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Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners (2011)

Chapter: Board on Testing and Assessment

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Suggested Citation:"Board on Testing and Assessment." National Research Council. 2011. Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13090.
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BOARD ON TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

The Board on Testing and Assessment (BOTA) assists policy makers and the public by providing scientific expertise around critical issues of testing and assessment in education, the workplace, and the armed services. BOTA’s fundamental role is to raise questions about—and provide guidance for judging—the technical qualities of tests and assessments and the intended and unintended consequences of their use. BOTA consists of experts from a range of disciplines relevant to testing and assessment—psychology, statistics, education, economics, law, business, anthropology, sociology, and politics—as well as practitioners with experience in test use. Among the issues BOTA considers are the uses of tests as policy tools, civil rights implications of tests, and innovative methods of assessment.

Suggested Citation:"Board on Testing and Assessment." National Research Council. 2011. Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13090.
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Suggested Citation:"Board on Testing and Assessment." National Research Council. 2011. Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13090.
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Page 217
Suggested Citation:"Board on Testing and Assessment." National Research Council. 2011. Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13090.
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Page 218
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As the United States continues to be a nation of immigrants and their children, the nation's school systems face increased enrollments of students whose primary language is not English. With the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the allocation of federal funds for programs to assist these students to be proficient in English became formula-based: 80 percent on the basis of the population of children with limited English proficiency1 and 20 percent on the basis of the population of recently immigrated children and youth.

Title III of NCLB directs the U.S. Department of Education to allocate funds on the basis of the more accurate of two allowable data sources: the number of students reported to the federal government by each state education agency or data from the American Community Survey (ACS). The department determined that the ACS estimates are more accurate, and since 2005, those data have been basis for the federal distribution of Title III funds.

Subsequently, analyses of the two data sources have raised concerns about that decision, especially because the two allowable data sources would allocate quite different amounts to the states. In addition, while shortcomings were noted in the data provided by the states, the ACS estimates were shown to fluctuate between years, causing concern among the states about the unpredictability and unevenness of program funding.

In this context, the U.S. Department of Education commissioned the National Research Council to address the accuracy of the estimates from the two data sources and the factors that influence the estimates. The resulting book also considers means of increasing the accuracy of the data sources or alternative data sources that could be used for allocation purposes.

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