National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
×

Recapturing a Future
for Space Exploration

Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era

Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space

Space Studies Board

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS       500 Fifth Street, N.W.       Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study is based on work supported by Contracts NNH05CC16C and NNH10CC48B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project.

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International Standard Book Number-0: 0-309-16384-6

Copies of this report are available free of charge from:

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Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-2422 or (202) 334-3133 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.nationalacademies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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OTHER RECENT REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD AND THE AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD

Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions (Space Studies Board [SSB], 2011)

Panel Reports—New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (BPA and SSB, 2011)

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 [prepublication version] (SSB, 2011)

Advancing Aeronautical Safety: A Review of NASA’s Aviation Safety-Related Research Programs (Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2010)

Capabilities for the Future: An Assessment of NASA Laboratories for Basic Research (Laboratory Assessments Board [LAB] with SSB and ASEB, 2010)

Controlling Cost Growth of NASA Earth and Space Science Missions (SSB, 2010)

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth-Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies (SSB with ASEB, 2010)

An Enabling Foundation for NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions (SSB, 2010)

Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2010)

New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Board on Physics and Astronomy [BPA] and SSB, 2010)

Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey [prepublication version] (BPA and SSB, 2010)

Revitalizing NASA’s Suborbital Program: Advancing Science, Driving Innovation, and Developing a Workforce (SSB, 2010)

America’s Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Space Program with National Needs (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

Approaches to Future Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

An Assessment of NASA’s National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service (ASEB, 2009)

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions (SSB, 2009)

Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (ASEB, 2009)

Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Heliophysics Program (SSB, 2009)

Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2009)

Assessing the Research and Development Plan for the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Summary of a Workshop (ASEB, 2008)

A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program (ASEB, 2008)

Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (SSB, 2008)

Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (SSB with ASEB, 2008)

Managing Space Radiation Risk in the New Era of Space Exploration (ASEB, 2008)

NASA Aeronautics Research: An Assessment (ASEB, 2008)

Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (SSB, 2008)

Review of NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Program: An Interim Report (ASEB, 2008)

Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2008)

Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (SSB, 2008)

Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2008)

United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2008)

Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity (ASEB, 2008)

Limited copies of SSB reports are available free of charge from

Space Studies Board

National Research Council

The Keck Center of the National Academies

500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001

(202) 334-4777/ssb@nas.edu

www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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COMMITTEE FOR THE DECADAL SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Co-chair

WENDY M. KOHRT, University of Colorado, Denver, Co-chair

LARS BERGLUND, University of California, Davis

NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW, University of Rochester

LEONARD H. CAVENY, Independent Consultant, Fort Washington, Maryland

VIJAY K. DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles

JOEL E. DIMSDALE, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine

NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

SIMON GILROY, University of Wisconsin-Madison

BENJAMIN D. LEVINE, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

RODOLFO R. LLINAS,* New York University Medical Center

KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

PHILIPPA MARRACK, National Jewish Health

GABOR A. SOMORJAI, University of California, Berkeley

CHARLES M. TIPTON, University of Arizona

JOSE L. TORERO, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

ROBERT WEGENG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

ANIMAL AND HUMAN BIOLOGY PANEL

KENNETH M. BALDWIN, University of California, Irvine, Chair

FRANÇOIS M. ABBOUD, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine

PETER R. CAVANAGH, University of Washington

V. REGGIE EDGERTON, University of California, Los Angeles

DONNA MURASKO, Drexel University

JOHN T. POTTS, JR., Massachusetts General Hospital

APRIL E. RONCA, Wake Forest University School of Medicine

CHARLES M. TIPTON, University of Arizona

CHARLES H. TURNER, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis

JOHN B. WEST, University of California, San Diego

APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL

PETER W. VOORHEES, Northwestern University, Chair

NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

RICHARD T. LAHEY, JR., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

RICHARD M. LUEPTOW, Northwestern University

JOHN J. MOORE, Colorado School of Mines

ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory

AMY L. RECHENMACHER, University of Southern California

JAMES S. T’IEN, Case Western Reserve University

MARK M. WEISLOGEL, Portland State University

_____________

* Through mid-December 2009.

Through mid-May 2010.

Deceased July 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL

ROBERT V. DUNCAN, University of Missouri, Chair

NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW, University of Rochester

PAUL M. CHAIKIN, New York University

RONALD G. LARSON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Boulder

RONALD WALSWORTH, Harvard University

HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH PANEL

THOMAS J. BALKIN, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Chair

JOEL E. DIMSDALE, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine

NICK KANAS, University of California, San Francisco

GLORIA R. LEON, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

LAWRENCE A. PALINKAS, University of Southern California

MRIGANKA SUR,§ Massachusetts Institute of Technology

INTEGRATIVE AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH FOR THE HUMAN SYSTEMS PANEL

JAMES A. PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University, Chair

ALAN R. HARGENS, University of California, San Diego

ROBERT L. HELMREICH, University of Texas, Austin (retired)

JOANNE R. LUPTON, Texas A&M University, College Station

CHARLES M. OMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

DAVID ROBERTSON, Vanderbilt University

SUZANNE M. SCHNEIDER, University of New Mexico

GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

PLANT AND MICROBIAL BIOLOGY PANEL

TERRI L. LOMAX, North Carolina State University, Chair

PAUL BLOUNT, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

ROBERT J. FERL, University of Florida

SIMON GILROY, University of Wisconsin-Madison

E. PETER GREENBERG, University of Washington School of Medicine

TRANSLATION TO SPACE EXPLORATION SYSTEMS PANEL

JAMES P. BAGIAN, U.S. Air Force and University of Michigan, Chair

FREDERICK R. BEST, Texas A&M University, College Station

DAVID C. BYERS,§ Independent Consultant, Torrance, California

LEONARD H. CAVENY, Independent Consultant, Fort Washington, Maryland

MICHAEL B. DUKE, Colorado School of Mines (retired)

JOHN P. KIZITO, North Carolina A&T State University

DAVID Y. KUSNIERKIEWICZ, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

E. THOMAS MAHEFKEY, JR., Heat Transfer Technology Consultants

DAVA J. NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

_____________

§ Through mid-December 2009.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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RICHARD J. ROBY, Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc.

GUILLERMO TROTTI, Trotti and Associates, Inc.

ALAN WILHITE, Georgia Institute of Technology

STAFF

SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board, Study Director

ALAN C. ANGLEMAN, Senior Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

IAN W. PRYKE, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board

ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy

MAUREEN MELLODY, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

REGINA NORTH, Consultant, Washington, D.C.

CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Editor, Space Studies Board

LEWIS GROSWALD, Research Associate, Space Studies Board

DANIELLE JOHNSON-BLAND, Senior Program Assistant, Committee on Law and Justice

LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant, National Materials Advisory Board

LINDA M. WALKER, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board

ERIC WHITAKER, Senior Program Assistant, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board, and Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

_____________

Staff from other National Research Council boards who assisted with the survey.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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SPACE STUDIES BOARD

CHARLES F. KENNEL, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, Chair

JOHN KLINEBERG, Space Systems/Loral (retired), Vice Chair

MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University

STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering

YVONNE C. BRILL, Aerospace Consultant

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

ANDREW B. CHRISTENSEN, Dixie State College and Aerospace Corporation

ALAN DRESSLER, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution

JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

HEIDI B. HAMMEL, Space Science Institute

FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology

ANTHONY C. JANETOS, University of Maryland

JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE, Naval War College

ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley

MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future

JOHN F. MUSTARD, Brown University

ROBERT T. PAPPALARDO, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University

MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona

DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University

WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research

CLIFFORD M. WILL, Washington University

THOMAS H. ZURBUCHEN, University of Michigan

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010)

RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010)

MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009)

CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer

SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
×

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD

RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired), Chair

LESTER LYLES, The Lyles Group, Vice Chair

ELLA M. ATKINS, University of Michigan

AMY L. BUHRIG, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group

INDERJIT CHOPRA, University of Maryland, College Park

JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology

RAVI B. DEO, EMBR

VIJAY DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles

EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University

MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies

DAVID GOLDSTON, Harvard University

R. JOHN HANSMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JOHN B. HAYHURST, Boeing Company (retired)

WILLIAM L. JOHNSON, California Institute of Technology

RICHARD KOHRS, Independent Consultant

IVETT LEYVA, Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base

ELAINE S. ORAN, Naval Research Laboratory

ALAN G. POINDEXTER, Naval Postgraduate School

HELEN R. REED, Texas A&M University

ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University

EDMOND SOLIDAY, United Airlines (retired)

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director (from April 1, 2010)

RICHARD E. ROWBERG, Interim Director (from March 2, 2009, to March 31, 2010)

MARCIA S. SMITH, Director (until March 1, 2009)

CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

CHRISTINA O. SHIPMAN, Financial Officer

SANDRA WILSON, Financial Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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Preface

In May 2009, the National Research Council’s (NRC) Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space began a series of meetings initiated as a result of the following language in the explanatory statement accompanying the FY 2008 Omnibus Appropriations Act (P.L. 110-161):

Achieving the goals of the Exploration Initiative will require a greater understanding of life and physical sciences phenomena in microgravity as well as in the partial gravity environments of the Moon and Mars. Therefore, the Administrator is directed to enter into an arrangement with the National Research Council to conduct a “decadal survey” of life and physical sciences research in microgravity and partial gravity to establish priorities for research for the 2010-020 decade.

In response to this language, a statement of task for an NRC study was developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, NASA, and congressional staff. The guiding principle of the study was to set an agenda for research in the next decade that would use the unique characteristics of the space environment to address complex problems in the life and physical sciences, so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as it embarks on a new era of space exploration. Specifically, the decadal survey committee was asked to define research areas, recommend a research portfolio and a timeline for conducting that research, identify facility and platform requirements as appropriate, provide rationales for suggested program elements, define dependencies among research objectives, identify terrestrial benefits, and specify whether the results of the research would directly enable exploration or would produce fundamental new knowledge. The research areas identified were to be categorized as either (1) required to enable exploration missions or (2) enabled or facilitated because of exploration missions. The complete statement of task for the study is given in Appendix A of this report.

As one of its earliest tasks, the committee divided the broad spectrum of relevant disciplines and charge elements into seven broad focus areas and organized the following study panels to address each theme:

• Animal and Human Biology Panel,

• Applied Physical Sciences Panel,

• Fundamental Physical Sciences Panel,

• Human Behavior and Mental Health Panel,

• Integrative and Translational Research for Human Systems Panel,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
×

• Plant and Microbial Biology Panel, and

• Translation to Space Exploration Systems Panel.

The level of integration between the committee and the panels, and among many of the panels, was exceptionally high throughout the study. In general, the panels had primary responsibility for gathering data on the status of the relevant research areas, performing analysis, and developing a chapter in their assigned theme area; the committee provided continuous direction and feedback to the panels, integrated the input of the panels, and developed the chapters that responded directly to the statement of task. The report is thus the product of the committee’s and the panels’ combined efforts. In addition to the expertise embodied in the committee and the panels, broad community input was provided to the study at town hall meetings held in conjunction with professional society meetings, in approximately 150 white papers submitted by individuals and teams from the community,* and through numerous briefings and direct exchanges. Based on these inputs and its own deliberations, the committee in conjunction with the panels reviewed those areas of research that seemed most promising and selected the research topics and themes that are discussed in this report.

Although decadal surveys are a long-standing tradition in many other fields supported by NASA, such as astronomy and planetary science, this report represents the first decadal survey of NASA’s life and physical sciences programs. In preparing it, the committee and its panels drew heavily on a number of past NRC studies that looked at many of the disciplines represented in this study. Two such reports were considered foundation documents on which the current study has built but whose work it does not reproduce: The 1998 NRC report A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century provided a detailed assessment of the impact of spaceflight on the minds and physiological systems of humans, as well as effects in plants and animals. The 2006 NRC report Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies examined the new capabilities that NASA would have to develop in order to explore the solar system and identified the underlying physical processes on which these capabilities depended. Both reports describe the phenomenological changes that occur—in biological systems and physical processes—at a level of detail that the current report does not attempt to replicate. Readers interested in better understanding these processes are referred to the two earlier studies.

This full survey report was preceded by the committee’s interim report, released in July 2010, titled Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12944). Drawing on preliminary analyses performed by the committee and its panels, that report provided guidance on near-term programmatic issues related to the organization and management of the life and physical sciences research enterprise at NASA. It also identified a number of broad topics that represent near-term opportunities for research on the International Space Station. The guidance in the interim report is incorporated into the more detailed examination of programmatic issues and research needs for all platforms in this full report.

_____________

* Available at http://www8.nationalacademies.org/SSBSurvey/PublicViewMicro.aspx.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Andreas Acrivos, City College of the City University of New York;

Robert L. Ash, Old Dominion University;

Henry W. Brandhorst, Jr., Carbon-Free Energy, LLC;

Edward J. Britt, Pratt & Whitney Space Propulsion;

Jay C. Buckey, Jr., Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center;

Jonathan B. Clark, National Space Biomedical Research Institute;

Michael E. Fisher, University of Maryland;

Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan;

F. Andrew Gaffney, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine;

Kurt Gibble, Pennsylvania State University;

Roger Hangarter, Indiana University;

Kathryn D. Held, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School;

Edward W. Hodgson, Jr., Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation;

George M. Homsy, University of British Columbia;

Mamoru Ishii, Purdue University;

David M. Klaus, University of Colorado, Boulder;

Richard H. Kohrs, NASA (retired);

Rodolfo R. Llinas, New York University Medical Center;

Jay S. Loeffler, Massachusetts General Hospital;

David E. Longnecker, Association of American Medical Colleges;

Robert Marcus, Independent Consultant and Eli Lilly and Company (retired);

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
×

Gail Martin, University of California, San Francisco;

Ralph Napolitano, Iowa State University;

Robert J. Naumann, University of Alabama, Huntsville;

Mary Jane Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center;

William Paloski, University of Houston;

G. Kim Prisk, University of California, San Diego;

Emery I. Reeves, Independent Consultant and U.S. Air Force Academy (retired);

Danny A. Riley, Medical College of Wisconsin;

Gerald Sonnenfeld, Clemson University;

T. Peter Stein, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey;

Thomas G. Stoebe, University of Washington;

Pete Suedfeld, University of British Columbia (emeritus);

Peter B. Sunderland, University of Maryland;

George W. Swenson, Jr., University of Illinois;

Scott Tremaine, Institute for Advanced Study;

Russell Turner, Oregon State University;

Forman A. Williams, University of California, San Diego;

Eugene Wissler, University of Texas, Austin; and

A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired).

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University, and Laurence R. Young, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
×

Free-Flyers

United States

Europe

Ground-Based Facilities

General Types by Field of Research

U.S. Ground-based Facilities

European Ground-Based Facilities

Russian Ground-Based Facilities

Japanese Ground-Based Facilities

Chinese Ground-Based Facilities

References

4  PLANT AND MICROBIAL BIOLOGY

The Role of Plant and Microbial Research in Exploring the Effects of Microgravity

Research Issues

Overview: The Need for Modern Analyses Applied to Model Systems

Sensory Mechanisms I: Gravity Sensing and Response Mechanisms in Plants

Sensory Mechanisms II: Gravity and Mechanical Sensing in Microbes

Sensory Mechanisms III: Cells

Radiation Effects on Plants and Microbes

Plant and Microbial Growth Under Altered Atmospheric Pressures

Spaceflight Syndrome I: Response to the Integrated Spaceflight Environment

Spaceflight Syndrome II: Microbial Ecosystems and Environments

Spaceflight Syndrome III: Changes in the Virulence of Pathogens

Role of Plants and Microbes in Long-Term Life Support Systems

Available and Needed Platforms

Ground-Based Facilities

Flight Platforms

The Lunar Surface as a Platform

Enabling Technologies

Prioritized Research Recommendations

Programmatic Issues and Recommendations

References

5  BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH

Cognitive Functioning

Cognitive Testing

Specific Recommendations

Individual Functioning

Selection

Personality Measures

Training

Psychological Symptoms

Therapeutic Strategies

Specific Recommendations

Group Functioning

Individual Factors

Interpersonal Factors

Autonomy and Other Environmentally Mediated Factors

Leadership

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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Tools and Facilities

Interventions

Training

Specific Recommendations

Sleep and Space

Effects of Acute Sleep Loss

Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction

Sleep and Resilience

Specific Recommendations

Highest-Priority Recommendations

References

6  ANIMAL AND HUMAN BIOLOGY

Research Issues

Risks for Bone Loss During Long-Duration Space Missions

Risks for Skeletal Muscle During Long-Duration Spaceflight

Risks for Sensory-Motor and Vestibular Deficits During Long-Duration Spaceflight

Effects of the Spaceflight Environment on Fluid Shifts

Risks for the Cardiovascular System During Long-Duration Spaceflight

Risks for Pulmonary Function During Long-Duration Space Missions

Risks for Specific Endocrine Influences During Long-Duration Space Missions

Effects of the Spaceflight Environment on the Immune System

Reproduction and Development

Merging of Disciplines to Study Gravity-Dependent Adaptations

Research Priorities and Platforms

Bone

Skeletal Muscle

Sensory-Motor Function

Fluid Shifts

Cardiovascular Function

Pulmonary Function

Immunology

Reproduction and Development

Research Platforms

Overarching and Programmatic Issues

The Need for Animal Research on the ISS and Other Space Platforms

Recommendation Concerning the National Laboratory

Animal Research on Other Platforms

Improved Access to Biological Samples and Data from Astronauts

Limitations of Ground-Based Facilities

Limitations on Sample Delivery Back to Earth

Space Platform for Research Beyond 2020 Will Be Needed

Relevance of the Report to NASA Fundamental Space Biology Strategic Planning

References

7  CROSSCUTTING ISSUES FOR HUMANS IN THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT

Solving Integrative Biomedical Problems Through Translational Research

Stress—Physical and Physiological Considerations

Food, Nutrition, and Energy Balance

Radiation Biology

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Physical Inactivity

Biological Sex/Gender Considerations

Thermoregulation

Increasing Translational Research in the Space/Life Sciences

Implementation of a Clinical and Translational Science Framework

The ISS and the U.S. National Laboratory as an Analog of a CTSA Clinical Research Unit

Aspects of Clinical and Translational Science Applicable to Space Biomedical Research

Overarching Issues and Gaps in the Knowledge Base

Educating the Next Generation of Space Translational Scientists

The Procurement Process and Its Effect on Flight Research

International Collaboration Between Space Agencies

Summary

Stress

Food, Nutrition, and Energy Balance

Radiation Biology

Biological Sex/Gender

Thermoregulation

Overarching Issue—Integrated Countermeasures Development

References

8  FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE

Research Issues

Thrust I: Soft-Condensed-Matter Physics and Complex Fluids

Thrust II: Precision Measurements of Fundamental Forces and Symmetries

Thrust III: Quantum Gases

Thrust IV: Condensed Matter and Critical Phenomena

Available and Needed Platforms

Ground-Based Research

Aircraft and Drop Towers

The International Space Station

Free-Flying Spacecraft

Lunar or Martian Bases

Program Recommendations for Experiment-Specific Support Facilities on Various Platforms

Research Program Recommendations

Recommended Program Element 1: Research on Complex Fluids and Soft Matter (FP1)

Recommended Program Element 2: Research That Tests and Expands Understanding of the Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of Nature (FP2)

Recommended Program Element 3: Research Related to the Physics and Applications of Quantum Gases (FP3)

Recommended Program Element 4: Investigations of Matter in the Vicinity of Critical Points (FP4)

Programmatic Conclusions, Findings, and Recommendations

References

9  APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Fluid Physics

Research in Support of NASA’s Exploration Missions

Fundamental Research in Complex Fluid Physics

Recommended Research in Fluid Physics

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13048.
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Combustion

Research in Support of NASA’s Exploration Missions

Fundamental Combustion Research

Recommended Research in Combustion

Materials Science

Research in Support of NASA’s Exploration Missions

Fundamental Materials Research

Recommended Research in Materials Science

Research Prioritization and Recommendations

Fluid Physics Recommendations

Combustion Recommendations

Materials Science Recommendations

Facilities

Programmatic Recommendations

References

10 TRANSLATION TO SPACE EXPLORATION SYSTEMS

Research Issues and Technology Needs

Space Power and Thermal Management

Space Propulsion

Extravehicular Activity Systems

Life Support Systems

Fire Safety

Space Resource Extraction, Processing, and Utilization

Planetary Surface Construction

Summary and Conclusions

References

11 THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

Unique Status and Capabilities

Areas of Research on the International Space Station

Life Sciences Research on the ISS

Physical Sciences Research on the ISS

Utilizing the ISS for Research

Caveats

References

12 ESTABLISHING A LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH PROGRAM: PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES

Programmatic Issues for Strengthening the Research Enterprise

Elevating the Priority of Life and Physical Sciences Research in Space Exploration

Establishing a Stable and Sufficient Funding Base

Improving the Process for Solicitation and Review of High-Quality Research

Rejuvenating a Strong Pipeline of Intellectual Capital Through Training and Mentoring Programs

Linking Science to Mission Capabilities Through Multidisciplinary Translational Programs

Developing Commercial Sector Interactions to Advance Science, Technology, and Economic Growth

Synergies with Other National and International Agencies

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More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial.

During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles--an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities.

Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight--thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.

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