Philip A. Pizzo, M.D. (Chair), is dean of the School of Medicine and Carl and Elizabeth Naumann professor of pediatrics and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Before joining Stanford in 2001, he was physician-in-chief of Children’s Hospital in Boston and chair of the Department of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, 1996-2001. Dr. Pizzo is recognized for his contributions as a clinical investigator, especially in the treatment of children with cancer and HIV. He has devoted much of his distinguished medical career to the diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment of childhood cancers and the infectious complications that occur in children whose immune systems are compromised by cancer and AIDS. Dr. Pizzo and his research team pioneered the development of new treatments for children with HIV infection, lengthening and improving the quality of life for these children. His research soon led to important clues about how to treat HIV-positive children and adults and how to manage life-threatening infections. Dr. Pizzo served as head of the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) infectious disease section, chief of NCI’s pediatric department, and acting scientific director for NCI’s Division of Clinical Sciences between 1973 and 1996. He is the current chair of the Council of Deans of the Association of American Medical Colleges and the immediate past chair of the board of directors of the Association of Academic Health Centers. He has been a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) since 1997 and has served on the Council of the IOM since 2006.
Noreen M. Clark, Ph.D. (Vice Chair), is Myron E. Wegman distinguished university professor, professor of health behavior and health education, professor of pediatrics, and director of the Center for Managing Chronic Disease at the University of Michigan. From 1995 to 2005, she served as dean of public health and Marshall Becker professor of public health. Dr. Clark is interested in systems, policies, and programs that promote health, prevent illness, and enable individuals to manage disease. Her work focuses on the social, psychological, and behavioral aspects of disease management and how they interact with clinical factors. Her research is directed toward people at risk for disease and its complications, as well as those who can help them: family members, clinicians, communities, and systems. Her studies of disease management have contributed to the research literature and the field of practice by demonstrating that educational interventions for patients and providers can decrease both asthma- and heart-related hospitalizations and medical emergencies and increase patients’ quality of life. Interventions for respiratory disease tested by her team are used across the country and around the world. Dr. Clark currently heads exploratory studies of the management of diabetes, epilepsy, and digestive and neurological conditions, including consequences of pain, as well as physical, psychological, and social functioning. She has held many leadership positions in public health and is a member of the IOM.
Olivia D. Carter-Pokras, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland, College Park School of Public Health. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of Maryland, College Park, Dr. Carter-Pokras was an associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, where she currently serves as adjunct faculty. She is the previous director of the Division of Policy and Data, Office of Minority Health, Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Carter-Pokras has conducted research on health disparities for three decades in the federal government. She has an extensive history of ensuring that the community has a voice in research conducted at the national and local levels. Dr. Carter-Pokras lectures on epidemiologic methods, cultural competency, and health disparities to medical, dental, and public health students. She is principal investigator for two National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate cultural competency and health disparities curriculum, and for a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) community-based participatory research grant on oral health among Latino and Ethiopian children and their mothers. She just completed a project evaluating state tobacco disparities and is research director for the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded University of Maryland Prevention Research Center.
Myra Christopher has been president and CEO of the Center for Practical Bioethics since its inception in 1985. In addition to providing oversight to the Center, from 1998 to 2003 she served as national program officer of The Robert Woods Johnson Foundation’s National Program Office for Community-State Partnerships to Improve End-of Life Care, which was housed at the Center. These roles have allowed Ms. Christopher to continue her lifelong mission to improve care for seriously ill people and their families. She consulted with the Joint Commission on patients’ rights and organizational ethics standards and developed Beyond Compliance, resource materials, and a seminar for the Joint Commission that was presented across the country. She has collaborated with the National Association of Attorneys General to establish palliative care as a consumer protection issue. Since the late 1990s, Ms. Christopher has expanded the scope of her work to include the undertreatment of chronic pain and has worked with the American Pain Foundation, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pain Medicine, Federation of State Medical Boards, Drug Enforcement Administration, and others to improve care for people living with chronic pain. Currently she is co-directing The Transformation Project: A New Initiative to Improve Advanced Illness Care. She is also principal investigator for the Pain Action Initiative: A National Strategy (PAINS). This project will assess capacity and readiness nationwide to develop a coordinated plan for improving care for the millions of Americans who struggle with chronic pain. In 2001, Ms. Christopher was named Kathleen M. Floey Chair in Pain and Palliative care at the Center for Practical Bioethics.
John Farrar, M.D., Ph.D., is associate professor of biostatistics and epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. His research expertise is related to pain, including the use of new pain medications, brain function in people with pain, complementary and alternative therapies, and new methodologies for understanding how patients report their pain in clinical trials. His current research includes ongoing studies of acupuncture for the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis patients and chronic fatigue in cancer patients, brain imaging of patients with pain, and studies of pain related to cancer treatment. Dr. Farrar focuses clinically on all aspects of pain and symptom therapy in cancer patients as a member of the Symptom and Palliative Care Team and as a collaborator in the development of a multidisciplinary program for the evaluation and treatment of patients with pain.
Kenneth A. Follett, M.D., Ph.D., is Nancy A. Keegan and Donald R. Voelte, Jr., chair of neurosurgery, professor and chief of the Division of Neurosurgery, interim chair of the Department of Anesthesiology, and program director for the neurological surgery residency training program at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC). In addition to his clinical, academic, and educational responsibilities in the Division of Neurosurgery, Dr. Follett is a faculty member
in the UNMC Pain Medicine Fellowship Program. His clinical and research interests include pain management and functional and stereotactic neurosurgery. His research activities range from bench studies of mechanisms of nociception using electrophysiological and histological techniques in animal models to clinical studies of drugs and devices for pain therapy and movement disorders. Dr. Follett is recognized as a leader in pain management and neuromodulation therapies and has given numerous national and international presentations pertaining to these topics. He is past chair of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/ Congress of Neurological Surgeons Joint Section on Pain and has held leadership positions in national pain organizations, including the American Academy of Pain Medicine (past president).
Margaret Heitkemper, R.N., Ph.D., F.A.A.N., is chairperson, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, School of Nursing; Elizabeth Sterling Soule endowed chair in nursing; and adjunct professor, Division of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, University of Washington. For the past 20 years, Dr. Heitkemper has conducted interdisciplinary research related to chronic abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Her research in this area has included both descriptive and mechanistic studies focused on the role of gender and lifestyle factors in this chronic pain condition. In addition to bench work focused on ovarian hormones and motility, Dr. Heitkemper’s work has highlighted the impact of menstrual cycle comorbidities, including other pain conditions such as headache, muscle pain, and backache, and the menopausal transition on gastrointestinal symptom reports. With clinic populations, she has further described autonomic nervous system and polysomnographic sleep in women with IBS. Sleep disturbances play a role in the exacerbation of pain reports in this population. Most recently, Dr. Heitkemper’s work has evolved to include genetic (SERT, COMT) and potential proteomic markers of chronic abdominal pain in children and adults with chronic visceral pain conditions. In addition, her team has conducted two randomized clinical trials of a self-management cognitive-behavioral therapy to alleviate symptom distress in men and women with IBS.
Charles E. Inturrisi, Ph.D., is professor of pharmacology at Weill Cornell Medical College. He also holds appointments with the Pain and Palliative Care Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and the Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases at The Rockefeller University. Dr. Inturrisi’s current research activities are focused on determining the comparative effectiveness of interventions used for chronic pain management. This research is examining prospectively and retrospectively the long-term outcomes of treatments for chronic cancer and noncancer pain received by patients at four New York City hospital-based outpatient pain clinics. The effectiveness information obtained will allow a determination of which patients benefit from the currently available interventions used for the management of chronic pain and the cost-effectiveness of these
treatments, which should improve pain management worldwide. Dr. Inturrisi continues to have an interest in the role of glutamate receptors in injury-induced pain, opioid tolerance, dependence, and addictive behaviors. This preclinical research employs molecular genetic approaches (Cre-loxP and siRNA) to produce spatial knockouts of selected receptors and signaling proteins. These studies are intended to discover new treatments for pain and drug addiction. Dr. Inturrisi has been teaching Weill Cornell medical and graduate students about pain and opioids for the past 40 years.
Francis Keefe, Ph.D., is professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of the Pain Prevention and Treatment Research Program at Duke University Medical Center and professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University. Dr. Keefe has broad interests in behavioral and psychological aspects of pain and pain management. He is internationally recognized for his research on pain coping. He was the first to develop a psychometrically strong, standardized questionnaire for assessing pain coping—the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. This questionnaire, now translated into many languages, is the most widely used pain coping measure in both clinical and research settings. Dr. Keefe also is internationally recognized for developing and systematically testing novel treatment protocols for managing persistent, disease-related pain. Novel interventions currently being tested in his laboratory include several training protocols for partner-assisted coping skills for helping cancer patients and their partners manage pain and other symptoms, a perisurgical coping skills intervention to improve the outcome of spinal cord stimulation treatment for persistent pain, a web-based coping skills intervention for osteoarthritis patients, and interventions targeting obese patients with pain that combine training in pain coping skills with a lifestyle behavioral weight management program.
Robert Kerns, Ph.D., is Veterans Health Administration (VHA) national program director for pain management; director of the Pain Research, Informatics, Medical comorbidities, and Education (PRIME) Center at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Connecticut Healthcare System; and professor of psychiatry, neurology, and psychology at Yale University. In his role as national program director for pain management, he has programmatic responsibility for policy development, coordination, and oversight of the VHA National Pain Management Strategy. He is a member of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Arthritis Advisory Committee, and he is frequently called upon to serve as a temporary voting member of other pain-relevant FDA advisory panels. Dr. Kerns’s primary areas of scholarly and academic interest are behavioral medicine and health psychology, in particular pain and pain management. He was recently awarded a VA Health Services Research and Development grant to establish the PRIME Center, which will build capacity for pain-relevant health services research at VA Connecticut and Yale University. Dr. Kerns’s current research interests include
evaluation of the use of technologies (the Internet, interactive voice response, videoconferencing) for the delivery of automated self-management interventions for disadvantaged and diverse populations with chronic pain (e.g., persons living in rural settings, the elderly, persons with painful diabetic neuropathy, persons with coprevalent pain and posttraumatic stress disorder, and persons with multiple sclerosis). Additional interests focus on the development of strategies for improving the quality of pain clinical trials, the development of integrative models of care for chronic pain and other chronic health problems, diversity and disparity in pain care, and related policy issues.
Janice S. Lee, D.D.S., M.D., M.S., is associate professor and vice chair in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where she is she is also director of clinical and translational research. Dr. Lee is an oral and maxillofacial surgeon who treats children and adults. Her areas of expertise include facial reconstruction, maxillofacial pathology, and craniofacial anomalies. She is a member of the Craniofacial Anomalies team at UCSF Medical Center, which evaluates and treats children with congenital deformities such as cleft lip/palate, hemifacial microsomia, secondary cleft deformities, and other dentofacial deformities. Most of these conditions involve skeletal reconstruction problems, especially when a deficiency in bone exists. Dr. Lee’s research is in the area of bone marrow stem cells and the effects of age on their ability to differentiate and form bone. While training at NIH, she was the maxillofacial specialist for a team evaluating and treating one of the largest populations of patients with McCune-Albright syndrome and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, a fibro-osseous disease that affects the normal development of bone. Dr. Lee continues to see patients with these conditions at UCSF.
Elizabeth Loder, M.D. M.P.H., is chief of the Division of Headache and Pain in the Department of Neurology at the Brigham and Women’s/Faulkner Hospitals in Boston and an associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School. She is also a senior research editor at the British Medical Journal. She has worked as a clinician and researcher in the headache field since completing a fellowship in headache medicine in 1990. Dr. Loder served on the board of directors of the International Headache Society from 2005 to 2009, is the winter meeting director for the Headache Cooperative of New England, and is president-elect of the American Headache Society.
Sean Mackey, M.D., Ph.D., is associate professor of anesthesia (and of neurology and neurological sciences by courtesy) at Stanford University. He also is currently chief of the Stanford Pain Management Division and Pain Fellowship Program director. As director of the Stanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Laboratory, Dr. Mackey focuses his research on the use of advanced research techniques, such
as functional and structural neuroimaging, psychophysics, and neurobehavioral assessment, to investigate the neural processing of pain and neuronal plasticity in patients with chronic pain. Dr. Mackey has served as principal investigator and investigator for multiple NIH and foundation grants investigating chronic pain and novel analgesics for acute and chronic pain. Additionally, he recently received an NIH K24 grant focused on mentoring junior investigators to have successful careers.
Rick Marinelli, N.D., M.Ac.O.M., is a naturopathic physician and acupuncturist at the Natural Medicine Clinic in Portland, Oregon. His professional practice over nearly 30 years has spanned many specialties. His foundational training in naturopathic, conventional, and oriental medicine has allowed him to apply diagnostic and therapeutic insight in choosing the best approaches for his patients. Dr. Marinelli has extensive experience in women’s health care, hormone replacement therapy for men and women, the diagnosis and treatment of pain, diagnostic ultrasonography, sports medicine, aesthetic medicine, weight loss, and primary care. In addition to his practice, he has been active in community and professional service, serving, for example, as immediate past chair of the Oregon Board of Naturopathic Medicine, immediate past president of the American Academy of Pain Management, a commissioner of the Oregon Pain Management Commission and Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Advisory Commission, and founding vice president of the Naturopathic Academy of Therapeutic Injection. He also is an external affairs representative for the Academic Consortium for Complementary and Alternative Health Care.
Richard Payne, M.D., is professor of medicine and divinity at Duke Divinity School, Duke University, and Esther Colliflower director of the Duke Institute on Care at the End of Life (ICEOL). Dr. Payne is an internationally known expert in the areas of pain relief, care for those near death, oncology, and neurology. ICEOL seeks to increase knowledge and rediscover old wisdoms concerning the end of life through interdisciplinary scholarship, teaching, and outreach, emphasizing the spiritual dimension of care. As a unique teaching and research program located in a divinity school, ICEOL is particularly focused on the problem of preventing and addressing the moral and theological dimensions of pain and suffering. Prior to his appointment at Duke, Dr. Payne was chief, Pain and Symptom Management Section, Department of Neurology, at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (1992-1998) in Houston, Texas; from 1998 to 2004, he led the Pain and Palliative Care Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, where he held the Anne Burnett Tandy Chair in Neurology. He is certified in palliative medicine by the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and in pain management by the American Academy of Neurology and the American Academy of Pain Medicine.
Melanie Thernstrom, MFA, is the author of The Pain Chronicles: Cures, Myths, Mysteries, Prayers, Diaries, Brain Scans, Healing, and the Science of Suffering, a New York Times bestseller. In The Pain Chronicles, Ms. Thernstrom traces conceptions of pain from ancient Babylonia to modern brain imaging. She interweaves first-person reflections on her own battle with chronic pain, incisive reportage and medical research, and insights from a wide range of disciplines. Ms. Thernstrom also is the author of two previous books: The Dead Girl, a memoir, and Halfway Heaven: Diary of a Harvard Murder, a work of investigative journalism. She is a contributing writer for The New York Times Magazine. She also has written for Vanity Fair, The New Yorker, New York, The Wall Street Journal, and other publications. She has taught creative writing at Harvard University and Cornell University and in the master of fine arts program at the University of California at Irvine. Ms. Thernstrom has received fellowships from the Corporation of Yaddo, the Edward Albee Foundation, and the Virginia Center for the Creative Arts and is a member of PEN.
Dennis C. Turk, Ph.D., is John and Emma Bonica professor of anesthesiology and pain research; director of the Center for Pain Research on Impact, Measurement, and Effectiveness (C-PRIME) at the University of Washington; and a special government employee within the FDA. Prior to his current position, he was professor of psychiatry and anesthesiology and director of the Pain Evaluation and Treatment Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. He is co-director of the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT). Dr. Turk has published more than 500 papers and authored or edited 16 books on pain assessment, management, and treatment; the psychological characteristics of pain sufferers; clinical trial design; and measure- and value-based health care. He is past president of the American Pain Society and currently editor-in-chief of the Clinical Journal of Pain.
Ursula Wesselmann, M.D., Ph.D., joined the faculty at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) as professor of anesthesiology, neurology, and psychology in 2008. She is senior scientist at the Civitan International Research Center and a faculty member of the Comprehensive Neuroscience Center at UAB. Previously, she was on the faculty of the Department of Neurology at The Johns Hopkins University, an attending physician at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and a member of the Johns Hopkins Blaustein Pain Treatment Center. Dr. Wesselmann’s translational pain research laboratory is funded by NIH and focuses on the pathophysiological mechanisms of urogenital and visceral pain syndromes in females. Her clinical practice at the UAB Pain Treatment Clinic centers on the treatment of chronic urogenital and visceral pain syndromes in women.
Lonnie K. Zeltzer, M.D., is professor of pediatrics, anesthesiology, psychiatry, and biobehavioral sciences at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)
School of Medicine. She is director of the UCLA Pediatric Pain Program and medical director of the Palliative Care Program at Mattel Children’s Hospital, UCLA. Her program’s research focuses on pediatric chronic pain; experimental pain in children; genetics and pain; end-of-life care in children, including cancer pain; complementary and alternative medicine therapies; and quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer. Dr. Zeltser has received many awards, including the 2005 American Pain Society’s Jeffrey Lawson Award for Advocacy in Children’s Pain Relief, and her program was a 2009 recipient of the American Pain Society’s Clinical Centers of Excellence in Pain Management. She is president of the Special Interest Group on Pain in Childhood in the International Association for the Study of Pain and is on the board of directors of the American Pain Foundation. She also is chair of the American Cancer Society’s Palliative Care Study Section and is on the advisory board of the Mayday Fund, a pain education and research-focused foundation. Dr. Zeltser has more than 300 publications, including her book Conquering Your Child’s Chronic Pain: A Pediatrician’s Guide for Reclaiming a Normal Childhood (HarperCollins, 2005). Her nonprofit, Whole Child LA, is dedicated to bringing mind–body pain care to the community’s children (www.wholechildla.org).
Andrew Pope, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy in the IOM. He holds a Ph.D. in physiology and biochemistry from the University of Maryland and has been a member of the National Academies staff since 1982 and of the IOM staff since 1989. His primary interests are science policy, biomedical ethics, and environmental and occupational influences on human health. During his tenure at the National Academies, Dr. Pope has directed numerous studies on topics ranging from injury control, disability prevention, and biologic markers to the protection of human subjects of research, NIH priority-setting processes, organ procurement and transplantation policy, and the role of science and technology in countering terrorism. Dr. Pope is the recipient of the IOM’s Cecil Award and the National Academy of Sciences President’s Special Achievement Award.
Adrienne Stith Butler, Ph.D., is senior program officer in the IOM’s Board on Health Sciences Policy. Recently, she served as study director for the IOM reports The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health and A Review of the HHS Family Planning Program: Mission, Management, and Measurement of Results. Previously, Dr. Stith Butler served as study director for the IOM reports Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention and Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism: A Public Health Strategy. She also has served as a staff officer for IOM reports pertaining to diversity in the health care workforce and racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Prior to working at the IOM, Dr. Stith Butler served as James Marshall Public Policy Scholar, a fellow-
ship cosponsored by the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and the American Psychological Association. Dr. Stith Butler, a clinical psychologist, received a doctorate in 1997 from the University of Vermont. She completed postdoctoral fellowships in adolescent medicine and pediatric psychology at the University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York.
Jing Xi, M.B.B.S., M.P.H., is a research associate in the Board on Health Sciences Policy. Prior to joining the IOM, she was a research fellow in the FDA’s Division of Epidemiology, Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Her work at the FDA focused on a regulatory research project assessing publication bias for clinical trials of FDA-approved coronary artery stents. Ms. Xi holds an M.P.H. from the University of Michigan and an M.B.B.S. in clinical medicine from Fudan University Shanghai Medical College.
Thelma L. Cox is a senior program assistant in the Board on Health Sciences Policy. During her years at the IOM, she has also provided assistance to the Division of Health Care Services and the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Ms. Cox has worked on numerous IOM reports, including In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health-Care Workforce, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies. She has received the National Research Council’s Recognition Award and two IOM Staff Achievement Awards.