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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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Scientific
Ocean Drilling

ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CHALLENGES

Committee on the Review of the Scientific Accomplishments and Assessment of the Potential for
Future Transformative Discoveries with U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling
Ocean Studies Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Of THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported the National Science Foundation under grant number 1010773. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21901-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21901-9

Cover: Images of the JOIDES Resolution (front) and Chikyu (back left) are courtesy of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). Image of the L/B Kayd (back right) is courtesy of the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling, photograph by C. Cotterill. Global map of drill holes provided by Katerina Petronotis (IODP-U.S. Implementing Organization). Photos of cores provided by Rob McKay, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (front) and IODP (back).

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FUTURE TRANSFORMATIVE DISCOVERIES WITH U.S.-SUPPORTED SCIENTIFIC OCEAN DRILLING

ROBERT A. DUCE (Co-chair), Texas A&M University, College Station

ARTHUR GOLDSTEIN (Co-chair), Bridgewater State University, Massachusetts

SUBIR K. BANERJEE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

WILLIAM B. CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

MAGNUS FRIBERG, Swedish Research Council, Stockholm

JULIE A. HUBER, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

MICHAEL E. JACKSON, Trimble Navigation, Westminister, Colorado

KEITH K. MILLHEIM, Strategic Worldwide LLC, The Woodlands, Texas

SAMUEL MUKASA, University of New Hampshire, Durham

TIMOTHY NAISH, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

PAUL E. OLSEN, Columbia University, Palisades, New York

LORI L. SUMMA, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas

ANNE M. TRÉHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis

Staff

DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer

ELIZABETH EIDE, Senior Program Officer

JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant (until July 2011)

LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant (from August 2011)

IAN BROSNAN, Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow (Winter 2010)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD

DONALD F. BOESCH (Chair), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge

EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California

JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez

KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau

JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington, Seattle

ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and Princeton University, New Jersey

DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina

ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis

KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, DC

BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California

GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California

JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (retired), Port Angeles, Washington

ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia

DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

ANNE M. TRÉHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis

PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon

DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University, Corvallis

JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts

OSB Staff

SUSAN ROBERTS, Director

DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer

CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer

KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer

SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer

PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator

LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant

GRAIG MANSFIELD, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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Preface

Scientific ocean drilling has been at the forefront of Earth science since it was first envisioned in the late 1950s. During the intervening 50 plus years, probably the most productive period in the history of studying Earth, we have seen remarkable progress in understanding the Earth system. New theories emerged that include the discovery of plate tectonics, elucidation of global climate, the discovery of submarine hot springs and the vent biological communities they support, and the even more remarkable realization that there is an extensive subseafloor biota that may well inhabit all of the world’s oceanic sediments and much of the crystalline crust. The ability to retrieve drill cores from the ocean basins on a regular basis has been absolutely integral to all of these endeavors. Beginning in the late 1960s this work has been conducted in a highly organized, coordinated way via a variety of programs that grew increasingly complex and more international with time. Three different drillships have been commissioned expressly for scientific study of the oceans, and two are still in operation. The community has self-organized in such a way as to advance the most significant drilling projects, which stands as one of the most successful coordination efforts between an international scientific community and national funding agencies.

Our committee’s report looks backward at significant scientific accomplishments enabled by scientific ocean drilling and also looks forward to the next phase of scientific ocean drilling. Those two foci comprise the two main parts of the report. In the first part (Chapters 1-5) we discuss the scientific accomplishments that have resulted from the first three scientific ocean drilling projects, the Deep Sea Drilling Project, the Ocean Drilling Program, and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, which span from 1968 to the present. This committee task was both challenging and rewarding because some of the most exciting science of the times resulted from these programs. In the second part of the report (Chapter 6), we examine the plans for future drilling, which was also stimulating because the potential for future accomplishments is significant.

The committee and its Co-chairs thank the Ocean Studies Board staff for their excellent support throughout committee deliberations. In particular we thank Dr. Deborah Glickson, Senior Program Officer, for her outstanding scientific insights, her willingness to put in long hours at any time of the day or night, her constant availability for discussions, her patience with a group of widely divergent personalities from around the world, and her constant good humor and positive attitude. We could not have asked for a better partner throughout this more than year-long effort. We thank Dr. Susan Roberts, Director of the Ocean Studies Board, for her leadership and insights. We also sincerely appreciate the valuable assistance and wise advice given to us on many occasions during our meetings and during the preparation of this report by Dr. Elizabeth Eide, Senior Program Officer with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. Mr. Jeremy Justice handled all of our logistical arrangements promptly and expertly and seemed to anticipate our many needs even before we did. One of us particularly appreciated his ability to find Dr. Pepper wherever our meetings took place.

During the committee deliberations we held several conference calls and participated in five meetings at various locations. These meeting were as follows: Washington, DC (June 21-23, 2010); College Station, Texas (July 24-28, 2010); Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (September 6-10, 2010); Denver, Colorado (October 28-30, 2010); Boston, Massachusetts (June 14-15, 2011).

Robert Duce, Committee Co-chair
Arthur Goldstein, Committee Co-chair

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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Acknowledgments

This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of the individuals who made presentations during committee meetings: Keir Becker (University of Miami), Michael Bickle (University of Cambridge), Robert DeConto (University of Massachusetts, Amherst), David Divins, Robert Gagosian, and Charna Meth (Consortium for Ocean Leadership), David Feary (National Research Council), and Christina Ravelo (University of California, Santa Cruz).

The committee is also grateful to the individuals who made presentations and provided white papers for the work-shop: Keir Becker (University of Miami), Jim Channell (University of Florida), Hans Christian Larsen (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.), Millard Coffin (National Oceanography Centre), Henry Dick (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Robert Duncan (Oregon State University), Katrina Edwards (University of Southern California), Susan Humphris (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Dennis Kent (Rutgers University), Jerry McManus (Columbia University), Kenneth Miller (Rutgers University), Casey Moore (University of California, Santa Cruz), Theodore Moore (University of Michigan), Dick Norris (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Carolyn Ruppel (U.S. Geological Survey), Dale Sawyer (Rice University), Doug Wilson (University of California, Santa Barbara), and James Zachos (University of California, Santa Cruz).

The committee also thanks Bradford Clement and Mitch Malone (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program-U.S. Implementing Organization) for providing background data on the previous and current scientific ocean drilling programs and for hosting the committee at the Texas A&M Gulf Coast Core Facility; Jeffrey R. Seemann, Vice-President for Research, and Kate C. Miller, Dean of the College of Geosciences (Texas A&M University) for hosting a reception for the committee and workshop guests; Katerina Petronotis (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program-U.S. Implementing Organization), for providing maps for this report; and Kristin Ludwig (formerly of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership) for facilitating continuous coordination between the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and the committee and for arranging the committee’s tour of the JOIDES Resolution.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report:

KEIR BECKER, University of Miami, Florida

EDWARD BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

BARRY JAY KATZ, Chevron Energy Technology Group, Houston, Texas

PETER KELEMAN, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York

JOSEPH MEERT, University of Florida, Gainesville

ELDRIDGE MOORES, University of California, Davis

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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KEN NEALSON, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

HEDI OBERHÄNSLI, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany

ANDREW ROBERTS, Australian National University, Canberra

WILLIAM RUDDIMAN, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

DAVID SCHOLL, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Andrew R. Solow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2011. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13232.
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Through direct exploration of the subseafloor, U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling programs have significantly contributed to a broad range of scientific accomplishments in Earth science disciplines, shaping understanding of Earth systems and enabling new fields of inquiry. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges reviews the scientific accomplishments of U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling over the past four decades. The book evaluates how the programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project [DSDP], 1968-1983, Ocean Drilling Program [ODP], 1984-2003, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP], 2003-2013) have shaped understanding of Earth systems and Earth history and assessed the role of scientific ocean drilling in enabling new fields of inquiry. This book also assesses the potential for transformative discoveries for the next proposed phase of scientific ocean drilling, which is scheduled to run from 2013 to 2023.

The programs' technological innovations have played a strong role in these accomplishments. The science plan for the proposed 2013-2023 program presents a strong case for the continuation of scientific ocean drilling. Each of the plan's four themes identifies compelling challenges with potential for transformative science that could only be addressed through scientific ocean drilling, although some challenges appear to have greater potential than others. Prioritizing science plan challenges and integrating multiple objectives into single expeditions would help use resources more effectively, while encouraging technological innovations would continue to increase the potential for groundbreaking science.

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