National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix C: Details on Tracking and Accounting by Bay Jurisdiction
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

Appendix D

Two-Year Milestone
Implementation, 2009-2010

The data provided in this appendix reflect responses to the committee’s request to the Bay jurisdictions for implementation progress on their first milestones. The jurisdictions were specifically asked to provide the data reported to the CBP in December 2010, covering the period July 1, 2009 to (at least) June 30, 2010, and some jurisdictions provided additional data beyond this window. Readers should note the dates of each reporting period carefully. Some jurisdictions were only able to report July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009, although the committee notes that this period largely occurred before the two-year milestone program was announced in May 2009, and may not be representative of the pace of progress throughout the remainder of the first milestone.

It is worth noting that the committee received inconsistent information on the official start date of the first milestone period (July 2008, January 2009, or July 2009) and its length (2.5 years, 3 years, or 3.5 years) from the EPA and the Bay jurisdictions. The original milestone publication (CBP, 2009b) generally cited the first milestone as a three-year period, ending on December 31, 2011; thus, for the purpose of this analysis, the committee assumed a three-year milestone period.

The pace of implementation progress can be evaluated generally by comparing the percentage of the goal accomplished over the period reported relative to the percentage of the first milestone period covered in the data provided. For example, if a jurisdiction provided implementation data for a 12-month period (or 33 percent of the assumed three-year milestone period), the percentage of each implementation goal accomplished can be evaluated relative to the 33 percent threshold. That is, if the practice

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

implementation has met or exceeded 33 percent of the goal, the pace of implementation of that practice meets or exceeds the pace needed to meet the first milestone. However, such an analysis without accompanying load reduction estimates has only limited value to an overarching assessment of a jurisdiction’s progress, as discussed in Chapter 3.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

DELAWARE

  2009-2011 Milestone Shortfall in Identified Actions  
Nitrogen 292,072 lbs 264,229 lbs  
Phosphorus 0 5,958 lbs  
Sediment NA NA  
Nutrient Reduction Practice (units) 2009-2011 Milestone Actions Identifed Completed between July 1, 2008–June 30, 2009 (12 months) % Goal Achieved (in 33% of 1st milestone period)
Identifed in 2009 Milestone Document Agricultural practices      

Cover crops, late (acres/yr)

18,600

6,595

35

Cover crops, early (acres/yr)

18,600

16,600

89

Forest buffers (acres)

2,700

2,226

82

Wetland restoration (acres)

420

286

68

Tree planting (acres)

200

162

81

Poultry litter transport (tons/yr)

55,100

Maintained

100

 

(maintain current levels) current levels  

Nutrient mgmt (acres)

177,000 (maintain current levels) Maintained current levels

100

Urban/suburban

     

On-site pumpouts (systems/yr)

8,800 Working on reporting mechanisms

0

Reduction of Invista’s permitted load

Reduce to 215,350 lbs nitrogen1  

0

Added actions since 2009:

     

Stormwater actions previously not reported

No data NA

NA

Denitrification in septic systems from improved reporting

No data NA

NA

Sewer hookups from improved reporting

No data NA

NA

Agricultural practices previously not reported

No data NA

NA

New BMPs that may get approved

No data NA

NA

Results from new state CAFO regulations

No data NA

NA

Onsite waste water and stormwater regulations to be finalized in 2011

No data NA

NA

NOTE: These data reflect milestone actions that were largely accomplished before the two-year milestone strategy was announced.
1 Now aiming for 172,00 lbs by early 2011.
SOURCE: J. Volk, DE DNREC, personal communication, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

  2009-2011 Milestone    
Nitrogen 159,000 lbs    
Phosphorus 0 lbs (already met)    
Sediment NA    
Nutrient Reduction Practice (units) 2009-2011 Milestone Actions Identifed Completed between July 1, 2009–November 12, 2010 (17 months) % Goal Achieved (in 47% of 1st milestone)
Urban/Suburban      

Plant trees to expand tree canopy by 5 percent by in 25 years (trees planted per year)

4,150 In Progress: Anticipate 4,150 trees planted by end of 2011 unknown

New tree box standards

No numeric goal specified Draft prepared NA

Install rain gardens (rain gardens)

   100 82   82

Install rain barrels (rain barrels)

   250 700 280

Install downspout connections (connections)

   300 700 233

Lot-level stormwater retention through RiverSmart Homes program

No numeric goal specified >1,000 home audits; 142 Bay-scape projects; 25 perv. paver projects NA

LID in DC Dept. of Transportation (DOT) projects (%)

24% 30% DOT projects incorporated LID 125

Train federal facilities on new stormwater requirements

No numeric goal specified 1 workshop held with 5 agencies NA

Green roofs (ft2 converted)2

2.5 million 200,000 ft2 in 2009    82

Implement program to control discharges from District and federally owned facilities

No numeric goal specified Upgraded stormwater management plan, 2009 NA

Auto repair shop education campaign in Hickey Run (pilot)

No numeric goal specified Inform businesses of proper BMPs during inspections NA

Inspect all auto repair shops, laundromats, dry cleaners once every 5 yrs

20% annual inspection rate 266 facility inspections have been conducted Cannot calculate
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

Develop and implement pet waste strategy

No numeric goal specified Implementation of strategy will continue through 2011 100

Mandate installation and use of pumpout stations at all DC marinas

No numeric goal specified Mandate in Marina standards Act of 2008 100

Restoration of Watts and Pope branches (miles restored)

2.7 Construction to begin in 2011     0

Replace sewer lines (miles replaced)

1.5 Replacement has begun and will continue into 2011 unknown

Complete a street sweeping study and implement long-term enhanced street sweeping and fine particle removal

No numeric goal specified Study completed in 2010 Implementation to begin in 2011 NA

Implement and promote new stormwater regulations that require LID construction as a first option and mandate training for site managers

No numeric goal specified In development as of 11/10 NA

Implement impervious area-based SW fee

No numeric goal specified Fee program finalized and implemented in fall of 2010 100

Review and update zoning regulations to encourage green building

No numeric goal specified Draft text is being brought before Zoning Commission as of 11/10 NA

Retrofit 100 catch basins for trash control

100

110 basins retrofitted 110

Install 1,000 storm drain markers annually

1,000 1000/yr 100

Install litter trap demonstration projects to divert 6,800 pounds of trash by 2011

6,800 Installed 2 in-stream trash traps, collected 6,585 lbs trash   97
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

Determine the type of trash control devices that would be the most effective in retaining large debris and sediment in hot-spot areas

No numeric goal specified Contract with Earth Conservation Core and Howard University to test trash abatement devices In progress

Point source

     

Enhanced ENR at Blue Plains by 2014

No numeric goal specified   In progress

CSO control, May 2009

Reduce N to 70,298 lbs/yr   Completed
 

2 The District of Columbia reports that this number was miscalculated, and was originally intended to reflect the goal of 20% green roof coverage by 2027. The District now anticipates the goal will be met by 2017.
SOURCE: S. Sand, DC DOE, personal communication, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

MARYLAND

  2009-2011 Milestone Revised Goal, Considering Growth  
Nitrogen 3.75 million lbs 3.90 million lbs  
Phosphorus 193,000 lbs    
Sediment NA NA  
Nutrient Reduction Practice (units) 2009-2011 Milestone Actions identified Completed between July 1, 2009–April 2011 (21 months) % Goal Achieved (in 58% of 1st milestone period)
Agricultural Practices      

Cover crops (acres)

145,634

220,945

152

Nutrient management plan enforcement (acres)

100,000

4,159

4

Soil conservation & water quality plans (acres)

257,049

191,451

74

Continuous no-till conservation (acres)

150,000

150,000

100

Precision agriculture (acres)

100,000

0

0

Livestock waste structures

80

65

81

Water control structures

125

46

37

Dairy manure incorporation technology (acres)

2,500

476

19

Stream protection with fencing (acres)

5,400

5,098

94

Manure transport (tons)3

10,000

−8,562

0

Poultry waste structures

50

13

26

Stream protection without fencing (acres)

2,000

1,722

86

Cropland irrigation management (acres)

92,800

92,800

100

Poultry litter treatment (tons)

15,000

0

0

Vegetative open channels (miles)

6

0

0

Runoff control systems

175

136

78

Vegetated environmental buffers (acres)

15

13

87

CAFO buffers (acres)

2,500

0

0

Urban/Suburban

     

Wastewater treatment plants ENR (pounds)

740,000

128,372

17

Urban nutrient management regulations (acres)

220,000

0

0

MD Healthy Air Act (pounds)

305,882

0

0

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

Blue Plains BNR upgrade (pounds)

315,000

190,000

60

Stormwater runoff management retrofits (acres)

90,000

39,319

44

Septic retrofits inside of critical area (systems)

1,080

779

72

Septic retrofits outside of critical area (systems)

1,920

739

38

Septic hookups to WWTPs

703

32

5

66 state-owned DNR septics (systems)

66

20

30

Natural Filters on Private Land

     

Streamside grass buffers (acres)

2,250

2,220

99

Streamside forest buffers (acres)

550

350

64

Wetland restoration (acres)

600

564

94

Retire highly erodible land (acres)

2,500

2,299

92

Natural Filters on Public Land

     

Forest brigade (trees)

1,000,000

352,800

35

Wetland restoration—public lands (acres)

555

85

15

Streamside forest buffers—public lands (acres)

345

47

14

Marylanders plant trees

75,000

46,574

62

Streamside grass buffers—public lands (acres)

69

24

35

Cover crops (revised leases on public lands) (acres)

764

0

0

3 Manure transport is annual practice; goal is 10,000 tons above baseline of 35,000 tons transported out of watershed annually.
SOURCE: H. Stewart, MD DNR, personal communication, 2011.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

PENNSYLVANIA

  2009-2011 Milestone    
Nitrogen 7.3 million lbs    
Phosphorus 300,000 lbs    
Sediment NA    
Nutrient Reduction Practice (units) 2009-2011 Milestone Actions identified Completed between July 1, 2008–June 30, 2009 (12 months) % Goal Achieved (in 33% of 1st milestone period)
Agricultural Practices      

Animal waste management systems (all types) (systems)

275

206

75

Carbon sequestration/alternative crops (acres)

25,740

1,859

7

Conservation planning (acres)

327,599

70,199

21

Continuous no-till (acres)

86,567

3,698

4

Cover crops-std planting (acres)

147,818

66,273

45

Enhanced nutrient mgmt (acres)

450

1,278

284

Erosion & sediment control (acres)

181

8,118

4,485

Forest buffers (acres)

19,059

7,135

37

Forest harvesting practices (acres)

125

103

82

Grass buffers (feet)

1,161

1,123

97

Land retirement (acres)

58,876

12,353

21

Mortality composters

22

2

9

Non-urban stream restoration (feet)

215,088

24,897

12

Nutrient management (acres)4

128,000

24,294

19

Off-stream watering w/ fencing (acres)

6,143

736

12

Off-stream watering w/ fencing & rotational grazing (acres)

21,249

5,552

26

Off-stream watering w/o fencing (acres)

7,335

211

3

Other conservation-tillage (acres)

88,924

−5,558

−6

Manure transport (poultry liter) (tons)

55,659

51,121

92

Poultry phytase (tons)

19,626

6,542

33

Precision rotational grazing (feet)

NA

29

NA

Horse pasture managment (acres)

NA

1

NA

Field borders (feet)

NA

405,113

NA

Urban/Suburban practices

     

Stream restoration (urban) (feet)

4,400

0

0

Stormwater mgmt (all types) (acres)

8,690

3,091

36

Reduced impervious cover (acres)

NA

48

NA

Tree planting (acres)

15,065

1,464

10

Septic connections (number)

7,353

2,430

33

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

Other practices

     

Abandoned mine reclamation (acres)

2,219

1,294

58

Dirt & gravel road erosion & sediment control (feet)

124,913

318,012

255

Wetland restoration (acres)

1,548

136

9

NOTE: These data reflect milestone actions that were largely accomplished before the two-year milestone strategy was announced.
4 EPA’s 2011 milestone fact sheet lists 473,801 acres of nutrient management. Pennsylvania noted that this is in error. The correct number is 128,000.
SOURCE: P. Buckley, PA DEP, personal communication, 2011.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

VIRGINIA

  2009-2011 Milestone Shortfall in Identified Actions  
Nitrogen 3.39 Million lbs 990,000 lbs  
Phosphorus 470,000 lbs 35,000 lbs  
Sediment NA NA  
Nutrient Reduction Practice (units) 2009-2011 Milestone Actions Identified Completed between July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010 (12 months) % Goal Achieved (in 33% of 1st milestone period)

Agricultural practices

     

Cover Crops (acres/yr)

118,800

93,094

78

Small Grain Commodities, harvestable (acres/yr)

37,900

25,729

68

Agricultural Nutrient Management (total acres)

258,000 new5

414,114

47

Conservation Tillage (NRCS) (acres/yr)

47,500

39,686

84

Continuous No-Till (State Cost-Share) (total acres)

80,900

94,382

118

Animal Waste Management Systems (new systems)

241

41

17

Runoff Control AWMS (new systems)

32

4

13

Off-stream Watering with Fencing (new acres)

89,600

13,045

15

Forest Buffers (new acres)

9,676

1,201

12

Grass Buffers (new acres)

2,084

6,672

320

Wetland Restoration (new acres)

36

68

189

Retirement of Highly Erodible Land (new acres)

18,800

4,253

23

Reforestation (new acres)

12,500

3,153

25

Agricultural Stream Restoration (new linear feet)

13,117

0

0

Urban/Suburban

     

Wastewater plant improvements

233,000 lbs N, 126,000 lbs P Reduced

NA
NA

NA
NA

Stormwater Management BMPs (new acres)

48,800

5,982

12

Erosion and Sediment Control (acres)

61,000

NA6

NA

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

Additional Urban Nutrient Management (acres)

133,166

21,224

16

Septic System BMPs (Pumpouts)

806

28,109

3,487

5Strikeouts reflect disagreement with CBPO over the original goal.

6Currently not mapped to NEIEN system or reported for period ending June 30, 2010. Plans are to map these data sources to the NEIEN system for the 2011 data call due December 2011.
SOURCE: A. Pollock, VA DEQ, personal communication, 2011.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

WEST VIRGINIA

  2009-2011 Milestone    
Nitrogen 42,254 lbs    
Phosphorus 3,364 lbs    
Sediment NA    
Nutrient Reduction Practice (units) 2009-2011 Milestone Actions identified Completed between July 1, 20–June 30, 2010(12 months) % Goal Achieved (in 33% of 1st milestone period)
Agriculture      

Off-stream watering w/ fencing and rotational grazing (acres)

14,000

5,484

39

Cover crops (acres)

1,500

2,071

138

Forest buffers (acres)

200

730

365

Grass buffers (acres)

200

0

0

Manure transfer (tons)

14,000

10,664

76

Animal Waste Management Systems (systems)

11

23

209

Non-urban stream restoration (feet)

4,000

6,082

152

Urban/suburban      

Wet ponds and wetlands (acres drained)

500

123

25

Dry extended detention ponds (acres drained)

500

489

98

Urban filtering practices (acres drained)

50

0

0

Erosion and sediment control (acres)

1,400

1,307

93

Wetland restoration (acres)

5

0.2

4

Septic connections (systems)

364

138

38

Septic pumpings (systems)

6,800

2,876

42

Septic denitrification (systems)

2

0

0

SOURCE: T. Koon, WV DEP, personal communication, 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×

This page intentionally left blank

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 227
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 228
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 229
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 230
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 231
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 232
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 233
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 234
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 235
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 236
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 237
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 238
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 239
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Two-Year Milestone Implementation, 2009-2010." National Research Council. 2011. Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13131.
×
Page 240
Next: Appendix E: Water Science and Technology Board »
Achieving Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Goals in the Chesapeake Bay: An Evaluation of Program Strategies and Implementation Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $55.00 Buy Ebook | $43.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Chesapeake Bay is North America's largest and most biologically diverse estuary, as well as an important commercial and recreational resource. However, excessive amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment from human activities and land development have disrupted the ecosystem, causing harmful algae blooms, degraded habitats, and diminished populations of many species of fish and shellfish. In 1983, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) was established, based on a cooperative partnership among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the state of Maryland, and the commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and the District of Columbia, to address the extent, complexity, and sources of pollutants entering the Bay. In 2008, the CBP launched a series of initiatives to increase the transparency of the program and heighten its accountability and in 2009 an executive order injected new energy into the restoration. In addition, as part of the effect to improve the pace of progress and increase accountability in the Bay restoration, a two-year milestone strategy was introduced aimed at reducing overall pollution in the Bay by focusing on incremental, short-term commitments from each of the Bay jurisdictions.

The National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on the Evaluation of Chesapeake Bay Program Implementation for Nutrient Reduction in Improve Water Quality in 2009 in response to a request from the EPA. The committee was charged to assess the framework used by the states and the CBP for tracking nutrient and sediment control practices that are implemented in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to evaluate the two-year milestone strategy. The committee was also to assess existing adaptive management strategies and to recommend improvements that could help CBP to meet its nutrient and sediment reduction goals.

The committee did not attempt to identify every possible strategy that could be implemented but instead focused on approaches that are not being implemented to their full potential or that may have substantial, unrealized potential in the Bay watershed. Because many of these strategies have policy or societal implications that could not be fully evaluated by the committee, the strategies are not prioritized but are offered to encourage further consideration and exploration among the CBP partners and stakeholders.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!