NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES
CHALLENGES FACING THE U.S.
ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning
Water Science and Technology Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report is based upon work supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity under Contract No. W912HQ-09-C-0041. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity.
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International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21832-4
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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COMMITTEE ON U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS WATER RESOURCES, SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PLANNING
DAVID A. DZOMBAK, Chair, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
PATRICK A. ATKINS, ALCOA (ret.), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park
LINDA K. BLUM, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
ROBERT A. DALRYMPLE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
MISGANAW DEMISSIE, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign
TERRANCE FULP, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder City, Nevada
LARRY A. LARSON, Association of State Floodplain Managers, Madison, Wisconsin
DIANE M. MCKNIGHT, University of Colorado, Boulder
J. WALTER MILON, University of Central Florida, Orlando
A. DAN TARLOCK, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Chicago, Illinois
PETER R. WILCOCK, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
JEFFREY JACOBS, Study Director
SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant
WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD
DONALD I. SIEGEL, Chair, Syracuse University, New York
LISA M. ALVAREZ-COHEN, University of California, Berkeley
YU-PING CHIN, Ohio State University, Columbus
OTTO C. DOERING III, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
GERALD E. GALLOWAY, University of Maryland, College Park
GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Watertown, Massachusetts
KENNETH R. HERD, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville
GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
MICHAEL J. MCGUIRE, Michael J. McGuire, Inc., Santa Monica, California
DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno
MARYLYNN V. YATES, University of California, Riverside
STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director
JEFFREY JACOBS, Scholar
LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer
STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer
LAURA J. HELSABECK, Staff Officer
M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate
ELLEN A. DE GUZMAN, Senior Program Associate
ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate
MICHAEL STOEVER, Research Associate
SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This report was authored by the National Research Council Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning. A draft version of the committee’s report was reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with the procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making its published report as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets NRC institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this report: Richard A. Conway (retired), Union Carbide Corporation; Gerald E. Galloway, University of Maryland; Peter Gleick, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security; George R. Hall-berg, The Cadmus Group; Chris T. Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon University; W. Allen Marr, Geocomp Corporation; Denise J. Reed, University of New Orleans; and Marylynn V. Yates, University of California, Riverside.
Although these reviewers provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Leo M. Eisel (retired), Brown and Caldwell, Denver, Colo., who was appointed by the National
Research Council. Dr. Eisel was responsible for ensuring that an independent examination of this report was conducted in accordance with NRC institutional procedures and that all review comments received full consideration. Responsibility for this report’s final contents rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.