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Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Development Project on Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science (2011)

Chapter: Appendix A: Recommendations from the NRC report *Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences*

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Recommendations from the NRC report *Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences*." National Research Council. 2011. Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Development Project on Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13270.
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Appendix A
Recommendations from the NRC report Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

GENERAL APPROACH

An introduction to dual use issues should be part of the education of every life scientist.

•   Except in specialized cases (particular research or policy interests), this education should be incorporated within broader coursework and training rather than via stand-alone courses. Appropriate channels include biosafety, bioethics and research ethics, and professional standards (i.e., RCR), as well as inclusion of examples of research with dual use potential in general life sciences courses.

•   Insights from research on learning and effective teaching should inform development of materials, and approaches to teaching students and preparing faculty.

SPECIFIC ACTIONS

Achieving the broad goal of making dual use issues part of broader education will require a number of specific actions. They may be undertaken separately by different organizations but there will be substantial benefit if there is an effort to coordinate across the initiatives and share successful practices and lessons learned. Resources will be needed to ensure that the initiatives are carried out at an appropriate scale and scope.

The workshop participants and the committee did not explore the implementation of any specific recommendations in sufficient depth to prescribe a particular mechanism or path forward. Instead, reflecting the diversity and variety of situations in which education about dual use issues will be carried out, the final chapter lays out a number of options that could be used to implement each of the recommendations below.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Recommendations from the NRC report *Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences*." National Research Council. 2011. Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Development Project on Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13270.
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•   Develop an international open access repository of materials that can be tailored to and adapted for the local context, perhaps as a network of national or regional repositories.

image   The repository should be under the auspices of the scientific community rather than governments, although support and resources from governments will be needed to implement the education locally.

image   Materials should be available in a range of languages.

image   Materials should interface with existing databases and repositories of educational materials dedicated to science education.

image   Additional case studies to address broader segments of the life sciences community should be developed, with a focus on making the case studies relevant to the student/researcher.

•   Design methods for commenting and vetting of materials by the community (such as an appropriately monitored Wikipedia model) so they can be improved by faculty, instructors and experts in science education.

•   Build networks of faculty and instructors through train-the-trainer programs, undertaking this effort if possible in cooperation with scientific unions and professional societies and associations.

•   Develop a range of methods to assess outcomes and, where possible, impact. These should include qualitative approaches as well as quantitative measures, for example, of learning outcomes.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Recommendations from the NRC report *Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences*." National Research Council. 2011. Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Development Project on Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13270.
×
Page 23
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Recommendations from the NRC report *Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences*." National Research Council. 2011. Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Development Project on Education About the Responsible Conduct of Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13270.
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Page 24
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In many countries, colleges and universities are where the majority of innovative research is done; in all cases, they are where future scientists receive both their initial training and their initial introduction to the norms of scientific conduct regardless of their eventual career paths. Thus, institutions of higher education are particularly relevant to the tasks of education on research with dual use potential, whether for faculty, postdoctoral researchers, graduate and undergraduate students, or technical staff.

Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential describes the outcomes of the planning meeting for a two-year project to develop a network of faculty who will be able to teach the challenges of research in the life sciences with dual use potential. Faculty will be able to incorporate such concepts into their teaching and research through exposure to the tenets of responsible conduct of research in active learning teaching methods. This report is intended to provide guidelines for that effort and to be applicable to any country wishing to adopt this educational model that combines principles of active learning and training with attention to norms of responsible science. The potential audiences include a broad array of current and future scientists and the policymakers who develop laws and regulations around issues of dual use.

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