. J., and S. Sthapit. 2009. Farming and land use to cool the planet. In State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society, L. Starke, ed. New York: W.W. Norton.

Schimel, D., J. Melillo, H. Tian, A. D. Mcguire, D. Kicklighter, T. Kittel, N. Rosenbloom, S. Running, P. Thornton, D. Ojima, W. Patton, R. Kelly, M. Sykes, R. Neilson, and B. Rizzo. 2000. Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States. Science 287(5460):2004.

Schimel, D. S., J. I. House, K. A. Hibbard, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, P. Peylin, B. H. Braswell, M. J. Apps, D. Baker, A. Bondeau, J. Canadell, G. Churkina, W. Cramer, A. S. Denning, C. B. Field, P. Friedlingstein, C. Goodale, M. Heimann, R. A. Houghton, J. M. Melillo, B. Moore, D. Murdiyarso, I. Noble, S. W. Pacala, I. C. Prentice, M. R. Raupach, P. J. Rayner, R. J. Scholes, W. L. Steffen, and C. Wirth. 2001. Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 414(6860):169-172.

Schlesinger, M. E., and N. Ramankutty. 1994. An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years. Nature 367(6465):723-726.

Schmer, M. R., K. P. Vogel, R. B. Mitchell, and R. K. Perrin. 2008. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(2):464-469.

Schmidhuber, J., and F. N. Tubiello. 2007. Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(50):19703-19708.

Schmidtlein, M. C., R. Deutsch, W. W. Piegorsch, and S. L. Cutter. 2008. A sensitivity analysis of the social vulnerability index. Risk Analysis 28(4):1099-1114.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Schneider, S., and K. Kuntz-Duriseti. 2002. Uncertainty and climate change policy. In Climate Change Policy: A Survey, S. Schneider, A. Rosencranz, and J. O. Niles, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Schneider, S., and J. Lane. 2006. Dangers and thresholds in climate change and implications for justice. Pp. 23-52 in Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change, N. Adger, J. Paavola, S. Huq, and M. J. Mace, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schneider, S. H. 1996. Geoengineering: Could or should we do it? Climatic Change 33(3):291-302.

Schneider, S. H. 2008. Geoengineering: Could we or should we make it work? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 366(1882):3843-3862.

Schneider, S. H., and R. S. Chen. 1980. Carbon-dioxide warming and coastline flooding—Physical factors and climatic impact. Annual Review of Energy 5:107-140.

Schneider, T., and I. M. Held. 2001. Discriminants of twentieth-century changes in Earth surface temperatures. Journal of Climate 14:249-254.

Schreurs, M. A. 2008. From the bottom up: Local and subnational climate change politics. Journal of Environment & Development 17(4):343-355.

Schuur, E. A. G., J. G. Vogel, K. G. Crummer, H. Lee, J. O. Sickman, and T. E. Osterkamp. 2009. The effect of permafrost thaw on old carbon release and net carbon exchange from tundra. Nature 459(7246):556-559.

Seager, R., M. F. Ting, I. Held, Y. Kushnir, J. Lu, G. Vecchi, H. P. Huang, N. Harnik, A. Leetmaa, N. C. Lau, C. H. Li, J. Velez, and N. Naik. 2007. Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316(5828):1181-1184.

Seager, R., A. Tzanova, and J. Nakamura. 2009. Drought in the Southeastern United States: Causes, variability over the last millennium and the potential for future hydroclimate change. Journal of Climate 22:5021-5045.

Searchinger, T., R. Heimlich, R. A. Houghton, F. X. Dong, A. Elobeid, J. Fabiosa, S. Tokgoz, D. Hayes, and T. H. Yu. 2008. Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science 319(5867):1238-1240.

Selden, T. M., and D. Song. 1994. Environmental quality and development: Is there a Kuznets curve for air pollution emissions? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 27(2):147-162.

Selin, H., and S. VanDeveer. 2007. Political science and prediction: What’s next for U.S. climate change policy? Review of Policy Research 24(1):1-27.

Semenza, J. C., C. H. Rubin, K. H. Falter, J. D. Selanikio, W. D. Flanders, H. L. Howe, and J. L. Wilhelm. 1996. Heat-related deaths during the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago. New England Journal of Medicine 335(2):84-90.

Seto, K. C., and J. M. Shepherd. 2009. Global urban land-use trends and climate impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1(1):89-95.

Shakhova, N., I. Semiletov, A. Salyuk, V. Yusupov, D. Kosmach, and O. Gustafsson, 2010. Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic shelf. Science 327(5970):1246-1250.

Shapiro, M. A., J. Shukla, G. Brunet, C. Nobre, M. Béland, R. Dole, K. Trenberth, R. Anthes, G. Asrar, L. Barrie, P. Bougeault, G. Brasseur, D. Burridge, A. Busalacchi, J. Caughey, D. Chen, J. Church, T. Enomoto, B. Hoskins, Ø. Hov, A. Laing, H. Le Treut, J. Marotzke, G. McBean, G. Meehl, M. Miller, B. Mills, J. Mitchell, M. Moncrieff, T. Nakazawa, H. Olafsson, T. Palmer, D. Parsons, D. Rogers, A. Simmons, A. Troccoli, Z. Toth, L. Uccellini, C. Velden, and J. M. Wallace. 2010. An Earth-system prediction initiative for the 21st century. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2944.1.

Shaviv, N.J.. 2002. Cosmic ray diffusion from the galactic spiral arms, iron meteorites, and a possible climatic connection. Physical Review Letters 89:051102

Sheffield, J., and E. F. Wood. 2008. Global trends and variability in soil moisture and drought characteristics, 1950-2000, from observation-driven simulations of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. Journal of Climate 21(3):432-458.

Shem, W., and M. Shepherd. 2009. On the impact of urbanization on summertime thunderstorms in Atlanta: Two numerical model case studies. Atmospheric Research 92(2):172-189.

Sheppard, S. R. J. 2005. Landscape visualisation and climate change: The potential for influencing perceptions and behaviour. Environmental Science & Policy 8(6):637-654.

Sheppard, S. R. J., and M. Meitner. 2005. Using multi-criteria analysis and visualisation for sustainable forest management planning with stakeholder groups. Forest Ecology and Management 207(1-2):171-187.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Sherman, K., I. Belkin, S. Seitzinger, P. Hoagland, D. Jin, M.-C. Aquarone, and S. Adams. 2009. Indicators of changing states of large marine ecosystems. In Sustaining the World’s Large Marine Ecosystems, K. Sherman, M. C. Aquarone, and S. Adams, eds. Narragansett, RI: NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Shi, A. Q. 2003. The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: Evidence from pooled cross-country data. Ecological Economics 44(1):29-42.

Shindell, D., D. Rind, N. Balachandran, J. Lean, J. Lonergan. 1999. Solar cycle variability, ozone, and climate. Science 284:305-308.

Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, D. Rind, and A. Waple. 2001. Solar forcing of regional climate change during the maunder minimum. Science 294(5549):2149-2152.

Siddall, M., T. F. Stocker, and P. U. Clark. 2009. Constraints on future sea-level rise from past sea-level change. Nature Geoscience 2(8):571-575.

Silverman, J., B. Lazar, L. Cao, K. Caldeira, and J. Erez. 2009. Coral reefs may start dissolving when atmospheric CO2 doubles. Geophysical Research Letters 36.

Sitch, S., P. M. Cox, W. J. Collins, and C. Huntingford. 2007, Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink. Nature 448:791-794.

Sivan, D., K. Lambeck, R. Toueg, A. Raban, Y. Porath, and B. Shirman. 2004. Ancient coastal wells of Caesarea Maritima, Israel, an indicator for relative sea level changes during the last 2000 years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222(1):315-330.

Slaymaker, O., and R. E. J. Kelly. 2007. The Cryosphere and Global Environmental Change. Environmental Systems and Global Change Series. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Slovic, P. 2000. What does it mean to know a cumulative risk? Adolescents’ perceptions of short-term and long-term consequences of smoking. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 13:259-266.

Smetacek, V., and S. Nicol. 2005. Polar ocean ecosystems in a changing world. Nature 437(7057):362-368.

Smith, J. B., S. H. Schneider, M. Oppenheimer, G. W. Yohe, W. Hare, M. D. Mastrandrea, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, J. Corfee-Morlot, C. H. D. Magadza, H. M. Fuessel, A. B. Pittock, A. Rahman, A. Suarez, and J. P. Van Ypersele. 2009. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “reasons for concern.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(11):4133-4137.

Smith, K. A., and F. Conen. 2004. Impacts of land management on fluxes of trace greenhouse gases. Soil Use and Management 20:255-263.

Smith, P. 2004. Engineered biological sinks on land. In The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, C. B. Field and M. R. Raupach, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O’Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, and O. Sirotenko. 2007. Agriculture. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. R. Davidson, P. R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L. A. Meyer, eds. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Snyder, M. A., L. C. Sloan, N. S. Diffenbaugh, and J. L. Bell. 2003. Future climate change and upwelling in the California Current. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (15).

Socolow, R. H. 1978. Saving Energy in the Home: Princeton’s Experiment at Twin Rivers. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Socolow, R. H., and A. Glaser. 2009. Balancing risks: Nuclear energy & climate change. Daedalus 138(4):31-44.

Soden, B. J., R. T. Wetherald, G. L. Stenchikov, and A. Robock. 2002. Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: A test of climate feedback by water vapor. Science 296(5568):727-730.

Sokolov, A. P., P. H. Stone, C. E. Forest, R. Prinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. Webster, S. Paltsev, C. A. Schlosser, D. Kicklighter, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Reilly, C. Wang, B. Felzer, J. M. Melillo, and H. D. Jacoby. 2009. Probabilistic forecast for twenty-first-century climate based on uncertainties in emissions(without policy) and climate parameters. Journal of Climate 22(19):5175-5204.

Solecki, W. D., C. Rosenzweig, L. Parshall, G. Pope, M. Clark, J. Cox, and M. Wiencke. 2005. Mitigation of the heat island effect in urban New Jersey. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 6(1):39-49.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R. B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N. L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J. M. Gregory, G. C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B. J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T. Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J. Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T. F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R. A. Wood, and D. Wratt. 2007. Technical summary. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Solomon, S., G.-K. Plattner, R. Knutti, and P. Friedlingstein. 2009.Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.2009. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(6):1704-1709.

Solomon, S., K. H. Rosenlof, R. W. Portmann, J. S. Daniel, S. M. Davis, T. J. Sanford, and G.-K. Plattner. 2010. Contributions of stratospheric water vapor to decadal changes in the rate of global warming. Science 327(5970):1219-1223.

Sorensen, T. C. 1990. Rethinking national security. Foreign Affairs 69(3):1-18.

Southward, A. J., S. J. Hawkins, and M. T. Burrows. 1995. 70 Years observations of changes in distribution and abundance on zooplankton and intertidal orgnanisms in the western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology 20 (1-2):127-155.

Spittlehouse, D. L., and R. B. Stewart. 2003. Adaptation to climate change in forest management. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 4(1): 1-11.

Steele, J. H. 1998. From carbon flux to regime shift. Fisheries Oceanography 7(3-4):176-181.

Steffen, W., A. Sanderson, P. Tyson, J. Jäger, P. Matson, B. Moore, Iii, F. Oldfield, K. Richardson, H. J. Schellnhuber, B. L. Turner II, and R. J. Wasson, eds. 2004. Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure. Berlin:Springer.

Stehfest, E., L. Bouwman, D. P.van Vuuren, M. G.J.den Elzen, B. Eickhout, and P. Kabat. 2009. Climate benefits of changing diet. Climatic Change 95(1-2):83-102.

Steinfeld, A. 2005. Solar thermochemical production of hydrogen: A review. Solar Energy 78(5):603-615.

Stenseth, N. C., A. Mysterud, G. Ottersen, J. W. Hurrell, K. S. Chan, and M. Lima. 2002. Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science 297(5585):1292-1296.

Sterman, J., and L. Booth Sweeney. 2007. Understanding public complacency about climate change: Adults’ mental models of climate change violate conservation of matter. Climatic Change 80(3):213-238.

Sterman, J. D. 2008. Risk communication on climate: Mental models and mass balance. Science 322(5901):532-533.

Stern, D. I. 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8):1419-1439.

Stern, N. 2007. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Stern, P. C., E. Aronson, J. M. Darley, D. H. Hill, E. Hirst, W. Kempton, and T. J. Wilbanks. 1986. The effectiveness of incentives for residential energy conservation. Evaluation Review 10(2):147-176.

Stern, P.C., T. J. Wilbanks, S. Cozzens, and W. Rosa. 2009. Generic Lessons Learned about Societal Responses to Emerging Technologies Perceived as Involving Risks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/TM-2009/114, Oak Ridge, TN.

Stern, P. C., G. T. Gardner, M. P. Vandenbergh, T. Dietz, and J. M. Gilligan. 2010. Design principles for carbon emissions reduction programs. Environmental Science and Technology44 (13): 4847-4848 .

Stewart, I. T., D. R. Cayan, and M. D. Dettinger. 2005. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America. Journal of Climate 18(8):1136-1155.

Stocker, T. F. 2000. Past and future reorganizations in the climate system. Quaternary Science Reviews 19(1-5):301-319.

Stocker, T. F., and A. Schmittner. 1997. Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. Nature 388(6645):862-865.

Stokes, D. 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Press.

Stokes, C. R., S. D. Gurney, M. Shahgedanova, and V. Popovnin. 2006. Late-20th-century changes in glacier extent in the Caucasus Mountains, Russia/Georgia. Journal of Glaciology 52(176):99-109.

Stolaroff, J., D. Keith, and G. Lowry. 2006. A pilot-scale prototype contactor for CO2 capture from ambient air: Cost and energy requirements. Presented at the 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-8), Trondheim, Norway.

Stott, P. A., D. A. Stone, and M. R. Allen. 2004. Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature 432(7017):610-614.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Straneo, F., G. S. Hamilton, D. A. Sutherland, L. A. Stearns, F. Davidson, M. O. Hammill, G. B. Stenson, and A. Rosing-Asvid. 2010. Rapid circulation of warm subtropical waters in a major glacial fjord in East Greenland. Nature Geoscience 3:182-186, doi:10.1038/NGEO764.

Sun, Y., S. Solomon, A. G. Dai, and R. W. Portmann. 2007. How often will it rain? Journal of Climate 20:4801-4818.

Sutter, C., and J. C. Parreño. 2007. Does the current Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) deliver its sustainable development claim? Climactic Change (84):75-90.

Svensmark, H. 1998. Influence of cosmic rays on Earth’s climate. Physical Review Letters 81:5027.

Svensmark, H. 2006. Imprint of galactic dynamics on Earth’s climate. Astronomische Nachrichten 327(9):866-870.

Swann, A. L., I. Y. Fung, S. Levis, G. B. Bonan, and S. C. Doney. 2010. Changes in Arctic vegetation amplify high-latitude warming through the greenhouse effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:1295-1300.

Swanson, K. L., G. Sugihara, and A. A. Tsonis. 2009.Long-term natural variability and 20th century climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(38):16120-16123.

Swinton, S. M., F. Lupi, G. P. Robertson, and D. A. Landis. 2006. Ecosystem services from agriculture: Looking beyond the usual suspects. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 88(5):1160-1166.

Swofford, J., and M. Slattery. 2010. Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making. Energy Policy 38(5):2508-2519.

Taha, H., S. Douglas, and J. Haney. 1997. Mesoscale meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetation. Energy and Buildings 25(2):169-177.

Takahashi, T., S. C. Sutherland, R. A. Feely, and R. Wanninkhof. 2006. Decadal change of the surface water pCO(2) in the North Pacific: A synthesis of 35 years of observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 111 (C7).

Tallis, H. M., and P. Kareiva. 2006. Shaping global environmental decisions using socio-ecological models. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(10):562-568.

Tans, P. 2010. NOAA/ESRL (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory). Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Available at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

Tebaldi, C., and R. Knutti. 2007. The use of the multi-model ensemble in probabilistic climate projections. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365(1857):2053-2075.

Teodoro, M. P. 2009. Contingent professionalism: Bureaucratic mobility and the adoption of water conservation rates. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 20(2):437-459, doi:10.1093/jopart/mup012.

Thomalla, F., T. Downing, E. Spanger-Siegfried, G. Y. Han, and J. Rockstrom. 2006. Reducing hazard vulnerability: Towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation. Disasters 30(1):39-48.

Thomas, R., E. Frederick, W. Krabill, S. Manizade, and C. Martin. 2006. Progressive increase in ice loss from Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters 33(10).

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace. 2000. Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. Journal of Climate 13:1000-1016.

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace. 2001. Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science 3(5527):85-89.

Thompson, D. W. J., J. J. Kennedy, J. M. Wallace, and P. D. Jones. 2008. A large discontinuity in the mid-twentieth century in observed global-mean surface temperature. Nature 453(7195):646-649.

Thompson, D. W. J., J. M. Wallace, P. D. Jones, and J. J. Kennedy. 2009. Identifying signatures of natural climate variability in time series of global-mean surface temperature: Methodology and insights. Journal of Climate 22(22):6120-6141.

Thresher, R., M. Robinson, and P. Veers. 2007. To capture the wind. IEEE Power & Energy Magazine 5(6):34-46.

Tietenberg, T. 2002. The tradable permits approach to protecting the commons: What have we learned? Pp. 197-232 in The Drama of the Commons. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, E. Ostrom et al., eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich, M. Ritchie, and E. Siemann. 1997. The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science 277(5330):1300-1302.

Tilman, D., J. Fargione, B. Wolff, C. D’Antonio, A. Dobson, R. Howarth, D. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, D. Simberloff, and D. Swackhamer. 2001. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292(5515):281-284.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Tilman, D., R. Socolow, J. A. Foley, J. Hill, E. Larson, L. Lynd, S. Pacala, J. Reilly, T. Searchinger, C. Somerville, and R. Williams. 2009. Beneficial biofuels—the food, energy, and environment trilemma. Science 325:270-271.

Tilmes, S., R. Muller, and R. Salawitch. 2008. The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes. Science 320(5880):1201-1204.

Toth, F., and E. Hizsnyik. 2008. Managing the inconceivable: Participatory assessments of impacts and responses to extreme climate change. Climatic Change 91(1):81-101.

Travis, D. J., A. Carleton, and R. G. Lauritsen. 2002. Contrails reduce daily temperature range. Nature 418:601, doi:10.1038/418601.

Trenberth, K. E., and A. Dai. 2007. Effects of Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the hydrological cycle as an analog of geoengineering. Geophysical Research Letters 34.

Trenberth, K. E., L. Smith, T. Qian, A. Dai, J. Fasullo, 2007: Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data. J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 758-769.

Trenberth, K. E., and J. Fasullo. 2008. Energy budgets of Atlantic hurricanes and changes from 1970. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9.

Trenberth, K. E., and J. T. Fasullo. 2010. Tracking Earth’s energy. Science 328(5976):316-317.

Trenberth, K. E., P. D. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, D. Parker, F. Rahimzadeh, J. A. Renwick, M. Rusticucci, B. Soden, and P. Zhai. 2007. Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M.Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Tribbia, J., and S. C. Moser. 2008. More than information: What coastal managers need to plan for climate change. Environmental Science & Policy 11(4):315-328.

Turner, B. L. 2009. Sustainability and forest transitions in the southern Yucatán: The land architecture approach. Land Use Policy 27(2):170-180.

Turner, B. L., R. E. Kasperson, P. A. Matson, J. J. Mccarthy, R. W. Corell, L. Christensen, N. Eckley, J. X. Kasperson, A. Luers, M. L. Martello, C. Polsky, A. Pulsipher, and A. Schiller. 2003a. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14):8074-8079.

Turner, B. L., P. A. Matson, J. J. Mccarthy, R. W. Corell, L. Christensen, N. Eckley, G. K. Hovelsrud-Broda, J. X. Kasperson, R. E. Kasperson, A. Luers, M. L. Martello, S. Mathiesen, R. Naylor, C. Polsky, A. Pulsipher, A. Schiller, H. Selin, and N. Tyler. 2003b. Illustrating the coupled human-environment system for vulnerability analysis: Three case studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14):8080-8085.

Turner, R. K., W. N. Adger, and R. Brouwer. 1998. Ecosystem services value, research needs, and policy relevance: A commentary. Ecological Economics 25(1):61-65.

UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research). 2007. North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Available at http://www.narccap.ucar.edu/about/index.html. Accessed May 13, 2010.

UN (United Nations). 2007. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision. New York: UN.

UN. 2009. Millennium Development Goals Report. United Nations Publications.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1994. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.

UNEP, WMO, NOAA, and NASA. 1994. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: Executive Summary. World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report 37.

UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 1992. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Rio de Janeiro. Available at http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

UNFCCC. 2009. National Adaptation Programmes of Action. http://unfccc.int/national_reports/napa/items/2719.php. Accessed December 3, 2009.

Unger, J. 2004. Intra-urban relationship between surface geometry and urban heat island: Review and new approach. Climate Research 27(3):253-264.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

University of Oxford, Tyndall Centre, and Hadley Centre Met Office. 2009. Four Degrees and Beyond. International Climate Conference. September 28-30, 2009. Oxford, UK. Available at http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/4degrees/index.php. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

Urwin, K., and A. Jordan. 2008. Does public policy support or undermine climate change adaptation? Exploring policy interplay across different scales of governance. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 18(1):180-191.

U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. 2004. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century. Final Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy.

USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program.) 2001. Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.

USGCRP. 2009a. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press.

USGCRP. 2009b. Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2009. A Report by the Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. A Supplement to the President’s Fiscal Year 2009 Budget. New York: Cambridge University Press.

USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2003. Ground-Water Depletion Across the Nation, U.S Geological Survey Fact Sheet 103-0.3. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-103-03/. Accessed on October 26, 2010.

USGS. 2004. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000. Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/text-total.html. Accessed December 3, 2009.

USGS. 2008. USGS Repeat Photography Project Documents Retreating Glaciers in Glacier National Park. Available at http:// www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/repeatphoto. Accessed May 3, 2010.

USGS. 2009. Hydroelectric Power Water Use. Available at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html. Accessed December 2, 2009.

Vanderheiden, S. 2008. Atmospheric Justice: A Political Theory of Climate Change. New York: Oxford University Press.

Van Der Werf, G. R., J. Dempewolf, S. N. Trigg, J. T. Randerson, P. S. Kasibhatla, L. Gigliof, D. Murdiyarso, W. Peters, D. C. Morton, G. J. Collatz, A. J. Dolman, and R. S. Defries. 2008. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(51):20350-20355.

Van Vuuren, D. P., J. Weyant, and F. de la Chesnaye. 2006. Multi-gas scenarios to stabilize radiative forcing. Energy Economics 28(1):102-120.

Van Zalinge, N., N. Thuok, T. S. Tana, D. Loeung. 2000. Where there is water, there is fish? Cambodian fisheries issues in a Mekong River Basin perspective. Pp. 37-48 in Common Property in the Mekong: Issues of Sustainability and Subsistence, M. Ahmed and P. Hirsch, eds. Working Papers, The WorldFish Center, number 13972 6.

Vayda, A. P. 1988. Actions and consequences as objects of explanation in human ecology. In Human Ecology: Research and Applications, R. J. Borden, J. Jacobs, and G. L. Young, eds. College Park, MD: Society for Human Ecology.

Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. McFarland. 2007. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:4814-4819.

Velicogna, I. 2009. Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE. Geophysical Research Letters 36.

Vellinga, M., and R. A. Wood. 2002. Global climatic impacts of a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climatic Change 54(3):251-267.

Vermeer, M., and S. Rahmstorf. 2009. Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences of the United States of America 106(51):21527-21532.

Victor, D. G., K. Raustiala, and E. G. Skolnikoff, eds. 1998. The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vine, E. L, J. A. Sathaye, and W. R. Makundi. 2001. An overview of guidelines and issues for the monitoring, evaluation, reporting, verification, and certification of forestry projects for climate change mitigation. Global Environmental Change 11:203-216.

Virgoe, J. 2009. International governance of a possible geoengineering intervention to combat climate change. Climatic Change 95(1-2):103-119.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Vitousek, P. M., H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277(5325):494-499.

Vogel, C., and K. O’Brien. 2006. Who can eat information? Examining the effectiveness of seasonal climate forecasts and regional climate-risk management strategies. Climate Research 33(1):111-122.

Vogel, C., S. C. Moser, R. E. Kasperson, and G. D. Dabelko. 2007. Linking vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience science to practice: Pathways, players, and partnerships. Global Environmental Change 17(3-4):349-364.

Vogler, J., and C. Bretherton. 2006. The European Union as a protagonist to the United States on climate change. International Studies Perspectives 7(1):1-22.

Vorosmarty, C. J., P. Green, J. Salisbury, and R. B. Lammers. 2000. Global water resources: Vulnerability from climate change and population growth. Science 289(5477):284-288.

Wackernagel, M., N. B. Schultz, D. Deumling, A. C. Linares, M. Jenkins, V. Kapos, C. Monfreda, J. Loh, N. Myers, R. B. Norgaard, and J. Randers. 2002. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:9266-9271.

Walters, C., and A. M. Parma. 1996. Fixed exploitation rate strategies for coping with effects of climate change. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53(1):148-158.

Walther, G.-R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T. J. C. Beebee, J.-M. Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416(6879):389-395.

Wang, B., H. U. Neue, and H. P. Samonte. 1997. Effect of cultivar difference (“IR72,” “IR65598,” and “Dular”) on methane emission. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 62(1):31-40.

Wang, C. 2007. Impact of direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosols on tropical convective precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters 34(5).

Wang, Y. H., and D. J. Jacob. 1998. Anthropogenic forcing on tropospheric ozone and OH since preindustrial times. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(D23):31123-31135.

Wardle, D. A., M. C. Nilsson, and O. Zackrisson. 2008. Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus. Science 320(5876):629-629.

Watson, R., and D. Pauly. 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414(6863):534-536.

Watson, R. T., M. C. Zinyowera, and R. H. Moss. 1997. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development). 2004. Mobility 2030: Meeting the Challenges to Sustainability. Geneva: WBCSD.

Weart, S. R. 2008. The Discovery of Global Warming: Revised and Expanded Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Weber, C. L. 2009. Measuring structural change and energy use: Decomposition of the US economy from 1997 to 2002. Energy Policy 37(4):1561-1570.

Weber, C. L., and G.P. Peters. 2009. Climate change policy and international trade: Policy considerations in the U.S. Energy Policy 37(2):432-440.

Weber, E. U. 2006. Experience-based and description-based perceptions of long-term risk: Why global warming does not scare us (yet). Climatic Change 77(1-2):103-120.

Weber, S. L., T. J. Crowley, and G. Der Schrier. 2004. Solar irradiance forcing of centennial climate variability during the Holocene. Climate Dynamics 22(5):539-553.

Weitzman, M. L. 2007a. A review of the Stern Review on the economics of climate change. Journal of Economic Literature 47:703-724.

Weitzman, M. L. 2007b. Structural Uncertainty and the Value of Statistical Life in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change. NBER Working Paper 13490. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Weitzman, M. L. 2009. On modeling and interpreting the economics of catastrophic climate change. Review of Economics and Statistics 91(1).

West, J. J., and H. Dowlatabadi. 1999. On assessing the economic impacts of sea-level rise on developed coasts. In Climate, Change and Risk, T. Downing, A. Olsthoorn, and R. S. J. Tol, eds. London: Routledge.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Westerling, A. L. 2009. Climate change, growth, and California wildfire final paper. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission.

Westerling, A. L., and B. P. Bryant. 2008. Climate change and wildfire in California. Climatic Change 87:S231-S249.

Westerling, A. L., H. G. Hidalgo, D. R. Cayan, and T. W. Swetnam. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313(5789):940-943.

Weyant, J. P. 2009. A perspective on integrated assessment. Climatic Change 95(3-4):317-323.

WGA (Western Governors’ Association). 2006. Clean and Diversified Energy Initiative: Geothermal Task Force Report. Washington, DC: WGA. Available at http://www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/cdeac/Geothermal-full.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

Whitfield, S., E. A Rosa, T. Dietz, and A. Dan. 2009. The future of nuclear power: Value orientations and risk perceptions. Risk Analysis 29:425-437.

Wigley, T. M. L., R. Richels, and J. A. Edmonds. 1996. Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nature 379:240-243.

Wigley, T. M. L., C. M. Ammann, B. D. Santer, and S. C. B. Raper. 2005. Effect of climate sensitivity on the response to volcanic forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:D09107, doi:10.1029/2004JD005557.

Wilbanks, T. J. 2005. Issues in developing a capacity for integrated analysis of mitigation and adaptation. Environmental Science & Policy 8(6):541-547.

Wilby, R. L., J. Troni, Y. Biot, L. Tedd, B. C. Hewitson, D. M. Smith, and R. T. Sutton. 2009. A review of climate risk information for adaptation and development planning. International Journal of Climatology 29(9):1193-1215.

Wilcox, B. P., Y. Huang, and J. W. Walker. 2008. Long-term trends in streamflow from semiarid rangelands: Uncovering drivers of change. Global Change Biology 14(7):1676-1689.

Wilkinson, C. R. 2000. Status of coral reefs of the world, 2000. Cape Ferguson, Qld.: Australian Institute of Marine Science.

Williams, J. E., A. L. Haak, N. G. Gillespie, H. M. Neville, and W. T. Colyer. 2007. Healing Troubled Waters: Preparing Trout and Salmon Habitat for a Changing Climate. Arlington, VA: Trout Unlimited.

Williams, M., and M. Zhang. 2008. Challenges to Offshore Wind Development in the United States. Cambridge, MA: MIT-USGS Science Impact Collaborative.

Wilson, C., and H. Dowlatabadi. 2007. Models of decision making and residential energy use. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32:169-203.

Wilson, K. M. 2002. Forecasting the future: How television weathercasters’ attitudes and beliefs about climate change affect their cognitive knowledge on the science. Science Communication 24(2):246-268.

Wilson, M. A., and R. B. Howarth. 2002. Discourse-based valuation of ecosystem services: Establishing fair outcomes through group deliberation. Ecological Economics 41(3):431-443.

Wilson, R. W., F. J. Millero, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Walsh, V. Christensen, S. Jennings, and M. Grosell. 2009. Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle. Science 323 (5912):359-362.

Winkler, H. 2008. Measurable, reportable and verifiable—The keys to mitigation in the Copenhagen deal. Climate Policy 8:534-547.

Wise, M., K. Calvin, A. Thomson, L. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Sands, S. J. Smith, A. Janetos, and J. Edmonds. 2009b. Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy. Science 324(5931):1183-1186.

Wise, M. A., K. V. Calvin, A. M. Thomson, L. E. Clarke, B. Bond- Lamberty, R. D. Sands, S. J. Smith, A. C. Janetos, and J. A. Edmonds. 2009a. The Implications of Limiting CO2Concentrations for Agriculture, Land Use, Land-Use Change Emissions and Bioenergy. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

Wittwer, E. 2006. Upper Midwest freight corridor study. In Railroads and Freight in the Future, T. M. Adams, ed. Midwest Regional University Transportation Center, College of Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). 2009a. Global Atmosphere Watch. Available at http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw_home_en.html. Accessed December 3, 2009.

WMO. 2009b. World Climate Conference 3: High Level Declaration. Available at http://www.wmo.int/wcc3/declaration_en.php. Accessed May 3, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Wolfe, D., L. Ziska, C. Petzoldt, A. Seaman, L. Chase, and K. Hayhoe. 2008. Projected change in climate thresholds in the Northeastern U.S.: Implications for crops, pests, livestock, and farmers. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13(5):555-575.

Wolock, D. M., and G. M. Hornberger. 1991. Hydrological effects of changes in levels of atmospherica carbron-dioxide. Journal of Forecasting 10(1-2):105-116.

Woodward, F. I. 2002. Potential impacts of global elevated CO2 concentrations on plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5(3):207-211.

World Bank. 2006. Where is the Wealth of Nations? Measuring Capital for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 2009. World Development Report 2010 Climate Change. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Worm, B., R. Hilborn, J. K. Baum, T. A. Branch, J. S. Collie, C. Costello, M. J. Fogarty, E. A. Fulton, J. A. Hutchings, S. Jennings, O. P. Jensen, H. K. Lotze, P. M. Mace, T. R. Mcclanahan, C. Minto, S. R. Palumbi, A. M. Parma, D. Ricard, A. A. Rosenberg, R. Watson, and D. Zeller. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325(5940):578-585.

Wu, S.-Y., B. Yarnal, and A. Fisher. 2002. Vulnerability of coastal communities to sea-level rise: A case study of Cape May County, New Jersey. Climate Research 22:255-270.

Wu, S.-Y., R. Najjar, and J. Siewert. 2009. Potential impacts of sea-level rise on the Mid- and Upper-Atlantic Region of the United States. Climatic Change, 95(1-2):121-138, doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9522-x.

Wunsch, C., R. M. Ponte, and P. Heimbach. 2007. Decadal trends in sea level patterns: 1993-2004. Journal of Climate 20:5889-5911.

WWEA (World Wind Energy Association). 2010. World Wind Energy Report 2009. Available at http://www.wwindea.org/home/images/stories/worldwindenergyreport2009_s.pdf. Accessed May 3, 2010.

Yalowitz, K. S., J. F. Collins, and R. A. Virginia. 2008. The Arctic Climate Change and Security Policy Conference: Final Report and Findings. Hanover, NH, December 1-3, 2008. Carnegie Engowment for Interational Peace and University of the Arctic Institute for Applied Circumpolar Policy.

Yang,T. 2006. International treaty enforcement as a public good: The role of institutional deterrent sanctions in international environmental agreements. Michigan Journal of International Law 27:1131.

Yates, K. K., and R. B. Halley. 2006. CO32- concentration and pCO(2) thresholds for calcification and dissolution on the Molokai reef flat, Hawaii. Biogeosciences 3 (3):357-369.

Ye, B. S., D. Q. Yang, and D. L. Kane. 2003. Changes in Lena River streamflow hydrology: Human impacts versus natural variations. Water Resources Research 39(7):14.

Yin, J. J., M. E. Schlesinger, and R. J. Stouffer. 2009. Model projections of rapid sea-level rise on the northeast coast of the United States. Nature Geoscience 2(4):262-266.

Yohe, G. 2006. Some thoughts on the damage estimates presented in the stern review—An editorial. Integrated Assessment Journal 6(3):65-72.

Yohe, G., and R. S. J. Tol. 2007. Precaution and a Dismal Theorem: Implications for Climate Policy and Climate Research. FNU Working Papers 145. Hamburg, Germany: University of Hamburg.

Yohe, G., J. E. Neumann, and P. Marshall. 1999. The economic damage induced by sea level rise in the United States. In The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy, R. Mendelsohn and J. E. Neumann, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

York, R. 2009. The challenges of measuring environmental sustainability comment on “Political and Social Foundations for Environmental Sustainability.” Political Research Quarterly 62(1):205-208.

York, R., and M. H. Gossard. 2004. Cross-national meat and fish consumption: Exploring the effects of modernization and ecological context. Ecological Economics 48(3):293-302.

York, R., E. A. Rosa, and T. Dietz. 2002. Bridging environmental science with environmental policy: Plasticity of population, affluence, and technology. Social Science Quarterly 83(1):18-34.

York, R., E. A. Rosa, and T. Dietz. 2003. Footprints on the earth: The environmental consequences of modernity. American Sociological Review 68(2):279-300.

Young, O. 2008. The architecture of global environmental governance: Bringing science to bear on policy. Global Environmental Politics 8(1):14-32.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×

Young, O.2009. The arctic in play: Governance in a time of rapid change. The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 24(2):423-442.

Young, O., H. Schroeder, and L. A. King, eds. 2008. Institutions and Environmental Change: Principal Findings, Applications, and Research Frontiers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Young, O. R. 2002a. The Institutional Dimensions of Environmental Change: Fit, Interplay, and Scale, Global Environmental Accord; Variation: Global Environmental Accords. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Young, O. R. 2002b. Institutional interplay: The environmental consequences of cross-scale interactions. In The Drama of the Commons, E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolsak, P. C. Stern, S. Stonich, and E. U. Weber, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Zacherl, D., S. D. Gaines, and S. I. Lonhart. 2003. The limits to biogeographical distributions: Insights from the northward range extension of the marine snail, Kelletia kelletii (Forbes, 1852). Journal of Biogeography 30(6):913-924.

Zahran, S., S. D. Brody, A. Vedlitz, H. Grover, and C. Miller. 2008. Vulnerability and capacity: Explaining local commitment to climate-change policy. Environment and Planning C-Government and Policy 26(3):544-562.

Zhang, D. D., P. Brecke, H. F. Lee, Y. Q. He, and J. Zhang. 2007b. Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(49):19214-19219.

Zhang, J., and K. R. Smith. 2003. Indoor air pollution: A global health concern. British Medical Bulletin 68:209-225.

Zhang, K. Q., B. C. Douglas, and S. P. Leatherman. 2004. Global warming and coastal erosion. Climatic Change 64(1-2):41-58.

Zhang, L., D. J. Jacob, K. F. Boersma, D. A. Jaffe, J. R. Olson, K. W. Bowman, J. R. Worden, A. M. Thompson, M. A. Avery, R. C. Cohen, J. E. Dibb, F. M. Flock, H. E. Fuelberg, L. G. Huey, W. W. Mcmillan, H. B. Singh, and A. J. Weinheimer. 2008. Transpacific transport of ozone pollution and the effect of recent Asian emission increases on air quality in North America: An integrated analysis using satellite, aircraft, ozonesonde, and surface observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(20):6117-6136.

Zhang, R., T. L. Delworth, and I. M. Held. 2007a. Can the Atlantic Ocean drive the observed multidecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature? Geophysical Research Letters 34(2).

Zhang, X. 2010. Sensitivity of arctic summer sea ice coverage to global warming forcing: Towards reducing uncertainty in arctic climate change projections. Tellus A 62(3):220-227.

Zhao, M., A. J. Pitman, and T. Chase. 2001. The impact of land cover change on the atmospheric circulation. Climate Dynamics 17(5-6):467-477.

Zimmerman, J. B., J. R. Mihelcic, and J. Smith. 2008. Global stressors on water quality and quantity. Environmental Science & Technology 42(12):4247-4254.

Zimov, S. A., E. A. G. Schuur, and F. S. Chapin. 2006. Permafrost and the global carbon budget. Science 312(5780):1612-1613.

Ziska, L. H. 2000. The impact of elevated CO2 on yield loss from a C3 and C4 weed in field-grown soybean. Global Change Biology 6(8):899-905.

Ziska, L. H. 2003. Evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present and future atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Experimental Botany 54(381):395-404.

Ziska, L. H., J. R. Teasdale, and J. A. Bunce. 1999. Future atmospheric carbon dioxide may increase tolerance to glyphosate. Weed Science 47(5):608-615.

Zuwallack, R. 2009. Piloting data collection via cell phones: Results, experiences, and lessons learned. Field Methods 21:388-406.

Zwally, H. J., W. Abdalati, T. Herring, K. Larson, J. Saba, and K. Steffen. 2002. Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice-sheet flow. Science 297(5579):218-222.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 421
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 422
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 423
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 424
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 425
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 426
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 427
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 428
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 429
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 430
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 431
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 432
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 433
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 434
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 435
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 436
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 437
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 438
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 439
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 440
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 441
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 442
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 443
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 444
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 445
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 446
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 447
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 448
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 449
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 450
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 451
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 452
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 453
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 454
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 455
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 456
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 457
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 458
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 459
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 460
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 461
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 462
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 463
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 464
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 465
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 466
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 467
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 468
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 469
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 470
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 471
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 472
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 473
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12782.
×
Page 474
Next: Appendix A: America's Climate Choices: Membership Lists »
Advancing the Science of Climate Change Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $49.95 Buy Ebook | $39.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for--and in many cases is already affecting--a broad range of human and natural systems. The compelling case for these conclusions is provided in Advancing the Science of Climate Change, part of a congressionally requested suite of studies known as America's Climate Choices. While noting that there is always more to learn and that the scientific process is never closed, the book shows that hypotheses about climate change are supported by multiple lines of evidence and have stood firm in the face of serious debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.

As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute through research that improves understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change and also is useful to decision makers at the local, regional, national, and international levels. The book identifies decisions being made in 12 sectors, ranging from agriculture to transportation, to identify decisions being made in response to climate change.

Advancing the Science of Climate Change calls for a single federal entity or program to coordinate a national, multidisciplinary research effort aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. Seven cross-cutting research themes are identified to support this scientific enterprise. In addition, leaders of federal climate research should redouble efforts to deploy a comprehensive climate observing system, improve climate models and other analytical tools, invest in human capital, and improve linkages between research and decisions by forming partnerships with action-oriented programs.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!