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An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps (2011)

Chapter: Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
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C
Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure

The revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS) that appears below reflects all of the changes described in Chapter 3 and Table 3.1. The names of level 3 technologies that have been added, moved, or renamed relative to technologies as they appear in the roadmaps appear in bold. To avoid confusion, technologies that have not been changed have the same numerical designation in both the steering committee’s revised TABS and the TABS generated by NASA. As a result, the numbering scheme for the level 3 technologies is discontinuous where technologies have been deleted or moved.

TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems

1.1    Solid Rocket Propulsion Systems

1.1.1    Propellants

1.1.2    Case Materials

1.1.3    Nozzle Systems

1.1.4    Hybrid Rocket Propulsion Systems

1.1.5    Fundamental Solid Propulsion Technologies

1.2    Liquid Rocket Propulsion Systems

1.2.1    LH2/LOX Based

1.2.2    RP/LOX Based

1.2.3    CH4/LOX Based

1.2.4    Detonation Wave Engines (Closed Cycle)

1.2.5    Propellants

1.2.6    Fundamental Liquid Propulsion Technologies

1.3    Air Breathing Propulsion Systems

1.3.1    TBCC

1.3.2    RBCC

1.3.3    Detonation Wave Engines (Open Cycle)

1.3.4    Turbine Based Jet Engines (Flyback Boosters)

1.3.5    Ramjet/Scramjet Engines (Accelerators)

1.3.6    Deeply-cooled Air Cycles

1.3.7    Air Collection and Enrichment System

1.3.8    Fundamental Air Breathing Propulsion Technologies

1.4    Ancillary Propulsion Systems

1.4.1    Auxiliary Control Systems

1.4.2    Main Propulsion Systems (Excluding Engines)

1.4.3    Launch Abort Systems

1.4.4    Thrust Vector Control Systems

1.4.5    Health Management and Sensors

1.4.6    Pyro and Separation Systems

1.4.7    Fundamental Ancillary Propulsion Technologies

1.5    Unconventional / Other Propulsion Systems

1.5.1    Ground Launch Assist

1.5.2    Air Launch / Drop Systems

1.5.3    Space Tether Assist

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

1.5.4    Beamed Energy / Energy Addition

1.5.5    Nuclear

1.5.6    High Energy Density Materials/Propellants

TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies

2.1    Chemical Propulsion

2.1.1    Liquid Storable

2.1.2    Liquid Cryogenic

2.1.3    Gels

2.1.4    Solid

2.1.5    Hybrid

2.1.6    Cold Gas/Warm Gas

2.1.7    Micro-propulsion

2.2    Non-Chemical Propulsion

2.2.1    Electric Propulsion

2.2.2    Solar Sail Propulsion

2.2.3    Thermal Propulsion

2.2.4    Tether Propulsion

2.3    Advanced (TRL <3) Propulsion Technologies

2.3.1    Beamed Energy Propulsion

2.3.2    Electric Sail Propulsion

2.3.3    Fusion Propulsion

2.3.4    High Energy Density Materials

2.3.5    Antimatter Propulsion

2.3.6    Advanced Fission

2.3.7    Breakthrough Propulsion

2.4    Supporting Technologies

2.4.2    Propellant Storage and Transfer

TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage

3.1    Power Generation

3.1.1    Energy Harvesting

3.1.2    Chemical (Fuel Cells, Heat Engines)

3.1.3    Solar (Photo-Voltaic and Thermal)

3.1.4    Radioisotope

3.1.5    Fission

3.1.6    Fusion

3.2    Energy Storage

3.2.1    Batteries

3.2.2    Flywheels

3.2.3    Regenerative Fuel Cells

3.2.4    Electric and Magnetic Field Storage

3.2.5    Thermal Storage

3.3    Power Management and Distribution

3.3.1    Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR)

3.3.2    Management and Control

3.3.3    Distribution and Transmission

3.3.4    Wireless Power Transmission

3.3.5    [Power] Conversion and Regulation

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

3.4    Cross-Cutting Technology

3.4.1    Analytical Tools

3.4.2    Green Energy Impact

3.4.3    Multi-functional Structures

3.4.4    Alternative Fuels

TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous (RTA) Systems

4.1    Sensing and Perception

4.1.1    Vision

4.1.2    Tactile Sensing

4.1.3    Natural Feature Image Recognition

4.1.4    Localization and Mapping

4.1.5    Pose Estimation

4.1.6    Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

4.1.7    Mobile Feature Tracking and Discrimination

4.1.8    Terrain Classification and Characterization

4.2    Mobility

4.2.1    Extreme Terrain Mobility

4.2.2    Below-Surface Mobility

4.2.3    Above-Surface Mobility

4.2.4    Small Body/Microgravity Mobility

4.3    Manipulation

4.3.1    Robot Arms

4.3.2    Dexterous Manipulators

4.3.3    Modeling of Contact Dynamics

4.3.4    Mobile Manipulation

4.3.5    Collaborative Manipulation

4.3.6    Robotic Drilling and Sample Processing

4.4    Human-Systems Integration

4.4.1    Multi-Modal Human-Systems Interaction

4.4.2    Supervisory Control

4.4.3    Robot-to-Suit Interfaces

4.4.4    Intent Recognition and Reaction

4.4.5    Distributed Collaboration

4.4.6    Common Human-Systems Interfaces

4.4.7    Safety, Trust, and Interfacing of Robotic/Human Proximity Operations

4.5    Autonomy

4.5.1    Vehicle System Management and FDIR

4.5.2    Dynamic Planning and Sequencing Tools

4.5.3    Autonomous Guidance and Control

4.5.4    Multi-Agent Coordination

4.5.5    Adjustable Autonomy

4.5.6    Terrain Relative Navigation

4.5.7    Path and Motion Planning with Uncertainty

4.6    Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking

4.6.1    Relative Navigation Sensors (long, mid, and near range)

4.6.2    Relative Guidance Algorithms

4.6.3    Docking and Capture Mechanisms/Interfaces

4.7    RTA Systems Engineering

4.7.1    Modularity / Commonality

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

4.7.2    Verification and Validation of Complex Adaptive Systems

4.7.3    Onboard Computing

TA05 Communication and Navigation

5.1    Optical Comm. and Navigation

5.1.1    Detector Development

5.1.2    Large Apertures

5.1.3    Lasers

5.1.4    Acquisition and Tracking

5.1.5    Atmospheric Mitigation

5.2    Radio Frequency Communications

5.2.1    Spectrum Efficient Technologies

5.2.2    Power Efficient Technologies

5.2.3    Propagation

5.2.4    Flight and Ground Systems

5.2.5    Earth Launch and Reentry Comm.

5.2.6    Antennas

5.3    Internetworking

5.3.1    Disruptive Tolerant Networking

5.3.2    Adaptive Network Topology

5.3.3    Information Assurance

5.3.4    Integrated Network Management

5.4    Position, Navigation, and Timing

5.4.1    Timekeeping and Time Distribution

5.4.3    Onboard Auto Navigation and Maneuver

5.4.4    Sensors and Vision Processing Systems

5.4.5    Relative and Proximity Navigation

5.4.6    Auto Precision Formation Flying

5.4.7    Auto Approach and Landing

5.5    Integrated Technologies

5.5.1    Radio Systems

5.5.2    Ultra Wideband

5.5.3    Cognitive Networks

5.5.4    Science from the Comm. System

5.5.5    Hybrid Optical Comm. and Nav. Sensors

5.5.6    RF/Optical Hybrid Technology

5.6    Revolutionary Concepts

5.6.1    X-Ray Navigation

5.6.2    X-Ray Communications

5.6.3    Neutrino-Based Navigation and Tracking

5.6.4    Quantum Key Distribution

5.6.5    Quantum Communications

5.6.6    SQIF Microwave Amplifier

5.6.7    Reconfigurable Large Apertures Using Nanosat Constellations

TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems

6.1    Environmental Control, Life Support Systems, and Habitation Systems

6.1.1    Air Revitalization

6.1.2    Water Recovery and Management

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

6.1.3    Waste Management

6.1.4    Habitation

6.2    Extravehicular Activity Systems

6.2.1    Pressure Garment

6.2.2    Portable Life Support System

6.2.3    Power, Avionics and Software

6.3    Human Health and Performance

6.3.1    Medical Diagnosis / Prognosis

6.3.2    Long-Duration Health

6.3.3    Behavioral Health and Performance

6.3.4    Human Factors and Performance

6.4    Environmental Monitoring, Safety, and Emergency Response

6.4.1    Sensors: Air, Water, Microbial, etc.

6.4.2    Fire: Detection, Suppression

6.4.3    Protective Clothing / Breathing

6.4.4    Remediation

6.5    Radiation

6.5.1    Risk Assessment Modeling

6.5.2    Radiation Mitigation

6.5.3    Protection Systems

6.5.4    Radiation Prediction

6.5.5    Monitoring Technology

TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems

7.1    In Situ Resource Utilization

7.1.1    Destination Reconnaissance, Prospecting, and Mapping

7.1.2    Resource Acquisition

7.1.3    ISRU Products/Production

7.1.4    Manufacturing and Infrastructure Emplacement

7.2    Sustainability and Supportability

7.2.1    Autonomous Logistics Management

7.2.2    Maintenance Systems

7.2.3    Repair Systems

7.2.4    Food Production, Processing and Preservation

7.3    Advanced Human Mobility Systems

7.3.1    EVA Mobility

7.3.2    Surface Mobility

7.3.3    Off-Surface Mobility

7.4    Advanced Habitat Systems

7.4.1    Integrated Habitat Systems

7.4.2    Habitat Evolution

7.4.3    Smart Habitats

7.5    Mission Operations and Safety

7.5.1    Crew Training

7.5.5    Integrated Flight Operations Systems

7.5.6    Integrated Risk Assessment Tools

7.6    Cross-Cutting Systems

7.6.2    Construction and Assembly

7.6.3    Dust Prevention and Mitigation

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems

8.1    Remote Sensing Instruments / Sensors

8.1.1    Detectors and Focal Planes

8.1.2    Electronics

8.1.3    Optical Systems

8.1.4    Microwave / Radio

8.1.5    Lasers

8.1.6    Cryogenic / Thermal

8.1.7    Space Atomic Interferometry

8.2    Observatories

8.2.2    Structures and Antennas

8.2.3    Distributed Aperture

8.2.4    High Contrast Imaging and Spectroscopy Technologies

8.2.5    Wireless Spacecraft Technologies

8.3    In Situ Instruments / Sensor

8.3.1    Particles, Fields, and Waves: Charged and Neutral Particles, Magnetic and Electric Fields

8.3.3    In Situ

8.3.4    Surface Biology and Chemistry Sensors: Sensors to Detect and Analyze Biotic and Prebiotic Substances

TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems

9.1    Aeroassist and Atmospheric Entry

9.1.1    Rigid Thermal Protection Systems

9.1.2    Flexible Thermal Protection Systems

9.1.3    Rigid Hypersonic Decelerators

9.1.4    Deployable Hypersonic Decelerators

9.2    Descent

9.2.1    Attached Deployable Decelerators

9.2.2    Trailing Deployable Decelerators

9.2.3    Supersonic Retropropulsion

9.3    Landing

9.3.1    Touchdown Systems

9.3.2    Egress and Deployment Systems

9.3.3    Propulsion Systems

9.3.5    Small Body Systems

9.4    Vehicle Systems Technology

9.4.2    Separation Systems

9.4.3    System Integration and Analyses

9.4.4    Atmosphere and Surface Characterization

9.4.5    EDL Modeling and Simulation

9.4.6    Instrumentation and Health Monitoring

9.4.7    GN&C Sensors and Systems

TA10 Nanotechnology

10.1  Engineered Materials and Structures

10.1.1  Lightweight Materials and Structures

10.1.2  Damage Tolerant Systems

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

10.1.3  Coatings

10.1.4  Adhesives

10.1.5  Thermal Protection and Control

10.2  Energy Generation and Storage

10.2.1  Energy Generation

10.2.2  Energy Storage

10.2.3  Energy Distribution

10.3  Propulsion

10.3.1  Nanopropellants

10.3.2  Propulsion Systems

10.3.3  In-Space Propulsion

10.4  Sensors, Electronics, and Devices

10.4.1  Sensors and Actuators

10.4.2  Electronics

10.4.3  Miniature Instrumentation

TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, and Processing

11.1  Computing

11.1.1  Flight Computing

11.1.2  Ground Computing

11.2  Modeling

11.2.1  Software Modeling and Model-Checking

11.2.2  Integrated Hardware and Software Modeling

11.2.3  Human-System Performance Modeling

11.2.4a Science Modeling and Simulation

11.2.4b Aerospace Engineering Modeling and Simulation

11.2.5  Frameworks, Languages, Tools, and Standards

11.3  Simulation

11.3.1  Distributed Simulation

11.3.2  Integrated System Lifecycle Simulation

11.3.3  Simulation-Based Systems Engineering

11.3.4  Simulation-Based Training and Decision Support Systems

11.4  Information Processing

11.4.1  Science, Engineering, and Mission Data Lifecycle

11.4.2  Intelligent Data Understanding

11.4.3  Semantic Technologies

11.4.4  Collaborative Science and Engineering

11.4.5  Advanced Mission Systems

TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing

12.1  Materials

12.1.1  Lightweight Structure

12.1.2  Computational Design

12.1.3  Flexible Material Systems

12.1.4  Environment

12.1.5  Special Materials

12.2  Structures

12.2.1  Lightweight Concepts

12.2.2  Design and Certification Methods

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

12.2.3  Reliability and Sustainment

12.2.4  Test Tools and Methods

12.2.5  Innovative, Multifunctional Concepts

12.3  Mechanical Systems

12.3.1  Deployables, Docking and Interfaces

12.3.2  Mechanism Life Extension Systems

12.3.3  Electro-mechanical, Mechanical, and Micromechanisms

12.3.4  Design and Analysis Tools and Methods

12.3.5  Reliability / Life Assessment / Health Monitoring

12.3.6  Certification Methods

12.4  Manufacturing

12.4.1  Manufacturing Processes

12.4.2  Intelligent Integrated Manufacturing and Cyber Physical Systems

12.4.3  Electronics and Optics Manufacturing Process

12.4.4  Sustainable Manufacturing

12.5  Cross-Cutting

12.5.1  Nondestructive Evaluation and Sensors

12.5.2  Model-Based Certification and Sustainment Methods

12.5.3  Loads and Environments

TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing

13.1  Technologies to Optimize the Operational Life-Cycle

13.1.1  Storage, Distribution, and Conservation of Fluids

13.1.2  Automated Alignment, Coupling, and Assembly Systems

13.1.3  Autonomous Command and Control for Ground and Integrated Vehicle/Ground Systems

13.2  Environmental and Green Technologies

13.2.1  Corrosion Prevention, Detection, and Mitigation

13.2.2  Environmental Remediation and Site Restoration

13.2.3  Preservation of Natural Ecosystems

13.2.4  Alternate Energy Prototypes

13.3  Technologies to Increase Reliability and Mission Availability

13.3.1  Advanced Launch Technologies

13.3.2  Environment-Hardened Materials and Structures

13.3.3  Inspection, Anomaly Detection, and Identification

13.3.4  Fault Isolation and Diagnostics

13.3.5  Prognostics Technologies

13.3.6  Repair, Mitigation, and Recovery Technologies

13.3.7  Communications, Networking, Timing, and Telemetry

13.4  Technologies to Improve Mission Safety/Mission Risk

13.4.1  Range Tracking, Surveillance, and Flight Safety Technologies

13.4.2  Landing and Recovery Systems and Components

13.4.3  Weather Prediction and Mitigation

13.4.4  Robotics / TeleRobotics

13.4.5  Safety Systems

TA14 Thermal Management Systems

14.1  Cryogenic Systems

14.1.1  Passive Thermal Control

14.1.2  Active Thermal Control

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×

14.1.3  Systems Integration

14.2  Thermal Control Systems

14.2.1  Heat Acquisition

14.2.2  Heat Transfer

14.2.3  Heat Rejection and Energy Storage

14.3  Thermal Protection Systems

14.3.1  Ascent / Entry TPS

14.3.2  Plume Shielding (Convective and Radiative)

14.3.3  Sensor Systems and Measurement Technologies

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Revised Technology Area Breakdown Structure." National Research Council. 2011. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13228.
×
Page 47
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An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps Get This Book
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For the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to achieve many of its space science and exploration goals over the next several decades, dramatic advances in space technology will be necessary. NASA has developed a set of 14 draft roadmaps to guide the development of such technologies under the leadership of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Each roadmap focuses on a particular technology area.

OCT requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to review the draft roadmaps, gather and assess relevant community input, and make recommendations and suggest priorities to inform NASA's decisions as it finalizes its roadmaps. The success of OCT's technology development program is essential, because technological breakthroughs have long been the foundation of NASA's successes, from its earliest days, to the Apollo program, to a vast array of space science missions and the International Space Station.

An Interim Report of NASA's Technology Roadmap identifies some gaps in the technologies included in the individual roadmaps. The report suggests that the effectiveness of the NASA space technology program can be enhanced by employing proven management practices and principles including increasing program stability, addressing facility issues, and supporting adequate flight tests of new technologies. This interim report provides several additional observations that will be expanded on in the final report to be released in 2012.

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