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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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C
Acronyms

2MASS—Two-Micron All-Sky Survey

A3IV—Aperture Array Astronomical Imaging Verification, European SKA-mid demonstrator

AAAC—Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee

AAG—Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants, an NSF program

AANM—Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, the 2001 NRC decadal survey

ACA—Atacama Compact Array, an array of smaller dishes that complement the main array of ALMA

ACT—Atacama Cosmology Telescope

AGASA—Akeno Giant Air Shower Array

AGB—Asymptotic giant branch

AGIS—Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System

AGN—Active galactic nuclei

AGS—NSF Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences (formerly ATM)

AIC—Accretion-induced collapse

ALFA—Multi-receiver system for H I studies at Arecibo

ALMA—Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

ALTAIR—Access to Large Telescopes for Astronomical Instruction and Research, a 2009 NOAO report

AMS—Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

ANITA—Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna

AO—Adaptive optics

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

AODP—Adaptive optics development program

APEX—Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, 12-m telescope at ALMA site run by Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, ESO, and Onsala Space Observatory

ARO—Arizona Radio Observatory

AS—Academia Sinica, Taiwan

ASIAA—Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics

ASKAP—Australian SKA Pathfinder

AST—The Division of Astronomical Sciences in the MPS Directorate at NSF

ASTE—Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, 10-m telescope at ALMA site run by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) in collaboration with universities in Japan and Chile

ATA—Allen Telescope Array

ATA-42—Current version of ATA with 42 antennas

ATA-256—Allen Telescope Array with 256 antennas

ATI—Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation program at NSF-AST

ATIC—Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter

ATST—Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

AUI—Associated Universities, Inc.

AURA—Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy

BAO—Baryon acoustic oscillation

BBH—Binary black hole

BBN—Big bang nucleosynthesis

BESS—Balloon-borne Experiment with Superconducting Spectrometer

BIMA—Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association

BLISS—Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph

BSRBS—NRAO’s Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer

CALISTO—Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory

CARA—Center for Atmospheric Research in Antarctica

CARMA—Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy

CASA—Common Astronomy Software Applications, a data reduction package led by NRAO for EVLA and ALMA use

CATE—Cost appraisal and technical evaluation

CCAT—Formerly the Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope

CCD—Charge-coupled device

CDMS—Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

CFP—Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel

CGM—Circumgalactic medium

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

Chandra—X-ray telescope in space, a NASA mission

CHARA—Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, a six-telescope optical-infrared interferometric array

CI—neutral carbon

CLIO—A prototype, underground, cryogenic gravitational-wave detector in Japan

CMB—Cosmic microwave background

CMBPol—Concept for space mission to study the polarization of the CMB

CMD—Color-magnitude diagram

CMF—Core mass function

CNES—Centre National d’Études Spatiales

COBE—Cosmic Background Explorer

COROT—Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits satellite

COS—Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on HST

COSMOS—Cosmological Evolution Survey

COUPP—Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics

CP—Charge-parity symmetry

CREAM—Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

CSA—Canadian Space Agency

CSO—Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

CTA—Čerenkov Telescope Array

CV—Cataclysmic variable

CXC—Chandra X-ray Observatory Center

DAMA/LIBRA—Dark Matter Experiment/Large Sodium Iodide Bulk for Rare Processes, a Gran Sasso detector

DARPA—Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DEEP2—Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2

DEIMOS—Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, a Keck Observatory spectrograph

DES—Dark Energy Survey

DM—Deformable mirror

DOE—Department of Energy

DRS—Disturbance Reduction System for LISA

DWFIR—Deep, Wide-Field IR Survey

EDGES—Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Step, an MIT project

EDELWEISS—Expérience pour Detecter Les Wimps En Site Souterrain

E-ELT—European Extremely Large Telescope project

EHT—Event Horizon Telescope

ELT—Extremely Large Telescope

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

EMIR—Near-infrared multiobject spectrograph for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias

EMP—Extremely metal poor

EMRI—Extreme mass ratio inspiral

EoR—Epoch of reionization

EOS—Elecromagnetic Observations from Space, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel

ESA—European Space Agency

ESO—European Southern Observatory

EVLA—Enhanced Very Large Array

ExAO—Extreme adaptive optics

EXIST—Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope

ExoPTF—Exoplanet Task Force

FASR—Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope

FAST—Five-hundred-meter-Aperture Spherical Telescope, under construction in Guizhou Province, China

FOV—Field of view

FRIB—Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

FUSE—Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer

FWHM—Full-width, half-maximum

G—Gravitational coupling constant

GALEX—Galaxy Evolution Explorer

GAN—Galactic Neighborhood, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel

GBM—Gamma-ray-burst monitor

GBT—Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope

GCT—Galaxies Across Cosmic Time, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel

GEMS—Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer

GEO—NSF Geosciences Directorate; also, gravitational wave detector

GLAST—Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

GMC—Giant molecular cloud

GMRT—Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope, operated by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India

GMT—Giant Magellan Telescope

GMTO—Giant Magellan Telescope Office

GO—Guest observer

GOODS-N—The northern deep field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey

GPI—Gemini Planet Imager

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

GR—General relativity

GRB—Gamma-ray burst

GRS—Gravitational Reference System for LPF and LISA

GSMT—Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope

GUT—Grand Unified Theory

GZK—Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin mechanism

H I—Neutral atomic hydrogen

H II—Ionized hydrogen

h(z)—Hubble parameter

HAWC—High-Altitude Water Čerenkov experiment

HERA—Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array

HerMES—Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey

HESS—High Energy Stereoscopic System

HiRes—High Resolution Fly’s Eye

HPRV—High-Precision Radial-Velocity Spectroscopy

H-R diagram—Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

HST—Hubble Space Telescope

HZ—Habitable zone (not to be confused with Hz [hertz], a frequency of one cycle per second)

ICM—Intracluster medium

IDECS—International Dark Energy Cosmology Survey

IDL—Interactive Data Language

IFU—Integral field unit

IGM—Intergalactic medium

IGW—Inflationary gravitational wave

IMF—Initial mass function, the distribution of stars over mass before any stars have died

IMS—Interferometry Measurement System for LPF and LISA

INAOE—Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica

IPAC—Infrared Processing and Analysis Center

IR—Infrared

IRAF—Image Reduction and Analysis Facility

IRAM—Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique

IRAS—Infrared Astronomy Satellite

IRDC—Infrared dark cloud

IRS—Infrared Spectrometer, on Spitzer

ISM—Interstellar medium

IXO—International X-ray Observatory

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

JAXA—Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

JCMT—James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

JDEM—Joint Dark Energy Mission

JPL—Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JWST—James Webb Space Telescope

KAIT—Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope

KBO—Kuiper belt object

KI—Keck Interferometer

ΛCDM—Lambda cold dark matter

LAGEOS—Laser Geodynamics (satellite)

LANL—Los Alamos National Laboratory

LAT—Large Area Telescope, an instrument on the Fermi satellite

L-band—An IEEE-designated band covering roughly 16 to 40 cm

LBT—Large Binocular Telescope

LBTI—Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

LBV—Luminous blue variable

LCGT—Large Cryogenic Gravitational-wave Telescope, under consideration in Japan

LGS—Laser guide star

LHC—Large Hadron Collider

LIGO—Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory

LISA—Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

LLR—Lunar Laser Ranging

LMC—Large Magellanic Cloud

LMT—Large Millimeter Telescope

LMXB—Low-mass X-ray binary

LOFAR—Low Frequency Array for radio astronomy, a low-frequency antenna array centered in the Netherlands

LOPES—LOFAR prototype station

LPF—LISA Pathfinder, a NASA mission

LSS—Large-scale structure

LSST—Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

LUX—Large Underground Xenon detector

LWA—Long Wavelength Array

MAGIC—Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Čerenkov Telescope

MBH—Massive black hole

MCAO—Multiconjugate adaptive optics

MeerKAT—Meer Karoo Array Telescope, a SKA-mid pathfinder in South Africa

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

MERLIN—Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network

MHD—Magnetohydrodynamic

MIDEX—Mid-size Explorer mission, capped at $250 million, excluding launch

MIPS—Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF, on Spitzer

MMT—Multi-Mirror Telescope

MMTO—MMT Office

MOS—Multi-Object Spectrograph

MOSFIRE—Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infrared Exploration

MPF—Microlensing Planet Finder

MPS—NSF directorate of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

MREFC—Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction, an NSF program

MRI—Major Research Instrumentation, an NSF program

MSP—Millisecond pulsar

MSSM—Minimal supersymmetric standard model

MUSTANG—Multiplexed Squid TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz, a bolometer array on the GBT

MWA—Murchison Widefield Array, a low-frequency radio (at frequencies from 80 to 300 MHz) interferometer array to be built in Western Australia

NAA—North American Array

NAASC—North American ALMA Science Center

NAIC—National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center

NAOJ—National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

NASA—National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NEO—Near-Earth object

NFIRAOS—Narrow-Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System for the Thirty-Meter Telescope

NGST—Next-Generation Space Telescope

NINS—National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan

NIRCam—Near-Infrared Camera on JWST

NIRSpec—Near-Infrared Spectrograph IFU on JWST

NIRSS—Near-Infrared Sky Surveyor

NIST—National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce

NOAO—National Optical Astronomy Observatory

NOvA—A neutrino-oscillation detector under construction in Minnesota

NRAO—National Radio Astronomy Observatory

NRC—National Research Council, USA; also, National Research Council of Canada

NRL—Naval Research Laboratory, Department of the Navy

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

NSC—National Science Council, Taiwan

NSF—National Science Foundation

NSO—National Solar Observatory

NST—New Solar Telescope

NuSTAR—Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, a NASA Small Explorer mission featuring an imaging hard-X-ray telescope, to be launched in 2011

OHEP—Office of High Energy Physics, at DOE

OIR—Optical-infrared; also, Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel

OPP—Office of Polar Programs, NSF

OVRO—Owens Valley Radio Observatory

OVSA—New Jersey Institute of Technology’s Owens Valley Solar Array

PACS—Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, on Herschel

PAG—Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel

PAH—Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PAIRITEL—Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope, which conducts robotic transient surveys

PAMELA—Payload for Antimatter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics

PAPER—Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization

PdBI—Plateau de Bure Interferometer, a millimeter wave array in France, operated by IRAM

PFI—Planet Formation Instrument for the proposed Thirty-Meter Telescope

PNGA—Particle, Nuclear, and Gravitational-Wave Astrophysics, a panel from AANM

PPN—Parametrized Post-Newtonian

PPP—Program Prioritization Panel

PSF—Planetary Systems and Star Formation, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel; also, point-spread function

PTF—Palomar Transient Factory

Python—An interactive data-analysis language

QCD—Quantum chromodynamics

QSO—Quasi-stellar object

R&A—Research and analysis

R&D—Research and development

ReSTAR—Renewing Small Telescopes for Astronomical Research, a 2007 NOAO report

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

RFI—Radio-frequency interference

RGB—Red-giant branch

RICE—Radio Ice Čerenkov Experiment

RMS—Radio, millimeter, and submillimeter; also, Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground, an Astro2010 Program Prioritization Panel

ROSAT—Röntgen Satellite

RRAT—Rotating radio transient

RV—Radial velocity

RXTE—Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

SAFIRE—Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Explorer

SAMURAI—Science of AGNs and Masers with Unprecedented Resolution in Astronomical Imaging

SCUBA—Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array, operated on the JCMT

SCUBA-2—Successor to SCUBA with many more detectors

SDO—Solar Dynamics Observatory

SDSS—Sloan Digital Sky Survey

SETI—Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

SF—Star formation

SFE—Star-formation efficiency

SFP—Science Frontiers Panel

SFR—Star-formation rate

SFSR—Single-field, slow-roll inflation

Sgr A*—Sagittarius A*, a radio source at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy

SHARC II—Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II, at CSO

SIM—Space Interferometry Mission

SIRTF—Space Infrared Telescope Facility, now Spitzer

SKA—Square Kilometer Array

SLAC—Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

SMA—Submillimeter Array

SMARTS—Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System

SMBH—Supermassive black hole

SMC—Small Magellanic Cloud

SMEX—Small-scale Explorer mission, costing less than $150 million, excluding launch

S/N—Signal-to-noise ratio

SNe—Supernovae

SOAR—Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope

SOFIA—Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

SOLIS—Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

SOML—Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory

SPHERE—Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research, a VLT instrument

SPICA—Space Infared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics

SPIRE—Spectral and Polarimetric Imaging Receiver, on Herschel

SPIRIT—Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope

SPST—South Pole Submillimeter-wave Telescope

SPT—South Pole Telescope

SSE—Stars and Stellar Evolution, an Astro2010 Science Frontiers Panel

STIS—Space Telescope Imaging Spectograph

STScI—Space Telescope Science Institute

SZ—Sunyaev-Zel’dovich

SZA—Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Array

SZE—Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect, a distortion in the spectrum of the CMB caused by gas in clusters

TES—Transition-edge sensors

TIGER—Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder

TMT—Thirty-Meter Telescope

TPC—Time-projection chamber for the XENON100 experiment

TPF—Terrestrial Planet Finder

TRL—Technology readiness level

TSIP—Telescope System Instrumentation Program

UHECR—Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

ULDB—Ultralong-duration balloon

URO—University Radio Observatories (currently includes CSO, CARMA, UMASS, and the ATA)

USAF—U.S. Air Force

UV—Ultraviolet

VAO—Virtual Astronomical Observatory, the operational phase of the National Virtual Observatory

VERITAS—Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, a cosmic ray detector

VIRGO—A European gravitational-wave detector

VISTA—Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy

VLA—Very Large Array

VLBA—Very Long Baseline Array

VLBI—Very Long Baseline Interferometry

VLT—ESO’s Very Large Telescope

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

VO—Virtual Observatory

VSOP-2—A Japanese radio telescope satellite that could be used with ground-based VLBI antennas

w(z)—Dark energy equation-of-state parameter

WArP—WIMP Argon Program

WD—White dwarf

WFC-3—Wide Field Camera 3, a Hubble instrument

WFIRST—Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope

WFMOS—Wide-Field Fiber-Fed Optical MOS, a proposed Gemini instrument

WFS—Wave-front sensor

WHIM—Warm-hot intergalactic medium

WIMP—Weakly interacting massive particle

WISE—Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

WIYN—Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO Telescope

WMAP—Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

XENON100—A WIMP detector

XENON1T—A WIMP detector

XGS—X-ray grating spectrometer

XMASS—A WIMP detector

XMM-Newton—ESA’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission

XRSO—X-ray spectroscopy observatory

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Acronyms." National Research Council. 2011. Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12982.
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Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics Get This Book
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Every 10 years the National Research Council releases a survey of astronomy and astrophysics outlining priorities for the coming decade. The most recent survey, titled New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics, provides overall priorities and recommendations for the field as a whole based on a broad and comprehensive examination of scientific opportunities, infrastructure, and organization in a national and international context.

Panel Reports--New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics is a collection of reports, each of which addresses a key sub-area of the field, prepared by specialists in that subarea, and each of which played an important role in setting overall priorities for the field. The collection, published in a single volume, includes the reports of the following panels:

  • Cosmology and Fundamental Physics
  • Galaxies Across Cosmic Time
  • The Galactic Neighborhood
  • Stars and Stellar Evolution
  • Planetary Systems and Star Formation
  • Electromagnetic Observations from Space
  • Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground
  • Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation
  • Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground

The Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics synthesized these reports in the preparation of its prioritized recommendations for the field as a whole. These reports provide additional depth and detail in each of their respective areas. Taken together, they form an essential companion volume to New Worlds, New Horizons: A Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The book of panel reports will be useful to managers of programs of research in the field of astronomy and astrophysics, the Congressional committees with jurisdiction over the agencies supporting this research, the scientific community, and the public.

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