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Sustainability and the U.S. EPA (2011)

Chapter: Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
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Appendix A


The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Bernard Goldstein, M.D., (Chair), is professor of environmental and occupational health at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health; he also served as the dean of the Graduate School of Public Health. He was the founding director of the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, a joint program of Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School from 1986 to 2001. He was the chair of the Department of Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School from 1980 to 2001. Dr. Goldstein served as acting dean of the UMDNJ–School of Public Health from 1998 to 1999, the first year of its formation. He is a physician certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties in internal medicine and hematology and in toxicology. He is the author of over 200 articles and book chapters related to environmental health sciences and to public policy. Dr. Goldstein was assistant administrator for research and development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1983-1985. His past activities include member and chairman of the National Institutes of Health Toxicology Study Section; the EPA Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; and the National Board of Public Health Examiners. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine where he has cochaired the Section on Public Health, Biostatistics, and Epidemiology. He has served as chair or member of numerous Institute of Medicine or National Research Council committees. Dr. Goldstein has also served as president of the Society for Risk Analysis, vice president and editor in chief of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, and as a member of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×

Leslie Carothers is president of the Environmental Law Institute (ELI). ELI is an independent, nonpartisan education and research organization working to protect the environment by improving law, policy, and management. Ms. Carothers has been a professional environmentalist for over 30 years. Before her election as ELI president in June 2003, she served for 11 years as vice president, Environment, Health and Safety at United Technologies Corporation (UTC) in Hartford, a diversified manufacturer of products for the aerospace and building systems markets. Ms. Carothers also served as commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection from 1987 to 1991 and senior environmental counsel for PPG Industries, a manufacturing company in Pittsburgh, from 1982 to 1987. She began her environmental career with EPA in the air pollution program in Washington, DC, in 1971 and later served as enforcement director, deputy regional administrator, and acting regional administrator of the EPA New England Region in Boston. In 1991, she was an adjunct lecturer on environmental regulation at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Ms. Carothers is a past member and chair of the Board of Directors of the Connecticut Audubon Society and ELI and a past member of the Board of the Nature Conservancy (Connecticut chapter). She currently serves on the Board of Directors of Strategies for the Global Environment (Pew Center on Global Climate Change). She is a graduate of Smith College and Harvard Law School and also holds a master’s degree in environmental law from George Washington University.

Clarence (Terry) Davies, Ph.D., is a senior fellow at the Resources for the Future. He is a political scientist who, during the last 30 years, has written several books and numerous articles about environmental policy. He chaired the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Decision Making for Regulating Chemicals in the Environment and was a committee member of the NRC report Risk Assessment in the Federal Government. While serving as a consultant to the President’s Advisory Council on Executive Organization, he was a coauthor of the reorganization plan that created the EPA. His previous positions have included assistant professor of public policy at Princeton University, executive vice president of the Conservation Foundation, executive director of the National Commission on the Environment, and assistant administrator for policy at EPA. In 2000 he was elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received a Ph.D. in American Government from Columbia University and a B.A., cum laude from Dartmouth College.

John Dernbach is distinguished professor of law and director of Environmental Law Center at Widener University School of Law. His scholarship focuses on sustainable development and climate change, and he teaches a variety of courses, including environmental law, international environmental law, sustainability and the law, and climate change. Mr. Dernbach has served as director of the Policy Office at the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), which

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×

is responsible for developing and coordinating policy and regulatory initiatives for DEP, including the integration of sustainable-development concepts into DEP programs. Over more than a decade at DEP’s predecessor agency, the Department of Environmental Resources, he counseled and worked in DEP’s mining and waste programs and drafted four laws. Mr. Dernbach has written more than 30 articles for law reviews and peer-reviewed journals and has been an author, coauthor, or contributor of chapters in 13 books. He is the editor of Agenda for a Sustainable America (Environmental Law Institute Press, January 2009) and Stumbling Toward Sustainability (Environmental Law Institute Press 2002), which are comprehensive assessments of U.S. sustainable-development activities that include recommendations for future efforts. He is a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature Commission on Environmental Law and served from 2005 to 2008 on the Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability of the National Academy of Sciences.

Paul Gilman, Ph.D., joined Covanta in 2008 as Covanta Energy’s first senior vice president and chief sustainability officer. He is responsible for Covanta’s safety, health, and environmental compliance programs, and for sustainability initiatives that further reduced Covanta’s environmental impact while increasing the use of its technologies. Before joining Covanta, Dr. Gilman was the director of the Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies. He served as the assistant administrator for research and development and science advisor at EPA from 2002 until 2004. Prior to joining EPA, he was director for policy planning at Celera Genomics. Dr. Gilman was previously the executive director of life sciences and agriculture divisions of the NRC. In addition, Dr. Gilman has held several senior government positions, including associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for natural resources, energy, and science, and executive assistant to the secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy for technical matters. He has 13 years of experience working on the staff of the U.S. Senate in several capacities, including as a congressional science fellow sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Neil Hawkins, Ph.D., currently serves as vice president of sustainability and environment, health and safety (EH&S) for the Dow Chemical Company. In this global role, he leads Dow’s sustainability strategy and team and drives implementation of Dow’s transformational 2015 sustainability goals. Dr. Hawkins also leads Dow’s global organizations for product safety, regulatory affairs, health services, EH&S auditing, and remediation. Dr. Hawkins joined Dow in 1988 and has served in a wide range of EH&S operations, and public policy roles across the company. Dr. Hawkins is also a recognized expert in sustainability business practices and environmental policy. He chairs the Strategic Advisory Council for the University of Michigan Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise and serves on the boards of Keystone Center, Global Water Challenge, World Envi-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×

ronment Center, and Corporate EcoForum. He is also a member of the National Academies Roundtable for Science and Technology for Sustainability. He holds master’s and doctoral degrees from Harvard University, School of Public Health, and a bachelor’s degree from Georgia Tech.

Michael Kavanaugh, Ph.D., is a principal with Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., an engineering and consulting firm with offices throughout the United States and abroad. His research interests have included hazardous waste management, soil and groundwater remediation, process engineering, industrial waste treatment, technology evaluations, strategic environmental management, compliance and due diligence auditing, water quality, water and wastewater treatment, and water reuse. He has served as chair to the NRC Board on Radioactive Waste Management and the Water Science and Technology Board. Dr. Kavanaugh is a registered professional engineer in California and Michigan, a board-certified environmental engineer in water quality and sustainability for the American Academy of Environmental Engineers. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from Stanford University, an M.S. in chemical engineering and a Ph.D. in civil and environmental engineering from the University of California at Berkeley.

Stephen Polasky, Ph.D., is the Fesler-Lampert Professor of Ecological and Environmental Economics at University of Minnesota. He received a Ph.D. in economics at the University of Michigan in 1986. He previously held faculty positions in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at Oregon State University (1993-1999) and the Department of Economics at Boston College (1986-1993). Dr. Polasky was the senior staff economist for environment and resources for the President’s Council of Economic Advisers 1998-1999. He was elected into the National Academy of Sciences in 2010. He was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009 and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2007. His research interests include ecosystem services, natural capital, biodiversity conservation, endangered species policy, integrating ecologic and economic analysis, renewable energy, environmental regulation, and common property resources. He has served as coeditor and associate editor for the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, as associate editor for International Journal of Business and Economics, and is currently serving as an associate editor for Conservation Letters, Ecology and Society and Ecology Letters.

Kenneth G. Ruffing, Ph.D., is an independent consultant and author specializing in sustainable development, environmental economics, and development economics. Among other consultancy assignments, he has advised the United Nations (UN) Environment Programme on the Green Economy Project, advised the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on sustainable

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×

development and on environmental aspects of policy coherence for development and served as coordinator of the African Economic Outlook from 2006 to 2009. He was formerly deputy director and chief economist of the OECD Environment Directorate from 2000 to 2005 where he took a special interest in the issue of decoupling environmental pressure from economic growth. Prior to joining OECD, he had a long career with the UN, beginning in 1971 while completing his Ph.D. dissertation, entitled The effects of inflation on the structure and yield of the fiscal system of Chile, at Columbia University. Dr. Ruffing has worked as a development economist for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean; provided technical assistance in external debt management to developing countries for the UN Conference on Trade and Development; represented the UN at numerous debt rescheduling exercises carried out by the “Paris Club” of official creditors; was secretary to the UN Committee for Development Policy, where he provided technical expert support for 10 years; prepared the UN macroeconomic forecasts for the world economy based on Project LINK from 1989 to 1993; and served as deputy director for the UN Division for Sustainable Development for 7 years. During his long career with international organizations Dr. Ruffing has conducted research, undertaken scholarly reviews, and published articles on a wide range of sustainable-development and economic-development issues; environmental and economic development policy integration; natural resource economics (oil and water); macroeconomics, external debt and finance; trade, aid and development; development planning and its integration with public-sector budgeting; monetary and fiscal aspects of public policy in developing countries; and economic reform processes and economic convergence.

Armistead Russell, Ph.D., is the Georgia Power Distinguished Professor and Coordinator of Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Professor Russell arrived at Georgia Tech in 1996, from Carnegie Mellon University, and has expertise in air-quality engineering, with particular emphasis in air-quality modeling, air-quality monitoring and analysis. He earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering at the California Institute of Technology in 1980 and 1985, conducting his research at the Caltech Environmental Quality Laboratory. His B.S. is from Washington State University (1979). Dr. Russell has been a member of a number of the NRC committees, including chair of the Committee to Review EPA’s Mobile Source Emissions Factor Model and chair of the Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas. He also served on the Committee on Tropospheric Ozone Formation and Measurement, the Committee on Ozone Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline and the Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants. Dr. Russell served on two EPA Science Advisory Board subcommittees: the Clean Air Science Advisory Committee’s Subcommittee on the National Ambient Air Monitoring Strategy and the Subcommittee on Air Quality Modeling of the Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis. He was

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×

also a member of the EPA Federal Advisory Committee Act Subcommittee for Ozone, Particulate Matter and Regional Haze and the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone and California’s Reactivity Science Advisory Committee. Previously, he was on the Oxygenated Fuels Program Review of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, various NRC program reviews, and a committee to review a Canadian NRC program.

Susanna Sutherland has a degree from the University of Tennessee in environmental studies with forestry minor, and an M.S. in biosystems engineering technology with an emphasis on water quality. She has worked with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and in the Tennessee State Park system. She also worked with the Tennessee Valley Authority, first in environmental policy and planning in both Alabama and Tennessee and later in river operations and environment. In 2007, Ms. Sutherland came to the city of Knoxville as the South Waterfront Development’s project manager and, in 2009, became the city’s program manager of sustainability. Her current responsibilities include implementing the city’s U.S. Department of Energy grants, staffing the Energy and Sustainability Task Force, and chairing Knoxville’s electric vehicle advisory board. Ms. Sutherland’s overarching goals include incorporating efficient and sustainable best practices into municipal operations and promoting environmental responsibility in the Knoxville community as an economic driver.

Lauren Zeise, Ph.D., is Chief of the Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch of the California Environmental Protection Agency. She oversees or is otherwise involved in a variety of California’s risk assessment activities, including cancer and reproductive toxicant assessments; development of frameworks and methodologies for assessing cumulative impact, nanotechnology, green chemistry and safer alternatives, and susceptible populations; the California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program; and health risk characterizations for environmental media, food, fuels, and consumer products. Dr. Zeise’s research focuses on human interindividual variability, dose response, uncertainty, and risk. She was the 2008 recipient of the Society of Risk Analysis’s Outstanding Practitioners Award and is a national associate of the NRC. She has served on various advisory boards and committees of the EPA, Office of Technology Assessment, the World Health Organization, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. She has also served on numerous NRC and Institute of Medicine committees and boards, including the committees that produced Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy; Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment; and Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Dr. Zeise received her Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: The Committee on Incorporating Sustainability in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." National Research Council. 2011. Sustainability and the U.S. EPA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13152.
×
Page 132
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Sustainability is based on a simple and long-recognized factual premise: Everything that humans require for their survival and well-being depends, directly or indirectly, on the natural environment. The environment provides the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat.

Recognizing the importance of sustainability to its work, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to create programs and applications in a variety of areas to better incorporate sustainability into decision-making at the agency. To further strengthen the scientific basis for sustainability as it applies to human health and environmental protection, the EPA asked the National Research Council (NRC) to provide a framework for incorporating sustainability into the EPA's principles and decision-making.

This framework, Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, provides recommendations for a sustainability approach that both incorporates and goes beyond an approach based on assessing and managing the risks posed by pollutants that has largely shaped environmental policy since the 1980s. Although risk-based methods have led to many successes and remain important tools, the report concludes that they are not adequate to address many of the complex problems that put current and future generations at risk, such as depletion of natural resources, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. Moreover, sophisticated tools are increasingly available to address cross-cutting, complex, and challenging issues that go beyond risk management.

The report recommends that EPA formally adopt as its sustainability paradigm the widely used "three pillars" approach, which means considering the environmental, social, and economic impacts of an action or decision. Health should be expressly included in the "social" pillar. EPA should also articulate its vision for sustainability and develop a set of sustainability principles that would underlie all agency policies and programs.

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