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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program

Committee on An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, NW,
Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service, Contract No. AG-3A94-C-08-0018/ AG-3A94-D-10-0082. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-17709-2

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-17709-X

Additional copies of this report are available from the

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Suggested Citation: National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine


The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.


The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.


The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.


The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.


www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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COMMITTEE ON AN EVALUATION OF THE FOOD SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF THE FEDERAL PURCHASE GROUND BEEF PROGRAM

GARY R. ACUFF (Chair),

Texas A&M University, College Station

WILLIAM K. HALLMAN,

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick

KERRI B. HARRIS,

Texas A&M University, College Station

CRAIG W. HEDBERG,

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

GUY H. LONERAGAN,

Texas Tech University, Lubbock

JULIANA RUZANTE,

University of Maryland, College Park

DONALD W. SCHAFFNER,

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick

JOHN N. SOFOS,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

JOHN G. SURAK,

Surak and Associates, Clemson, South Carolina

KATHERINE M.J. SWANSON,

Ecolab, Inc., Eagan, Minnesota

MARTIN WIEDMANN,

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Project Staff

CAMILLA Y. ABLES, Study Director

AUSTIN LEWIS, Study Director

KAMWETI MUTU, Research Associate

ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director,

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

NORMAN R. SCOTT (Chair),

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

PEGGY F. BARLETT,

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

HAROLD L. BERGMANN,

University of Wyoming, Laramie

RICHARD A. DIXON,

Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma

DANIEL M. DOOLEY,

University of California, Oakland

JOAN H. EISEMANN,

North Carolina State University, Raleigh

GARY F. HARTNELL,

Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

GENE HUGOSON,

Minnesota Department of Agriculture, St. Paul

KIRK C. KLASING,

University of California, Davis

VICTOR L. LECHTENBERG,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

PHILIP E. NELSON,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

KEITH PITTS,

Marrone Bio Innovations, Davis, California

CHARLES W. RICE,

Kansas State University, Manhattan

HAL SALWASSER,

Oregon State University, Corvallis

PEDRO A. SANCHEZ,

The Earth Institute, Columbia University, Palisades, New York

ROGER A. SEDJO,

Resources for the Future, Washington, DC

KATHLEEN SEGERSON,

University of Connecticut, Storrs

MERCEDES VAZQUEZ-AÑON,

Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri

Staff

ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director

KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator

AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Senior Program Officer

EVONNE P.Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer

PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer

CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Associate Program Officer

KARA N. LANEY, Associate Program Officer

RUTH S. ARIETI, Research Associate

JANET M. MULLIGAN, Research Associate

KAMWETI MUTU, Research Associate

KATI REIMER, Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of the report:

Robert L. Buchanan, University of Maryland

James S. Dickson, Iowa State University

Julie A. Funk, Michigan State University

Robert Michael Hoekstra, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Jill Hollingsworth, Food Marketing Institute

Scott E. Holmes, Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Department

H. Scott Hurd, Iowa State University

Douglas A. Powell, Kansas State University

Michelle L. Rossman, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association

Angela L. Siemens, Cargill, Inc.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Drs. Kristine M. Gebbie, City University of New York, and Michael P. Doyle, University of Georgia. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests with the author committee and the institution.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2010. An Evaluation of the Food Safety Requirements of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13069.
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List of Tables and Figures

TABLES

1

 

Microbiological Specifications of Various Companies A Through X and Upper Specification and Critical Limits of the AMS,

 

19

2

 

Relationship between the Number of Units Sampled and the Portion of the Lot that Contains the Pathogen for 95% Confidence in Detection,

 

22

FIGURES

1

 

Food safety assurance process to take appropriate action on a process or product lot,

 

20

2

 

Hierarchy of science-based food safety evidence,

 

23

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To ensure the safety of food distributed through the National School Lunch Program, food banks, and other federal food and nutrition programs, the United States Department of Agriculture has established food safety and quality requirements for the ground beef it purchases. This National Research Council book reviews the scientific basis of the Department's ground beef safety standards, evaluates how the standards compare to those used by large retail and commercial food service purchasers of ground beef, and looks at ways to establish periodic evaluations of the Federal Purchase Ground Beef Program. The book finds that although the safety requirements could be strengthened using scientific concepts, the prevention of future outbreaks of foodborne disease will depend on eliminating contamination during production and ensuring meat is properly cooked before it is served.

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