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Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water (2011)

Chapter: Appendix A Committee Biographical Information

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Committee Biographical Information." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13184.
Page 141
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Committee Biographical Information." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13184.
Page 142
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Committee Biographical Information." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13184.
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A Committee Biographical Information." National Research Council. 2011. Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13184.
Page 144

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Appendix A    Committee Biographical Information  JAMES T. CARLTON, Chair, is a professor of Marine Sciences at Williams Col- lege. He has directed the Williams College/Mystic Seaport Program since 1989 and also teaches marine ecology. He holds a B.A. in paleontology from the University of California, Berkeley, a Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis, and he was a postdoctoral scholar at the Woods Hole Oceano- graphic Institution. His research is on global marine bioinvasions (their ecosys- tem impacts, dispersal mechanisms, and management strategies) and on marine extinctions in modern times. He was the first scientist to receive the federal government’s Interagency Recognition Award for his national and international work to reduce the impacts of nonindigenous invasions in the sea. Dr. Carlton has served on two NRC committees including the 1996 Committee on Ships’ Ballast Operations, which produced Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introduc- tions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships’ Ballast Water, and he was co-chair of the Marine Biodiversity Committee, which produced Understanding Marine Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for the Nation. GREGORY M. RUIZ, Vice-Chair, is a marine ecologist and senior scientist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. He is one of the world’s foremost experts on invasion biology in coastal marine ecosystems. He directs the Na- tional Ballast Information Clearinghouse, the principal aims of which are to quantify the amounts and origins of ballast water discharged in U.S. coastal sys- tems and to determine the likelihood of ballast-mediated invasions by nonindi- genous species. Dr. Ruiz also studies the biology, ecology, and patterns of transfer mechanisms (vectors) that deliver species beyond their geographic range; the biological and ecological attributes of species in their non-native range; and global patterns of biological invasions and factors that control ob- served distributions. He has been involved in numerous national and interna- tional working groups dealing with nonnative species invasions, including the   141 

142    Appendix A    Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the EPA’s Chesapeake Bay Program and the Global Invasive Species Program. Dr. Ruiz received his B.A. in aquatic biology from University of California, Santa Barbara, and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley. JAMES E. BYERS is an associate professor in the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia. He was previously a professor at the University of New Hampshire, and he has been a visiting scholar at the University of Wollongong and the University of Technology Sydney, both in Australia. Dr. Byers studies species interactions in nearshore, estuarine, and marsh environments, focusing on quantitatively measuring the impacts of nonindigenous species on native bi- ota in invaded communities. He has developed quantitative tools to better un- derstand how and when invading species will impact native systems and to help predict outcomes of future invasions. He has recently begun working on the spread of invasions in advective environments. He received his B.S. in zoology from Duke University and his Ph.D. in ecology from the University of Califor- nia, Santa Barbara. ALLEGRA CANGELOSI is the director of Environmental Projects for the North- east-Midwest Institute. She has been engaged in policy, technological, and scientific aspects of ship-mediated invasive species introductions for two dec- ades, including activities at the state, regional, federal, and international levels. In the 1990s, she directly assisted in fashioning and gaining enactment of the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act and its amend- ments. From 1996 to 2002, Ms. Cangelosi participated in the U.S. delegation to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a technical advisor for the Ballast Water Working Group. During the same period, she led a multidiscipli- nary team in undertaking ballast treatment performance assessments in operating ship and shore-based contexts, including performance evaluations with respect to zooplankton, phytoplankton, and microbial organisms. Most recently she has developed harbor and ship discharge monitoring methods for detecting species risks, as well as ballast treatment verification in fresh water environments, both via the Great Ships Initiative. She received her B.A. in biology from Kalamazoo College and her M.S. in resource economics from Michigan State University. FRED C. DOBBS is a professor and the Graduate Program Director in the De- partment of Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Old Dominion Universi- ty. He received his A.B. in biology from Franklin and Marshall College, his M.S. in zoology from University of Connecticut, and his Ph.D. in oceanography from Florida State University. His current research addresses several areas in aquatic microbial ecology. In the context of ballast water quality standards, he is known for his interests in the abundance, population dynamics, and survival of microorganisms, including potential pathogens, in ballast tanks. In addition, he has considered the fate of microorganisms discharged into harbor waters and their potential for subsequent growth and establishment. Dr. Dobbs was a char-

Appendix A  143    ter member and continues to serve on the EPA/ Environmental Technology Ve- rification Ballast Water Technology Panel that considers design and testing of shore-based ballast water treatment systems. He also sits on the Advisory Panel of the Marine Invasive Species Program, California State Lands Commission, and is an Advisory Board Member of the Maritime Environmental Resource Center, University of Maryland. EDWIN D. GROSHOLZ is a professor and the Alexander and Elizabeth Swantz Specialist in Cooperative Extension at the University of California, Davis. His work focuses on understanding the impacts of introduced species in coastal eco- systems and the relative importance of vectors such as ballast water in their es- tablishment. He also studies the consequences of introduced parasites and dis- eases in marine and estuarine systems. His involvement with invasive species and ballast water management includes being co-chair of the Coastal Committee for the Western Regional Panel of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a member of the Southern California Caulerpa Action Team, co-author of the fed- eral management plan for the European Green Crab, and co-author of the Cali- fornia Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan. He co-authored the Pacific State Marine Fisheries Commission workshop proceedings on Alternate Ballast Water Exchange Areas and developed a comprehensive invasive species data- base for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region that focuses on the origin and like- lihood ballast water transport. Dr. Grosholz manages an active outreach and education program focused on preventing invasions of aquatic ecosystems. He received his B.A. in biology from Brown University and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of California at Berkeley. BRIAN LEUNG is an assistant professor in the Biology Department at the McGill School of the Environment. The broad underlying theme of his research is the application of ecology to important environmental issues, merging mathemati- cal, computational, and statistical modeling techniques with empirical informa- tion. He is currently focusing on invasive species, forecasting when and where biological invasions will occur, what effect they will have, and determining what should be done about them. He uses tools such as bioeconomics, computa- tional biology, and risk assessment as vehicles for decision-making. His re- search interests also include infectious diseases. From 2001-2002, he was the coordinator of the NSF Biocomplexity Interdisciplinary Project, which eva- luated biological and economic risks posed to Great Lakes ecosystems by invad- ing species. He received his B.Sc. in biology from the University of British Co- lumbia, Vancouver, and his Ph.D. in biology from Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. HUGH J. MACISAAC is a professor and the Invasive Species Research Chair in the Department of Fisheries and Oceans at the Great Lakes Institute for Envi- ronmental Research, University of Windsor. He is also the director of the Cana- dian Aquatic Invasive Species Network, a consortium of 34 professors from

144    Appendix A    across Canada who study aquatic invasive species in a systematic manner. Dr. MacIsaac received his M.Sc. from the University of Toronto and his Ph.D. from Dartmouth College. His research has focused on vectors of invasion in freshwa- ter systems, most notably shipping. He is interested in hull fouling as a mechan- ism of non-native species introduction, ballast water treatment, invasion theory, and the genetic structure of invading species. He has conducted ballast water and hull fouling studies on the Great Lakes, in Halifax, and in Vancouver, and is presently initiating similar work in the Arctic. Dr. MacIsaac was a member of both NRC committees on the St. Lawrence Seaway: Options to Eliminate Intro- duction of Nonindigenous Species into the Great Lakes. MARJORIE J. WONHAM is a professor of Life Sciences at Quest University Canada. Her invasion research has included empirical and mathematical ap- proaches to studying ballast water transport, marine invasion success and im- pacts, and epidemiological invasion dynamics. She has contributed to both na- tional and international invasion biology working groups, including the National Biological Invasions Shipping Study, Impacts of Invasive Species: Toward a Theoretical Framework, the Canadian Aquatic Invasive Species Network, and the Integrated Systems for Invasive Species project. Dr. Wonham also teaches summer courses in invertebrate zoology, conservation biology, and science communciation at Friday Harbor Laboratories, Bamfield Marine Sciences Cen- tre, and the Wrigley Marine Science Center. She holds a B.A. in Natural Sciences from Cambridge University and a Ph.D. in zoology from the Universi- ty of Washington. LAURA J. EHLERS is a senior staff officer for the Water Science and Technolo- gy Board of the National Research Council. Since joining the NRC in 1997, she has served as the study director for fifteen committees, including the Committee to Review the New York City Watershed Management Strategy, the Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediment, the Committee on Assessment of Water Resources Research, and the Committee on Reducing Stormwater Discharge Contributions to Water Pollution. Ehlers has periodically consulted for EPA’s Office of Research Development regarding their water quality research programs. She received her B.S. from the California Institute of Technology, majoring in biology and engineering and applied science. She earned both an M.S.E. and a Ph.D. in environmental engineering at the Johns Hopkins University. ELLEN DE GUZMAN is a senior program associate for the Water Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council. In addition to working on study projects, she manages the Board’s websites and coedits its biennial report. She received her B.A. from the University of the Philippines and her M.A. in international development from American University.

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The human-mediated introduction of species to regions of the world they could never reach by natural means has had great impacts on the environment, the economy, and society. In the ocean, these invasions have long been mediated by the uptake and subsequent release of ballast water in ocean-going vessels. Increasing world trade and a concomitantly growing global shipping fleet composed of larger and faster vessels, combined with a series of prominent ballast-mediated invasions over the past two decades, have prompted active national and international interest in ballast water management.

Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water informs the regulation of ballast water by helping the Environnmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) better understand the relationship between the concentration of living organisms in ballast water discharges and the probability of nonindigenous organisms successfully establishing populations in U.S. waters. The report evaluates the risk-release relationship in the context of differing environmental and ecological conditions,including estuarine and freshwater systems as well as the waters of the three-mile territorial sea. It recommends how various approaches can be used by regulatory agencies to best inform risk management decisions on the allowable concentrations of living organisms in discharged ballast water in order to safeguard against the establishment of new aquatic nonindigenous species, and to protect and preserve existing indigenous populations of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and other beneficial uses of the nation's waters.

Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water provides valuable information that can be used by federal agencies, such as the EPA, policy makers, environmental scientists, and researchers.

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