COMMITTEE FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S ORBITAL DEBRIS PROGRAMS
DONALD J. KESSLER, Chair, retired from NASA as a senior scientist for orbital debris research. He has more than 30 years of experience in scientific research associated with orbital debris, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust, especially in relation to developing mathematical models, deriving collision probabilities, using sampling techniques, and defining the space environment. Mr. Kessler was a consultant to NASA through Lockheed on orbital debris models and to Prairie View A&M University on orbital debris course development. He worked at NASA’s Johnson Space Center as a senior scientist for orbital debris research in the Solar System Exploration Division, where he coordinated NASA’s orbital debris research program. He also participated in national and international reviews of other agencies’ orbital debris programs and participated in establishing the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee, an international agency to address orbital debris issues. He also developed orbital debris models; recommended and developed experiments to test models; analyzed orbital debris data; conducted classes, workshops, and symposia on orbital debris; and recommended cost-effective techniques to control orbital debris. Mr. Kessler modeled interplanetary meteoroid environments, flight control of Skylab experiments, and atmospheric environments, and he developed early orbital debris models and began establishing the need for an orbital debris program. Mr. Kessler participated in U.S. Air Force (USAF) and Strategic Defense Command tests and measurements programs, as well as in studies on orbital debris by various organizations, such as the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, AIAA, the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), and the Government Accountability Office. Mr. Kessler has published approximately 100 technical articles or extended abstracts on meteoroids and orbital debris and is a contributing author or editor of 10 major reports. He was the managing editor for Space Debris, an international journal. He received the IAASS Jerome Lederer Space Safety Pioneer Award, the AIAA Losey Atmospheric Sciences Award in 2000, and the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. Mr. Kessler received his B.S. in physics from the University of Houston.
GEORGE J. GLEGHORN, Vice Chair, is an independent consultant who retired as vice president and chief engineer of TRW Space and Technology Group, now a part of Northrop Grumman. During his 37 years at TRW, he contributed to a wide range of distinguished spacecraft: Pioneer I, the first NASA spacecraft; Pioneer 5, which reported the first data received from interplanetary space; Intelsat III, the first satellite to broadcast live television worldwide; the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory; and NASA’s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite. He contributed to Pioneer 6, Pioneer 10, and Pioneer 11 and to the development of the Atlas, Thor, and Titan ballistic missiles. Prior to TRW, Dr. Gleghorn worked at Hughes Aircraft and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and he served as a naval officer in the Korean War. He is a member of the NAE, a fellow of AIAA, and a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He has also been a member of independent design and readiness review groups on the Hubble Space Telescope refurbishment mission, the Cassini/Huygens orbiter, the probe of Titan, and the Chandra X-Ray telescope spacecraft. Dr. Gleghorn holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Colorado and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering and mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. He was a member of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel for 10 years and the NRC National Weather Service Modernization Committee, the Committee on
Membership, the Aerospace Engineering Peer Committee, the Committee on International Space Station Meteoroid/Debris Risk Management, and the Committee on Space Debris.
KYLE T. ALFRIEND is the TEES Distinguished Research Chair and Professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University. His areas of research include astrodynamics, satellite altitude dynamics and control, space debris, space surveillance, and space systems engineering. Dr. Alfriend has received the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) International Scientific Cooperation Award, the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, and the American Astronautical Society Dirk Brouwer Award. He is a member of the NAE and a fellow of AIAA. Dr. Alfriend earned his M.S. in applied mechanics from Stanford University and his Ph.D. in engineering mechanics from Virginia Tech. He has served as a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and of the Committee on the Future of the U.S. Aerospace Infrastructure and Aerospace Engineering Disciplines to Meet the Needs of the Air Force and the Department of Defense.
MICHAEL J. BLOOMFIELD is vice president and general manager of space systems at Oceaneering Space Systems. Prior to joining Oceaneering, he was vice president for Houston operations at Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK). Mr. Bloomfield is a veteran astronaut of three space shuttle flights. Selected as a NASA astronaut in 1994, he served as pilot on STS-86 and STS-97 and as commander of STS-110. While at NASA he also held important management positions with the astronaut office, including chief instructor astronaut, chief of astronaut safety, and deputy director of flight crew operations. Additionally, Mr. Bloomfield was director of shuttle operations and chief of the shuttle branch. He also served as deputy director of the Flight Crew Operations Directorate before leaving NASA in 2007 to join ATK. Mr. Bloomfield received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy and his M.S. in engineering management from Old Dominion University.
PETER BROWN is a professor at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) and a member of the Western Meteor Physics Group. He studies small bodies of the solar system, with a particular emphasis on meteors, meteorites, meteoroids, and asteroids. His research interests include answering basic questions about the origin and evolution of small bodies in the solar system, such as the origin of meteoroids (comets/asteroids/interstellar and the proportions of each), the origin of meteorites, the physical structure of meteoroids (bulk density/dustballs and what this says about their origin), and the flux and interaction of larger meteoroids at Earth (meteorites, breakup in the atmosphere). Dr. Brown has received the UWO Governor General’s Gold Medal and the Plaskett Medal of the Canadian Astronomical Society and the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, is the Canada Research Chair in Meteor Science, and won an Ontario Distinguished Researcher Award. He earned his B.Sc. in honors physics from the University of Alberta and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in physics from the UWO.
RAMON L. CHASE is an associate at Booz Allen Hamilton. He has worked on three new concept efforts: the Fly back Booster System, the Point-to-Point Delivery System, and the Transatmospheric Vehicle. He is also the DARPA representative to the Joint NASA DARPA Horizontal Launch Initiative study advisory group. Previously, he was a principal and division manager at ANSER, where he participated in the development of a National Hypersonic Roadmap and an Air Force Integrated Space Architecture. He has served as a study leader at General Research Corporation and as a propulsion lead to the Jupiter Orbiter Planetary Spacecraft Preliminary Design Team at California Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Mr. Chase has written more than 30 technical papers on advanced space transportation systems, military space planes, single stage-to-orbit launch vehicles, orbital transfer vehicles, technology readiness assessment, and advanced propulsion systems. He is an AIAA associate fellow and has served on the AIAA Hypersonics Program Committee and the AIAA Space Transportation Technical Committee. He also chaired the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Hypersonic Committee and SAE Space Transportation Committee. Mr. Chase received an M.A. in public administration from the University of California.
SIGRID CLOSE is an assistant professor in the department of aeronautics and astronautics at Stanford University. Prior to joining Stanford, Dr. Close was a project leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a technical staff member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT’s) Lincoln Laboratory, where she led programs to characterize meteoroids and meteoroid plasma using high-power radars. She was also the lead space physicist for spacecraft monitoring and unplanned space surveillance events and was a project leader for characterizing and modeling ionospheric plasma instabilities. Dr. Close’s current research area is in space weather and satellite systems, which includes characterizing and mitigating environmental risks to spacecraft; detecting and characterizing interstellar dust; signal processing and monitoring using radio-frequency satellite systems; and plasma modeling for remote sensing. Her honors and awards include the Joe D. Marshall Award, given by the Air Force Technical Applications Center for Outstanding Technical Briefing, MIT Lincoln Scholar, and first place in the student paper competition at the International Union of Radio Science. She was the vice chair of Commission G of the International Union of Radio Science. Dr. Close received her Ph.D. in astronomy (space physics) from Boston University.
JOANNE IRENE GABRYNOWICZ is director of the National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law at the University of Mississippi; and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Space Law. Dr. Gabrynowicz teaches space law and remote sensing law and was a founding faculty member of the University of North Dakota Space Studies Department. She has served as the dean of the NASA Space Academy at Goddard Space Flight Center, as the managing attorney of a law firm, and as an official observer for the International Astronautical Federation to the United Nations’ Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. She was a member of the International Institute of Space Law delegation to the Unidroit Committee of Governmental Experts for the Preparation of a Draft Protocol to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment on Matters Specific to Space Assets. Dr. Gabrynowicz is the organizer and chair of the Federal Advisory Committee for the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive, and she served as a member of the OTA’s Earth Observations Advisory Panel and the Department of Commerce Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing. She advised the Eisenhower Institute on its study “The Future of Space—the Next Strategic Frontier.” She is a member of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing International Policy Advisory Committee, the American Bar Association, the Forum on Aviation and Space Law, the New York State Bar, the International Institute of Space Law, and Women in Aerospace, among other groups. Dr. Gabrynowicz received her B.A. from Hunter College and her J.D. from the Yeshiva University Cardozo School of Law.
ROGER E. KASPERSON is a research professor and distinguished scientist at Clark University. He also taught at the University of Connecticut and Michigan State University. He has written widely on issues connected with risk analysis, risk communication, global environmental change, risk and ethics, and environmental policy. Dr. Kasperson has been a consultant or advisor to numerous public and private agencies on energy and environmental issues and served on various committees of the NRC and the Council of the Society for Risk Analysis. He chaired the International Geographical Union Commission on Critical Situations/Regions in Environmental Change. He was vice president for Academic Affairs at Clark University and was elected director of the Stockholm Environment Institute. He served as co-chair of the scientific advisory committee of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Change and is on the Scientific Steering Committee of the START Programme of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Dr. Kasperson is a member of the NAS and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has been honored by the Association of American Geographers for his research on hazards and is a recipient of the Distinguished Achievement Award of the Society for Risk Analysis. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.
T.S. KELSO is currently a senior research astrodynamicist for the Center for Space Standards and
Innovation (CSSI) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. He has nearly 30 years of experience in space education, research, analysis, acquisition, development, operations, and consulting with organizations such as the Air Force Space Command Space Analysis Center; NASA’s Near-Earth Object Science Definition Team; the Air Force Chief of Staff’s SPACECAST 2020 and Air Force 2025 future studies; and the Air Force Satellite Control Network. Dr. Kelso has taught on the faculty at the Air War College; the Air Command and Staff College; the Airpower Research Institute; the College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education; and the Air Force Institute of Technology. He has supported the space surveillance community by operating electronic data dissemination systems to provide the North American Aerospace Defense Command two-line orbital element sets, associated orbital models, documentation, software, and educational materials to users around the world. Dr. Kelso received a B.S. in both physics and mathematics from the U.S. Air Force Academy, an M.B.A. in quantitative methods from the University of Missouri, Columbia, an M.S. in space operations from the Air Force Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (operations research) from the University of Texas, Austin.
MOLLY K. MACAULEY is a senior fellow and research director at Resources for the Future, where her research has included studies on economics and policy issues of outer space, the valuation of non-priced space resources, the design of incentive arrangements to improve the use of space resources, and the appropriate relationship between public and private endeavors in space research, development, and the commercial enterprise. Dr. Macauley has also served as a visiting professor in the Department of Economics at Johns Hopkins University. She was elected to the International Academy of Astronautics and was selected as a “Rising Star” by the National Space Society. She is on the board of trustees of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and on the board of directors of the American Astronautical Society and the Thomas Jefferson Public Policy Program of the College of William and Mary. She has testified frequently before Congress and serves on many national-level committees and panels. Dr. Macauley earned her B.A. in economics from the College of William and Mary and her M.S. and Ph.D. in economics from Johns Hopkins University. She is a member of the NRC’s Space Studies Board and has previously served on the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Needs, the Science Panel of the Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps, and the Committee on a Survey of the Scientific Use of the Radio Spectrum.
DARREN S. McKNIGHT is the technical director at Integrity Applications, Inc. (IAI). He is focused on space systems/environment analysis, sustainable energy modeling, innovation practices, visualization solutions, and data analytics. Before coming to IAI, Dr. McKnight served as senior vice president and director of science and technology strategy at Science Applications International Corporation and as chief scientist at Agilex Technologies. His responsibilities included technical collaboration corporate-wide, strategic technology investments (including independent research and development), and validating innovation methodologies. Dr. McKnight has served recently on the Defense Science Board Summer Study on 21st Century Strategic Technology Vectors, National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Industry Expert Panel on Industrial R&D, Harvard Business Review Advisory Council, National Knowledge and Intellectual Property Management Task Force, and IBM’s Global Innovation Outlook Team. He has coauthored two technical books, Artificial Space Debris and Chemical Principles Applied to Spacecraft Operations. Dr. McKnight received his bachelor’s degree from the U.S. Air Force Academy in engineering sciences, his master’s degree from the University of New Mexico in mechanical engineering, and his doctorate from the University of Colorado in aerospace engineering sciences.
WILLIAM P. SCHONBERG is a professor and chair of the civil, architectural, and environmental engineering department at Missouri University of Science and Technology. He has 25 years of teaching and research experience in shock physics, spacecraft protection, hypervelocity impact, and penetration mechanics. The results of his research have been applied to a wide variety of engineering problems, including the development of orbital debris protection systems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit, kinetic
energy weapons, the collapse of buildings under explosive loads, insensitive munitions, and aging aircraft. Dr. Schonberg has published more than 65 papers in referred journals and has presented nearly 65 papers at a broad spectrum of international scientific and professional meetings. He is a recipient of the AIAA Lawrence Sperry Award and of the Charles Sharpe Beecher Prize from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers, and is an AIAA associate fellow. He received his B.S.C.E. from Princeton University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Dr. Schonberg served on the NRC’s Committee on Space Shuttle Meteoroid/Debris Risk Management.
PAUL JACKSON, Study Director, is a program officer for the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). He joined the NRC in 2006 and was previously a media relations contact for the Office of News and Public Information. He is the study director for a number of ASEB’s projects, including proposal reviews for the state of Ohio and the Committee for the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs. Mr. Jackson earned a B.A. in philosophy from Michigan State University in 2002 and an M.P.A in policy analysis, economic development, and comparative international affairs from Indiana University in 2006.
JOHN F. WENDT joined the NRC as a part-time, off-site senior program officer for ASEB in 2002. His main activities have involved proposal evaluations for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the state of Ohio. He retired in 1999 as director of the von Karman Institute (VKI) for Fluid Dynamics. The VKI is a NATO-affiliated international postgraduate and research establishment located in a suburb of Brussels, Belgium. As director, Dr. Wendt’s main responsibility was to ensure the continued excellence of the institute’s teaching and research programs by providing effective leadership and administrative and financial management. Dr. Wendt’s career at the VKI began as a postdoctoral researcher in 1964. He served as head of the Aeronautics/Aerospace Department and dean of the faculty prior to becoming director in 1990. His research interests were rarefied gas dynamics, transonics, high angle of attack aerodynamics and hypersonic reentry including major inputs to the European Hermes space shuttle program in the 1980s. Dr. Wendt has served as a consultant to the U.S. Air Force, NATO, and the European Space Agency. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Aerospace. Dr. Wendt received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering and astronautical sciences from Northwestern University.
LEWIS B. GROSWALD, research associate, joined the Space Studies Board as the Autumn 2008 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern. Mr. Groswald is a graduate of George Washington University, where he received a master’s degree in international science and technology policy and a bachelor’s degree in international affairs, with a double concentration in conflict and security and Europe and Eurasia. Following his work with the National Space Society during his senior year as an undergraduate, Mr. Groswald decided to pursue a career in space policy, with a focus on educating the public on space issues and formulating policy.
CATHERINE A. GRUBER, editor, joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland.
ANDREA M. REBHOLZ joined the ASEB as a program associate in January 2009. She began her career at the National Academies in October 2005 as a senior program assistant for the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation. Before joining the Academies, she worked in
the communications department of a D.C.-based think tank. Ms. Rebholz graduated from George Mason University’s New Century College in 2003 with a B.A. in integrative studies–event management and has more than 9 years of experience in event planning.
DALAL NAJIB is the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow with the ASEB. Dr. Najib recently completed her Ph.D. in space physics at the University of Michigan (AOSS department) on modeling the interaction of non-magnetized planets (Mars, Venus) with the solar wind, working with Dr. Andrew F. Nagy. During her doctoral work, she developed a new three-dimensional multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model and applied it to Mars and Venus. In parallel, she also completed a master’s of public policy from the Gerald Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan with a focus on science and technology policy. Dr. Najib received her undergraduate degree in aerospace and aeronautical engineering from Supaero (Toulouse, France). She is interested in space policy, general science and innovation policy, and efforts to promote cooperation between international science communities.
MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board at the NRC. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in April 2010, he was associate director of the BPA and study director for the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In addition to his professional experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years of experience as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government and served in that capacity at the Embassy of Ireland in Washington, D.C., the Mission of Ireland to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin, Ireland. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his graduate Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.