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U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts (2010)

Chapter: Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
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Appendix H
Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran

Human Development

Adult Literacy Rate (1995-2005)

82.4 %

Youth Literacy Rate (1995-2005) age 15-24

97.4 %

Population Undernourished (2002-2004)

4.0 %

Population Using Improved Water Sources (2002-2004)

94.0 %

Public Expenditure on Education (2002-2005), % of GDP

4.7 %

Public Expenditure on Education (2002-2005), % of budget

22.8 %

Public Expenditure on Health (2004) % of GDP

3.2 %

Electrification Rate

97.0 %

Unemployment (1996-2005)

11.5 %

Employment in industry (30%), agriculture (25%), services (45%)

SOURCE: U.N.D.P. Human Development Report, 2007/2008

Research

R&D at Universities

Research Centers Associated with Universities: 165

Public Universities that Conduct Research: 53

Private Universities that Conduct Research: 23

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
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R&D at Government Facilities

National Research Centers of Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology: 29

Research Centers of Ministry of Health and Medical Education: 99

Research Centers of Other Ministries: 69

R&D at Business Enterprises

R&D Units in Industry: 925

Private Research Centers: 113


SOURCE: Vice Minister Mansour Kabganian, Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, “Science and Research Policies and Some Related Action Programmes for Sustainable Development of Iran,” Dr. M. Tavakol, Editor, Regional Forum on Science and Technology Policy for Sustainable Development, 21-23 January 2006, Tehran, Iranian National Commission for UNESCO, Tehran, 2006.

Communications

Telephone Lines

International: submarine fiber optic cable to UAE with connection to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); fiber optic line from Azerbaijan through Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; HF, radio, and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan. Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; 13 satellite earth stations (2007)


Domestic: 25 million lines (2008)

Telephones

24.8 million main line and 43 million mobile cellular

Radio Broadcast Stations

72 AM, 6 FM, and 5 shortwave (1998)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
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Television Broadcast Stations

29 plus 450 repeaters (1997)

Internet

Hosts: 5.3 million (2006)

Users: 23 million (2008)


SOURCE: World Fact Book 2010: http://cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html

Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
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Page 93
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
×
Page 94
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
×
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Selected Statistics: Human Development, Research, and Communications in Iran." National Research Council. 2010. U.S.-Iran Engagement in Science, Engineering, and Health (2000-2009): Opportunities, Constraints, and Impacts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12921.
×
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During the first decade of the 21st century, the National Academies, working with a number of partner organizations in Iran, carried out a program of U.S.-Iran engagement in science, engineering, and health (herein referred to as science engagement). This book reviews important aspects of the science engagement program, including: (a) objectives of the program, (b) opportunities and constraints in developing the program, and (c) scientific and political impacts of the activities. Suggestions for future activities that draw on the conclusions and recommendations that have emerged from workshops and other types of interactions are set forth. Of course, the political turmoil within Iran and uncertainties as to the direction of U.S.-Iran government-to-government relations will undoubtedly complicate initiation and implementation of new science engagement activities in the near term. At the same time, many American and Iranian participants and important government officials in the United States and Iran have believed that science engagement can contribute to the evolution of an improved political environment for development of less adversarial relations between the two governments.

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