National Academies Press: OpenBook

Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (2011)

Chapter: Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
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G
Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV

The analysis and discussion for the main part of Chapter 5 were based on two vehicle classes—namely, a midsize sedan such as the Accord, Camry, Fusion, or Malibu and a midsize SUV such as the Durango, Explorer, or Trailblazer. To enable projections for the entire range of vehicle classes discussed in Chapter 9, it was necessary to create an additional engine specification to provide a CI replacement for the 5.3- to 6.2-L V8 SI engines which would be found in full-size body-on-frame pickup trucks such as the F150, the Silverado, and the Ram 1500 and SUVs such as the Expedition and Tahoe. Table 5.5 in Chapter 5 described a V6 CI engine with displacement between 2.8 and 3.5 L appropriate for midsize SUVs and midsize pickup trucks. For cost reasons, there is a range of displacements for which OEMs would tend to design and build V6 rather than V8 engines since V6s require fewer parts. For CI engines, this V6 range would be from about 2.9 L to perhaps 4.5 L. It was therefore assumed in this additional analysis that the V8 SI engines typically used in full-size pickups would be replaced by a V6 CI engine as long as the torque and power required for equal performance could be achieved. With a base-level specification at a specific torque of 160 N-m/L, the displacement required for a CI V6 to replace an SI V8 of the displacement range 5.3-6.2 L would be 4.4-5.2 L, which is really too large for the V6 configuration. However, from a cost point of view, the V6 configuration would be preferable to a V8 if a V6 concept could be identified that meets the requirements. If no base-level configuration were considered, an advanced-level V6 of 3.5 L could easily provide sufficient torque to replace a 6.2-L SI V8 and could be manufactured with the same set of tooling as the V6 engine whose cost increments are described in Tables 5.5 and 5.8. Therefore, for the full-size pickup class of vehicles, it was assumed in this analysis that the CI replacement for SI V8 engines would be a V6 of displacement up to 3.5 L with advanced-level technology. Cost estimates for such an engine are shown in Tables G.1 to G.3.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×

TABLE G.1 Incremental CI-Diesel Engine Cost Estimations to Replace SI MPFI OHV Two-Valve 5.3- to 6.2-L V8 Engine in a Full-Size Body-on-Frame Pickup (e.g., Silverado and Ram) or SUV with a 3.5-L V6 DOHC CI

50-State Saleable ULEV II 3.5-L V6 DOHC CI-Diesel Engine, Baseline: SI Gasoline OHV 4-V 5.3- to 6.2-L V8

Estimated Cost Versus Baseline ($)

Common-rail 1,800 bar piezo-actuated fuel system with six injectors (@$75), high-pressure pump ($270), fuel rail, regulator and fuel storage upgrades plus high-energy driver upgrades to the engine control module. Credit for MPFI content deleted ($48).

911

Series sequential turbocharging: One VGT with electronic controls and one fixed-geometry turbocharger with active and passive bypass valves necessary to match high EGR rates at low load conditions ($750). Water-air charge air cooler, circulation pump, thermostat/valve, and plumbing. Engine downsizing credit from V8 ($200).a

830

Upgrades to electrical system: starter motor, alternator, battery, and 1.5-kW supplemental electrical cabin heater as is standard in Europe ($99).

167

Cam, crank, connecting rod, bearing, and piston upgrades, oil lines ($62) plus NVH countermeasures to engine ($47) and vehicle ($85).

194

High- and low-pressure EGR system to suppress NOx at light and heavy loads. Includes hot-side and cold-side electronic rotary diesel EGR valves plus EGR cooler and all plumbing.

226

Add remaining components required for advanced-level technology (details in Table G.3).

308

Emissions control system including the following functionality: DOC, CDPF, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), urea dosing system ($363). Stoichiometric MPFI emissions and evaporative systems credit ($343).

1,040

On-board diagnostics (OBD) and sensing, including four temperature sensors (@$13), wide-range air/fuel ratio sensor ($30), NOx sensor ($85), two-pressure sensing glow plugs (@$17), six glow plugs (@$3), and Delta-P sensor for DPF ($25). Credit for four switching O2 sensors (@$9).

227

Total variable cost with credits for SI parts removed excludes any necessary transmission, chassis, or driveline upgrades.

3,903

NOTE: Aftertreatment system cost estimates reflect April 2009 PGM prices. Estimates derived from Martec (2008). CDPF, catalyzed diesel particulate filter; CI, compression ignition; DOC, diesel oxidation catalyst; DOHC, dual over head cam; DPF, diesel particulate filter; DPF, diesel particulate filter; EGR, exhaust gas recirculation; MPFI, multipoint fuel injection; NVH, noise, vibration, harshness; OBD, on-board diagnostics; OHV, over head valve; PGM, platinum group metals; SCR, selective catalytic reduction; SI, spark ignition; ULEV II, ultra-low-emissions vehicle; VGT, variable geometry turbocharger.

a Credit for downsizing from V8 to V6 referred to DOHC 4-V V8 downsized to DOHC 4V V6. In this case, credit used by Martec was reduced from $270 to $200 since the parts removed from an OHV 2-V V8 would cost less than those removed from a DOHC 4-V V8.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×

TABLE G.2 Cost Estimates of Exhaust Emissions Aftertreatment Technologies Capable of Enabling Tier 2, Bin 5 Compliance

Item

Midsize Car (e.g., Malibu), Catalytic Device Sizing Based on 2.0-L (April 2009 PGM prices) ($)

Midsize SUV (e.g., Explorer), Catalytic Device Sizing Based on 3.5- L (April 2009 PGM prices) ($)

Full-Size Pickup (e.g., Explorer), Catalytic Device Sizing Based on 4.4-L (April 2009 PGM prices) ($)

DOC 1

 

 

 

Monolith and can

52

52

52

PGM loading

139

200

252

DOC 2

 

 

 

Monolith and can

Not used

52

52

PGM loading

Not used

70

87

EGR catalyst

 

 

 

Monolith and can

7

Not used

Not used

PGM loading

13

Not used

Not used

Coated DPF

 

 

 

Advanced cordierite brick and can

124

270

270

PGM loading

131

26

33

NSC system

 

 

 

Catalyst brick and can

114

Not used

Not used

PGM loading

314

Not used

Not used

SCR-urea system

 

 

 

SCR brick and can

39

274

274

Urea dosing system

Passive SCR

363

363

Stoichiometric gasoline emissions and evaporative system credit

−245

−343

−343

Emissions system total

688

964

1,040

NOTE: This table complements Table 5.5. Compared to Table 5.5, the columns reflecting November 2007 PGM prices (Columns 2 and 4) have been removed and a new column, Column 4, was added. This column reflects the aftertreatment system cost estimate for the exhaust flow rates of a larger base-level V6 CI engine (i.e., 4.4 L) suitable for replacing 5.5- to 6.2-L two-valve OHV V8 SI engines with 3.5-L advanced-level technology CI engines. Note that, as discussed in Chapter 5, it was assumed that the aftertreatment component sizes for the 3.5-L advanced-level V6 are equal to those of a base-level 4.4-L V6 because the power levels for these two engines would be the same, thus requiring the same exhaust flow rates. All cost estimates are based on April 2009 PGM commodity prices. Column 4 provides the estimate used for the aftertreatment costs in Table G.1.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×

TABLE G.3 Estimates of Incremental Costs to Implement Developments Whose Estimated Fuel Consumption Reduction Gains Are Summarized in Table 5.2

Item

Midsize Car (e.g., Malibu) 1.6-L L4

Midsize SUV (e.g., Explorer) 2.8-L V6

Full-size Pickup (e.g., Ram 1500) 3.5-L V6

 

Downsize engines 2-L L4 to 1.6 L, 3.5-L V6 to 2.8 L, 4.4-L V6 to 3.5 L

50

75

75

Higher load capacity rod bearings and head gasket for higher cylinder pressures (~$12.50/cylinder)

Two-stage turbocharger system

375

545

0a

Additional air flow control valves, piping, cost of additional turbo, water-to-air intercooler with control valve, separate pump

Dual-pressure oil pump

5

6

6

Switchable pressure relief valve for high or low oil pressure

Nonrecirculating LP fuel pump

10

12

12

Variable output LP pump controlled by HP pump output

Low-pressure EGR

95

95

Additional piping (~$20) and valves (e.g., integrated back pressure and LP EGR rate ~$75), much more difficult to package for V6 engine with underfloor DPF, cost for L-4 already included in Table 5.4

Direct-acting HP (maximum injection pressures > 2,000 bar) piezo injectors

80

120

120

$20/injector, benefits derived from combination of higher rail pressure and more injector controllability

Total

520

853

308

 

NOTE: These developments are CI-diesel downsizing from base level to advanced level, thermodynamic improvements, friction reduction, and engine accessory improvements. Total for full-size body-on-frame pickup ($308 at bottom of Column 4) used in Table G.1. FC, fuel consumption.

aTwo-stage turbo system already comprehended in Table G.1.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Compression-Ignition Engine Replacement for Full-Size Pickup/SUV." National Research Council. 2011. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12924.
×
Page 180
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Various combinations of commercially available technologies could greatly reduce fuel consumption in passenger cars, sport-utility vehicles, minivans, and other light-duty vehicles without compromising vehicle performance or safety. Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy estimates the potential fuel savings and costs to consumers of available technology combinations for three types of engines: spark-ignition gasoline, compression-ignition diesel, and hybrid.

According to its estimates, adopting the full combination of improved technologies in medium and large cars and pickup trucks with spark-ignition engines could reduce fuel consumption by 29 percent at an additional cost of $2,200 to the consumer. Replacing spark-ignition engines with diesel engines and components would yield fuel savings of about 37 percent at an added cost of approximately $5,900 per vehicle, and replacing spark-ignition engines with hybrid engines and components would reduce fuel consumption by 43 percent at an increase of $6,000 per vehicle.

The book focuses on fuel consumption--the amount of fuel consumed in a given driving distance--because energy savings are directly related to the amount of fuel used. In contrast, fuel economy measures how far a vehicle will travel with a gallon of fuel. Because fuel consumption data indicate money saved on fuel purchases and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, the book finds that vehicle stickers should provide consumers with fuel consumption data in addition to fuel economy information.

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