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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Index

A

Acclimation and adaptation, 111, 188

(see also Procedural habitation and training)

caloric management and, 67

to noise and vibrations, 81-82

to outdoor housing, 44, 54-55

to physical restraint, 29

Acquisition of animals (see Procurement)

Activity and exercise, xiv, 43, 52-53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63-64, 67, 84

(see also Enrichment)

Agricultural animals, 2

biomedical vs. agricultural research, 32-33

environment and housing, 29, 33, 43, 44, 137, 176-177

floor drains, 137, 138

information resources, 33, 176-177, 191-192

protocol review, 32-33

space requirements, 60, 62-63

surgery, 117, 144, 145

veterinary care, 145, 191-182

Air pressure, 45, 47, 139, 145-146, 149-150

Air quality and airborne contaminants, 45-47

Airflow (see Ventilation and airflow)

Albino animals, 48-49, 141

Allergens and allergic reactions, 18, 19, 20, 22-23, 45, 155

Alternatives to laboratory animal use, 3, 5, 12, 25, 27, 162-167

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 16

American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 24

Guidelines for Adequate Veterinary Care, xvii, 14

Ammonia, 45, 47, 68, 70, 71, 72-73, 78, 79, 80, 81, 85

Amphibians, 41-42, 44-45, 46, 77, 78-79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 108, 119, 156, 178-179, 192

(see also Aquatic species)

Anesthesia and analgesia

considerations in selection of agents, 75, 121

equipment/delivery, 34, 122, 145, 147

euthanasia agent, 124

field conditions, 32, 117

monitoring, 119-120, 122, 123

neuromuscular blocking agents, 122-123

oversight, 34, 156

pain management, 12, 121-122

preemptive analgesia, 121

principles governing use, 12, 14, 26

recommended reading, 188-190

recordkeeping, 34

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

surgery, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119-120, 122-123, 145, 188-190

training, 17, 106, 115, 122

waste gas management, 21, 147

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 30, 148

Animal care and use program

attending veterinarian, 14

collaborations, 15

defined, 6

disaster planning and emergency preparedness, 35

IACUC, 14-15, 24-33

institutional official, 13-14

oversight, 24-34

personnel management, 15-24

program management, 13-24

recommended reading, 167-172

regulations, policies, and principles, 12-13

responsibilities, 13-15

Animal care personnel,

(see also Personnel)

training and education, 16

Animal training (see Procedural habituation and training)

Animal Welfare Act, 1, 4, 25, 34, 199

Animal Welfare Information Center, xv, 16

Animal Welfare Regulations, 1, 12

housing guidelines, 56, 59

IACUC, 25

transportation of animals, 107

veterinary care, 30

Antibiotics, 116

Anxiolytics, 122-123

Apes (see Nonhuman primates)

Aquatic species, 2

(see also Amphibians;

Fish;

Reptiles)

algal growth, 86

behavior and social management, 84

diseases, 112

emergency, weekend, and holiday care, 87

enrichment and social housing, 82-83

environment, 77-82

facilities, 150-151

food and feeding, 84-85

housing, 82-83, 150-151

husbandry, 84-87

identification, 87

illumination, 81

life support system, 79-80

macroenvironment, 77-78, 86

management, 84-88

microenvironment, 77-78, 82-83

noise and vibration, 81-82

pest control, 87

population management, 87-88

recommended reading, 178-179, 192-193

recordkeeping, 87-88

sanitation, 85-86

sheltered, outdoor, and naturalistic housing, 83

space, 83

substrates, 85

temperature, humidity, and ventilation, 80-81

water quality, 78-79, 85

Aseptic practices, 17, 34, 52, 70, 75, 115, 116, 117, 118-119, 144

Attending veterinarian, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 17, 21, 24, 28, 106, 114, 116

(see also Veterinary care)

Autoclaving

bedding material, 69, 146

drinking water, 146

feed, 66, 146

surgical instruments, 119, 145

Avian species (see Birds)

B

Bacterial gill disease, 112

Barriers

access control, 151

facilities, 113, 136, 145-146

separation of housing and research/surgery areas, 134, 144

visual, 51, 53, 83

Bedding, nesting, and substrates

aquatic species, 85

autoclaving, 69, 136, 146

behavioral aspects, 52

changing, 46, 47, 52, 69, 70, 73

disposal, 19, 20

enrichment aspects, 67

environmental aspects, 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 53, 69, 71

experimental influences, 68, 69

illumination and, 49

materials, 68-69

outdoor facilities, 54

storage, 136, 141

terrestrial species, 52, 68-69

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Behavioral and social management

acclimation, 111

activity and exercise, 63-64, 84

airflow and ventilation and, 150

aquatic species, 82, 83, 84, 85

bedding, nesting, and substrate materials and, 49, 52, 85

enrichment, 52-53, 54, 60, 83, 85

food and feeding, 65

illumination and, 47, 48, 49

procedural habituation and training, 29, 64-65

recordkeeping, 75

sanitation and, 72

social environment, 51, 58, 59, 64, 111

space considerations, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59

temperature and humidity and, 43, 44, 80

terrestrial species, 83-85

training of personnel, 53, 121

veterinary care and, 107, 111, 112, 114

Behavioral changes

infections and, 118

monitoring animals for, 112

moribund state, 28

pain and distress, 120-121, 123

physical restraint and, 29

sanitation and, 71

stereotypies and compulsive behaviors, 63

transportation of animals and, 150

Behavioral research, 30, 31, 111, 135, 149-150

Bioexclusion, 28

(see also Barriers)

Biologic agents and hazards, 18, 19, 20, 21, 111, 112-113, 148, 170-172

Biosecurity, animal, xviii, 105, 107, 108, 109-110, 111, 135, 170-172

Birds, 41, 44, 48, 49, 60, 121, 144, 156, 179-180, 193

Bites and scratches, 18, 23

Breeding and reproduction

aquatic animals, 44, 80, 82, 83, 87, 88

caloric restriction and, 67

cryopreservation of fertilized embryos, ova, ovaries, or spermatozoa, 76, 107

enriched environments and, 83

genetic management, 76, 77

GMAs, 28, 76

lighting and, 48, 137

nesting, bedding and substrates, 52, 70, 83

nomenclature, 77

nonhuman primates, 59

recordkeeping, 76, 77, 87, 88

rodents and rabbits, xviii, 57, 77, 107

sanitation activities and, 70

space requirements, 55, 56, 57, 33

temperature and humidity and, 44, 80, 82

vibration and, 50

Building Seismic Safety Council, 133

C

Cages and caging

(see also Housing;

Microenvironment)

cleaning and sanitation, 18, 46, 47, 52, 69, 70-71, 72, 73, 86, 142, 143, 145

dimensions and space allocation, xviii, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 133

dividers and shelters in, 53

flooring, 70

isolators, 45, 47, 52, 111, 139, 146

light intensity in, 46, 49

location on cage rack, 46, 49

mechanical washers, 71, 72, 86, 135, 136, 141, 143

metabolic, 121

in secondary enclosures, 47

ventilated, 44, 46, 47, 50, 58, 70-71, 111, 141, 146

vibration of, 50

Caloric management, 31, 57, 67

Canadian Council on Animal Care, 16

Carcass disposal, 20, 73-74, 138, 142

Cardiovascular shock models, 27

Cats

behavioral and social management, 58, 59, 63-64, 180-181

enrichment, 53

environmental requirements, 43, 44, 53, 180-181

housing and space, 49, 56, 58, 59, 180-181

procurement, 106

recommended reading, 180-181, 193

recordkeeping, 75-76

veterinary care, 193

Cattle, 62-63, 64, 176-177, 191-192

(see also Agricultural animals)

Cedar shavings, 69, 156

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Ceilings, 56, 81, 142

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 19, 21, 107, 148, 157

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, 23

Chairing, 29

Chemical agents

cleaning materials, 71, 72

non-pharmaceutical-grade, 31

hazardous, 18, 19, 20, 21, 136

Chickens, 48, 60

Chimpanzees, xviii, 61

Chlorines and chloramines, 72, 78-79, 80, 85, 86

Circadian rhythm, 43, 48, 49, 137, 149

Cleaning agents, 18, 71, 72

(see also Sanitation)

(see also Vetterinary care)

Clinical care and management

emergency care, 114

medical management, 114

recordkeeping, 115

Clothing and footwear, 20, 21, 146

Cold storage and refrigeration, 66, 73, 136, 142

Cold stress, 43, 44, 53

Collaborations, interinstitutional, 15

Computer modeling

alternative to animal use, 5, 12, 25, 199

facility design, 46, 133

genetic variability, 76

Conditioned-response protocols, 31

Construction guidelines, 136-143

Containment of hazardous materials, 21, 148-149

Contaminants

airborne, 22, 45, 46-47, 139, 140, 143, 145, 146-147, 149

bedding, 69, 141, 146

cleaning implements, 72, 85

food, 19, 65, 66, 67, 84, 141, 146

genetic, 76

microbial, 72, 81, 108, 109, 110, 113, 118, 144-145

recommended readings

water, 67-68, 81, 86, 138

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 107

Corridors, 86, 134, 136, 137, 141, 142

Cryogens, 147

Cryopreservation, 76, 107

Cyanobacteria, 86

D

Defecation, 72

Definitions

animal biosecurity, 109

animal care and use program, 6, 11

animal use, 2

attending veterinarian, 14

engineering standard, 6

humane care, 6

institutional animal care and use committee, 14

institutional official, 13

laboratory animals, 2

life support system, 79

macroenvironment, 42

“may,” 8

microenvironment, 42

“must,” 8

performance standard, 6-7

policies, 7

practice standard, 7

principles, 7

procedures, 7

“should,” 8

thermoneutral zone, 43

three Rs, 4-5

Dehydration, 68

Desiccation stress, 45, 46

Diet and dietary control

(see also Food and feedng)

abrupt changes in, 67

aquatic animals, 84, 85

autoclavable, 66

caloric management, 31, 57, 67

certified diets, 65

chemically defined diets, 65, 66

natural-ingredient, 65, 66

nutritionally balanced, 67

purified diets, 65, 66

quality assurance, 65, 66

treats, 67

Disaster planning, 35, 74-75

Disease control, 23, 72, 81, 108, 109, 110, 112-113, 118, 144-145, 190

Disease susceptibility, 19, 42

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Disinfection, 20, 51, 52, 68, 69, 70-72, 78, 79, 80, 84, 86, 110, 118, 119, 138, 143, 144, 150

Disposable clothing, 146

Distress

(see also Pain and distress)

defined, 121

neuromuscular blocking agents and, 122-123

recommended reading, 188-190

Diurnal cycles, 48, 141

Dogs

behavioral and social management, 29, 59, 63-64, 180-181

enrichment, 53

environmental requirements, 43, 44, 180-181

housing and space, 49, 58, 59, 136, 138, 180-181

infusion pumps, 29

pain and distress, 121

procurement, 106

recommended reading, 180-181, 193

recordkeeping, 75-76

veterinary care, 193

Doors, 136, 137, 138, 142, 143, 144, 149, 150

Drafts, 46, 140

Drainage, 54, 136, 138, 143, 144, 149, 150

E

Ecdysis (molting), 45, 156

Education (see Training and education)

Electric power, 136, 141, 142, 143, 145, 150

Emergency, weekend, and holiday care

husbandry, 35, 74-75, 87

medical, 114, 118

Enclosures (see Cages and caging; Primary enclosures; Secondary enclosures)

Endangered Species Act, 157

Endpoints

(see also Experimental endpoints;

Humane endpoints)

IACUC review, 26, 27-28

Engineering standards, 6, 7

Enrichment, xiv, xviii, 33, 43, 50, 52-54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 64, 82-83, 85, 137, 173- 175

(see also Social environment)

Entrapment, accidental, 51, 82

Environment

(see also Enrichment;

Housing;

Macroenvironment;

Microenvironment;

Social environment)

aquatic species, 77-82

recommended reading, 172-175

terrestrial species, 42-50

Eosinopenia, 49

Ergonomic injury, 19

Ethical considerations, xiii, xvii, 4-5, 12

recommended reading, 163-164

training in, 17

Euthanasia

(see also Humane endpoints)

AV responsibility, 106, 114, 156

AVMA Guidelines, 123

carbon dioxide for rodents, 124

criteria for, 123

defined, 123

disaster planning, 35

fetuses and larval life forms, 123-124

field studies, 32

methods, 123-124

pest control, 74

preemptive, 28

psychological effects on personnel, 124

training, 17, 124

Exercise (see Activity and exercise)

Exotic, wild, and zoo animals, 2, 18, 32, 44, 84, 107, 181-182, 193-194

Experimental design and statistics, recommended reading, 164-165

(see also Protocols)

Experimental endpoints, 27-28, 112, 121

F

Facilities

(see also Physical plant)

aquatic species housing, 150-151

barrier facilities, 145-146

for behavioral studies, 149-150

hazardous agent containment, 148-149

imaging, 146-147

irradiation, whole-body, 157-158

recommended reading on design and construction, 196-197

for sanitizing materials, 143

surgical, 116-117, 144-145

Farm animals (see Agricultural animals)

Field studies, 18, 32, 155

(see also Exotic, wild, and zoo animals)

Fish

(see also Aquatic species)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

air quality considerations, 81

biosecurity, 110

food and feeding, 84-85

GMAs, 28

illumination, 81

noise and vibration, 81-82

pain and distress, 121

recirculating systems, 79-80

recommended reading, 178-179, 192-193

recordkeeping, 87-88

sanitation, 85, 86

schooling, 82, 83

space requirements, 83

temperature, 41-42

toxic substances, 78-79, 85

veterinary care, 192-193

Flaky skin, 45, 156

Floors, 137-138

Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards, 65

Food and feeding

(see also Diet)

aquatic species, 84-85

enrichment activities with, 67

feeders, 66-67

management of caloric intake, 67

restricted or scheduled access, 30-31

sanitation of feeders and waterers, 71-72

storage, vermin control, and handling, 65-66

terrestrial species, 65-67

G

Genetically modified animals (GMAs)

breeding, 76

humane endpoints, 29

monitoring for unexpected outcomes, 28-29

occupational health and safety considerations, 21

recommended reading, 175-176

Genetics, recommended reading, 175-176

Gerbils, 43, 44, 52

Gnotobiotic animals, 52, 70, 135

Goats, 49, 62, 111, 156, 177, 192

Guinea pigs, 44, 51, 57, 71 n.2, 111, 156

(see also Rodents)

H

Hamsters, 44, 57, 64, 68, 71 n.2, 156

(see also Rodents)

Hazard identification and risk assessment, 18-19

Hazardous agents, 20-21

Health Research Extension Act, 34

Heat stress, 43, 44

Heating and air-conditioning, 139-140

Helicobacter spp, 111, 113

Hepatitis B virus, 22

Herpesvirus, 23, 112

Horses and ponies, 63, 64

Housing

(see also Cages and caging;

Macroenvironment;

Microenvironment;

Secondary enclosures;

Space requirements;

and specific animals)

aquatic species, 82-83

design considerations, 51

environmental enrichment, 52-54, 82-83, 173-175

flooring, 51-52, 54

life support system, 79-80

naturalistic environments, 55, 83

occupational health and safety considerations, 19-20

recommended reading, 172-173

repair or replacement, 51

sheltered or outdoor, 42, 44, 51, 54-55, 68, 74, 81, 83, 118, 134, 135, 139, 140

social, 51, 55, 58-59, 60, 82-83

terrestrial species, 50-63

Humane care, defined, 6

Humane endpoints, xvii, 5, 12, 27-28, 29, 114, 123, 165-166

Humidity (see Temperature and humidity)

Husbandry

(see also Sanitation)

aquatic species, 84-87

bedding and nesting materials and substrates, 68-69, 85

caloric restriction, 30-31, 67

emergency, weekend, and holiday care, 35, 74-75, 87

food, 65-67, 84-85

pest control, 74, 87

terrestrial species, 65-75

waste disposal, 73-74

water, 67-68

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Hydrogen peroxide, 72

Hygiene, personal, 18, 19, 20

I

Identification of animals, 75, 87

Illumination/lighting, 47-49, 81, 141

Imaging facilities, 146-147

Immunization, 22

Immunodeficient animals, 21, 28, 66, 145

Infectious agents (see Biologic agents and hazards)

Infectious disease research, 27

Inspection of facilities and equipment, 34

Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2, 16

Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

agricultural animals, 32-33

animal care and use programs and, 6, 11, 13

collaborating institutions, 15

endpoint considerations, 27-28

field investigations, 32

food and fluid regulation, 30-31

investigating and reporting animal welfare concerns, 23

membership and function of committee, 17, 24-25

multiple survival surgical procedures, 30

non-pharmaceutical-grade chemicals or substances, 31

occupational health and safety and, 17

physical restraint, 29-30

program management and, 13, 14-15

protocol review, 25-26

recommended reading, 169-170

special considerations during review process, 27-33

surgery and, 115-118

surgical procedures, 30

training and education, 15

unexpected outcomes, 28-29

Institutional official, 13-14, 17, 23, 24, 25, 30, 35

International Air Transport Association, 107

International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, 77

Invertebrate animals, 2

Irradiation facilities, 157-158

L

Laboratory Animal Welfare and Training Exchange, 16

Latex toxicity, 84

Laws, regulations, and policies

(see also Animal Welfare Act;

Animal Welfare Regulations;

Public Health Service Policy;

other specific acts and policies)

recommended reading, 168

training in, 17

Lighting (see Ilumination/lighting)

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, 113

M

Macacine herpesvirus, 23, 112

Macaques, 23, 112

Macroenvironment

aquatic species, 77-78, 86

defined, 42

terrestrial species, 42

Management of animals (see Behavioral and social management; Husbandry; Population management)

aquatic species, 84-88

medical, 114

recommended reading, 172-173

terrestrial species, 63-77

Mice

(see also Rodents)

acclimation, 111

aggression in males, 53, 64

anxiety studies, 53

bedding and nesting materials, 52, 53, 68

breeding animals, 52

caloric restriction, 67

enrichment, 53, 54

GMAs, 28, 68, 145-146

housing, 53, 57, 145-146

identification/nomenclature, 77

illumination, 49, 137

infections, 111, 112

nude or hairless animals, 68

recommended reading, 184-187, 194-196

social stress, 53

space requirements, 57, 156

specific pathogen-free mice, 145-146

temperature and humidity, 43, 45

toe-clipping, 75

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Microenvironment (primary enclosure)

aquatic species, 77-78, 82-83

defined, 42

terrestrial species, 42, 50-52

Midwest Plan Service, 33

Monitoring and surveillance

disease prevention, 112-113

facilities, equipment, and exposure, 19-20

food and fluid intake, 31

GMAs, 28

intraoperative, 119

postapproval, 33-34

postoperative care, 119

restrained animals, 29

sanitation practices, 72-73

Monkeys (see Nonhuman primates)

Monoclonal antibody production, 27

Moribund state, 28

Mouse hepatitis virus, 112, 113

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, 112

N

National Institutes of Health, 19, 155

National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition, 65

Necropsies, 21

Nesting (see Bedding, nesting, and substrates)

Neuromuscular blocking agents, 122-123

Nocturnal animals, 48

Noise and vibration

aquatic animals, 81-82

control, 142, 143

hearing protection for personnel, 22, 49

terrestrial animals, 49-50

Non-pharmaceutical-grade chemicals or substances, 31-32

Nonhuman primates

acclimation, 111

behavioral and social management, xviii, 29, 53

enrichment, 53, 67, 137

environment, 43, 44, 45, 50, 139

food and feeding, 67

housing, xviii, 49, 111-112, 136

illumination, 48

infections, 23, 111-112

infusion pumps, 29

noise and vibration effects, 50

personal protective equipment for staff, 21-22

recommended reading, 182-184, 194

recordkeeping, 75-76

restraint, 29

space requirements, xviii, 56, 58-60, 61

temperature and humidity, 43, 44, 45, 140

transport, 107

ventilation, 47, 139

veterinary care, 194

zoonosis surveillance and, 23, 110

Noroviruses, 113

O

Occupational health and safety program

administrative controls, 18

animal housing systems, 19-20

collaborative approach, 17, 21

control and prevention strategies, 18

engineering controls, 18, 19

facility and equipment support, 19-20

field studies or wildlife research, 18

hazard identification and risk

assessment, 18-19

hazardous animal experimentation, 18, 20-21

hazardous material containment, 149

hygiene, 18, 19, 20

medical evaluation and preventive medicine for personnel, 22-23

monitoring, 19-20

noise exposure, 22, 49

personal protective equipment, 18, 20, 21, 23, 109, 146, 148, 167-172

recommended reading, 17, 19, 21, 170-172

regulations, 17, 18, 20, 21

reporting requirements, 23-24

responsibility, 18

safety committee, 17-18, 21, 32

security, 23

training, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24

Organ or system failure research, 27

Other animals, recommended reading, 187-188

Outdoor enclosures/habitats, 42, 44, 51, 54-55, 68, 74, 81, 83, 118, 134, 135, 139, 140

Oversight

(see also Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee)

postapproval monitoring, 33-34

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

recommended reading, 169-170

responsibility for, 13

Owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), 112

P

Pain and distress

(see also Distress)

analgesics and anesthetics, 12, 121-123

chronic, 122

guidelines and, 12, 199-200

humane endpoints, 5, 27, 123

indicators of, 120-121, 123

modeling/studies, 28

monitoring GMAs for, 29

multiple survival surgical procedures, 30

postoperative, 117, 120

prevention or alleviation, 5, 12, 26, 33, 35, 105, 114, 120-121, 200

recommended reading, 120, 188-190

restraint devices, 29

studies of, 34

“wind-up” phenomenon, 120

Parvoviruses, 113

Pasteurella multocida, 112

Pedigree management, 55, 76, 87

Performance standard, defined, 6-7

Personnel

(see also Occupational health and safety program;

Training and education;

specific personnel)

animal welfare concerns and, 23-24

hygiene, 18, 19, 20

management, 15-24

medical evaluation and preventive medicine for, 22-23

occupational health and safety program, 17-23

protection, 21-22

security, 23

Pest control, 74, 87, 110

Pesticides, 65, 74

Photoperiod, 47, 48, 81, 137, 143

Photostressors, 47

(see also Illumination/lighting)

Phototoxic retinopathy, 48, 49

Physical hazards, 18, 19

Physical plant

(see also Facilities)

centralized vs. decentralized, 134-135

construction guidelines, 136-143, 196-197

corridors, 136

doors to animal rooms, 137

drainage, 138

floors, 137-138

functional areas, 135-136

general considerations, 133-135

HVAC, xviii, 46-47, 139-140

location, 134

noise control, 142

power and lighting, 141

recommended reading, 196-197

security and access control, 151

storage areas, 141-142

vibration control, 142

walls and ceilings, 138-139

windows, exterior, 137

Phytoestrogens, 65

Pigeons, 60, 180, 193

Pilot studies, 26, 28

Poikilothermic animals, 41, 44, 55, 80, 82, 108

Policies, defined, 7

Population management

aquatic species, 87-88

breeding, genetics, and nomenclature, 75-76

identification, 75, 87

recordkeeping, 75-76, 87-88

terrestrial species, 75-77

Poultry, 44, 48, 60

Practice standard, 7, 12

Preventive medicine

animal biosecurity, xviii, 79, 105, 107, 108, 109-110, 111, 135

disease surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment, 112-113

quarantine and stabilization, 110-111

separation of animals by health status and species, 111-112

Primary enclosures, 42, 43, 44-45, 46, 50-52, 72, 77, 82

(see also Cages and caging;

Microenvironment)

Primates (see Nonhuman primates)

Principal investigator, 5, 16, 18, 27, 28, 32, 114, 155

Principles

(see also U.S. Government Principles)

defined, 7

the Guide, 1

Procedural habituation and training, 29, 64-65

Procedures, defined, 7

Procurement of animals, 106-107

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Protocols for animal use

alternatives to animal use, 3, 5, 12, 25, 27, 162-164

conditioned-response, 31

food and fluid regulation, 30-31

IACUC review, 26-33

number of animals used, 5, 12, 15, 25, 26, 28, 106, 199, 201

postapproval monitoring, 33-34

reuse of animals, 5, 30

special considerations, 27-33

Three Rs, xvii, 3, 4-5, 17, 201

topics considered, 25-26

Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1, 12, 25, 56

Q

Quail, 60, 180, 193

Quarantine and stabilization, 110-111

R

Rabbits

behavioral and social management, 63

enrichment, 54

environment, 43, 44, 49, 54, 140

food and feeding, 67

housing, 51, 53, 58, 59

infections, 112

nomenclature, 77

recommended reading, 184-187

sanitation of cages, 71 n.2

space requirements, xviii, 59

Rabies, 22

Radiation hazards, 18, 20, 73, 147

Rainbow trout, 112

Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee, 77

Rat theilovirus, 112

Rats

(see also Rodents)

acclimation, 111

albino, 48-49

bedding and nesting materials, 52

breeding animals, 52

caloric restriction, 67

diseases, 45, 111, 112

GMAs, 145-146

identification/nomenclature, 77

illumination, 48-49, 137

recommended reading, 184-187, 194-196

space requirements, 57, 156

temperature and humidity, 43, 44, 45

Recordkeeping

clinical care, 115

population management, 75-76, 87-88

Removal of animals from protocol, 26, 29, 31

Reporting

accidents, bites, scratches, and allergic reactions, 23

animal welfare concerns, 17, 23-24

hazardous conditions or “near miss” incidents, 19

status of Animal care and use program, 25

Reproduction (see Breeding and reproduction)

Reptiles, 41-42, 44, 45, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 156, 178-179, 192-193

Research and testing methodology, recommended reading, 165-166

Research team, training and education, 16-17

Respirators and respiratory protection, 22, 23

Restraint, 29-30, 55, 122, 144

Reuse of animals, 5

Ringtail, 45

Rodents, laboratory

(see also individual species)

acclimation, 111

aggression in males, 53, 64

albino animals, 48-49, 141

anxiety studies, 53

barrier facilities, 145-146

bedding and nesting materials, 52, 53, 68-69

breeding, xviii, 49, 52, 57

caloric restriction, 67

diseases, 111, 112, 113

enrichment, 53, 54

euthanasia, 124

GMAs, 28, 68, 145-146

housing, 53, 57, 145-146

identification/nomenclature, 77

illumination, 48, 49, 137

implanted systems, 29

noise and vibration effects, 49, 50

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

pain and distress, 121-122

recommended reading, 184-187, 194-196

social stress, 53

space requirements, xviii, 56-58, 156

temperature and humidity, 43, 45

thermoneutral zone, 43

S

Sanitation

aquatic species, 85-86

assessing effectiveness of, 72-73

bedding/substrate change, 70

defined, 69-70

facilities for sanitizing materials, 143

macroenvironment, 72-73

microenvironment, 70-72

Secondary enclosures, 42, 43, 45-46, 47, 78

(see also Macroenvironment)

Security, 23, 55, 151

(see also Biosecurity)

Separation of animals by health status and species, 111-112

Sheep, 62, 64, 111, 156, 176-177, 191-192

Simian hemorrhagic fever, 111-112

Simian immunodeficiency virus, 111-112

Social environment, xviii, 51, 53, 64, 82-83, 121

(see also Behavioral and social management;

Enrichment;

Housing)

Space requirements

agricultural animals, 60-63

aquatic species, 83

general considerations, 55-56

IACUC review, 56

laboratory rodents, xviii, 56-58

“minimum,” xviii

nonhuman primates, 58-61

other common species (dogs, cats, rabbits; pigeons, quail, chickens), 58, 59, 60

rabbits, xviii

Specific pathogen-free animals, 72, 108, 113, 135, 136, 145-146

Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), 112

Statement of task, xix, 201-202

Storage areas, 141-142

Surgery

aseptic technique, 17, 34, 115, 116, 117, 118-119, 144

facilities, 116-117, 144-145

intraoperative monitoring, 119

multiple survival procedures, 30

oversight, 34

postoperative care, 44, 119-120

presurgical planning, 116

procedures, 117-118

recommended reading, 188-190

training. 115-116

Swine, 49, 53, 60, 62, 112, 136

T

Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), 112

Temperature and humidity

aquatic species, 41-42, 80-81

HVAC systems and, 139-140

terrestrial species, 43-45

Terrestrial species

activity, 63-64

bedding and nesting materials, 68-69

behavioral and social management, 83-85

breeding, genetics, and nomenclature, 75-76

emergency, weekend, and holiday care, 74-75

enrichment, 52-54

environment, 42-50

food and feeding, 65-67

housing, 50-63

husbandry, 65-75

identification, 75

illumination, 47-49

macroenvironment, 42

management, 63-77

microenvironment, 42, 50-52

noise and vibration, 49-50

pest control, 74

population management, 75-77

procedural habituation and training, 64-65

recordkeeping, 75-76

social environment, 64

space requirements, 55-63

temperature and humidity, 43-45

ventilation and air quality, 45-47

waste disposal, 73-74

water, 67-68

Tetanus, 22

Thermoneutral zone, 43, 156

Three Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement), xvii, 3, 4-5, 17, 201

Toxicology research, 27

Toxins (see Biologic agents and hazards)

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
×

Training and education, 20, 115-116

animal care personnel and technicians, 16, 50, 78

aquatic systems, 78

emergency preparedness, 35

IACUC members, 17

IACUC oversight of, 15

noise reduction, 50

postapproval review as, 34

recommended reading, 168-169

research team, 16-17

U.S. Government Principles, 12, 199-200

veterinary and other professional staff, 15-16

Transportation of animals, 12, 14, 32, 105, 107-109, 110, 111, 134, 135, 147, 150, 156, 188, 199

Trauma research, 27

Tuberculosis, 23, 112

Tumor models/studies, 27, 34

U

Unexpected outcomes, 28-29, 34

US Department of Agriculture, 19, 30, 107, 148, 157

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 106, 107, 157

U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training, 4, 12, 199-200

Uses and users of the Guide, 4-5

V

Vaccine challenges/studies, 27

Ventilation and airflow

(see also Air quality)

aquatic species, 80-81

containment of hazardous agents, 21, 47

filtered, 47

for static isolation caging, 47

HVAC system, 46, 47, 139-140

individually ventilated cages, 44, 46, 50, 58, 70-71, 111, 141, 146

preventive maintenance and evaluation, 47

recommended reading, 196-197

recycling air, 46-47

terrestrial species, 43, 45-47

Veterinary care

(see also Clinical care and management;

Preventive medicine;

Surgery)

anesthesia and analgesia, 121-123

euthanasia, 123-124

pain and distress, 120-121

principles, 12

procurement of animals, 106-107

recommended reading, 188-196

responsibilities of attending veterinarian, 14

training and education of professional staff, 15-16

transportation of animals, 12, 32, 33, 55, 107-109, 156, 195

Vibration (see Noise and vibration)

W

Walls and ceilings, 138-139

Waste management

(see also Sanitation)

anesthetic gases, 21, 147

disposal options, 73-74

drainage, 54, 138

flushing, 72

gases from primary enclosures, 46

hazardous materials, 20, 73-74, 148-149

soiled bedding, 85, 143

storage before incineration or removal, 136, 142

training, 20, 74

wastewater, 80, 87

Water/fluids

devices and delivery systems, 68

outdoor sources, 68

quality for aquatic species, 78-79, 85

regulated, 30-31

terrestrial species, 67-68

Windows, exterior, 137

X

Xenopus spp., 79-80, 83, 88, 178-179, 192-193

Z

Zebrafish, 79, 83

Zoonosis surveillance, 23, 32, 110

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12910.
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Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition Get This Book
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been updated by a committee of experts, taking into consideration input from the scientific and laboratory animal communities and the public at large. The Guide incorporates new scientific information on common laboratory animals, including aquatic species, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use:

  • Key concepts of animal care and use. The Guide sets the framework for the humane care and use of laboratory animals.
  • Animal care and use program. The Guide discusses the concept of a broad Program of Animal Care and Use, including roles and responsibilities of the Institutional Official, Attending Veterinarian and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
  • Animal environment, husbandry, and management. A chapter on this topic is now divided into sections on terrestrial and aquatic animals and provides recommendations for housing and environment, husbandry, behavioral and population management, and more.
  • Veterinary care. The Guide discusses veterinary care and the responsibilities of the Attending Veterinarian. It includes recommendations on animal procurement and transportation, preventive medicine (including animal biosecurity), and clinical care and management. The Guide addresses distress and pain recognition and relief, and issues surrounding euthanasia.
  • Physical plant. The Guide identifies design issues, providing construction guidelines for functional areas; considerations such as drainage, vibration and noise control, and environmental monitoring; and specialized facilities for animal housing and research needs.

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.

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