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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eleventh Revised Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13298.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, N.W.  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by grants from the Illinois Corn Marketing Board; the Institute for Feed E ­ ducation & Research, the National Pork Board; the Nebraska Corn Board; the Minnesota Corn ­Growers Association; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration under Award No. HHSF223200810020I, TO# 10 and Award No. HHSF22301010T, TO# 15; and by internal NRC funds derived from sales of publications in the Animal Nutrition Series. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nutrient requirements of swine / Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies. — 11th rev. ed.   p. cm.   Includes bibliographical references and index.   ISBN 978-0-309-22423-9 (cloth) — ISBN 0-309-22423-3 (cloth)  1.  Swine—Nutrition. 2. Swine—Feeding and feeds.  I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine.   SF396.5.N87 2012  636.4—dc23 2012013216 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the Na- tional Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the Na- tional Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

 

COMMITTEE ON NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF SWINE L. LEE SOUTHERN, Chair, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge OLAYIWOLA ADEOLA, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana CORNELIS F. M. DE LANGE, University of Guelph, Ontario GRETCHEN M. HILL, Michigan State University, East Lansing BRIAN J. KERR, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa MERLIN D. LINDEMANN, University of Kentucky, Lexington PHILLIP S. MILLER, University of Nebraska, Lincoln JACK ODLE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh HANS H. STEIN, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign NATHALIE L. TROTTIER, Michigan State University, East Lansing Staff AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Study Director RUTHIE S. ARIETI, Research Associate External Support DAVID BRUTON, Computer Programmer PAULA T. WHITACRE, (Full Circle Communications), Editor v

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES NORMAN R. SCOTT, Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie RICHARD A. DIXON, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma DANIEL M. DOOLEY, University of California, Oakland JOAN H. EISEMANN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri GENE HUGOSON, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, St. Paul MOLLY M. JAHN, University of Wisconsin, Madison ROBBIN S. JOHNSON, Cargill Foundation, Wayzata, Minnesota A. G. KAWAMURA, Solutions from the Land, Irvine, California KIRK C. KLASING, University of California, Davis JULIA L. KORNEGAY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh VICTOR L. LECHTENBERG, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JUNE B. NASRALLAH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York PHILIP E. NELSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana KEITH PITTS, Curragh Oaks Consulting, Fair Oaks, California CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University, Manhattan HAL SALWASSER, Oregon State University, Corvallis ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs MERCEDES VÁZQUEZ-AÑÓN, Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Senior Program Officer EVONNE P.Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Program Officer KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer RUTH S. ARIETI, Research Associate JANET M. MULLIGAN, Research Associate KATHLEEN A. REIMER, Senior Program Assistant vi

Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons nois Corn Marketing Board, the Institute for Feed Education chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise and Research, the National Pork Board, the Nebraska Corn in accordance with procedures approved by the National Board, the Minnesota Corn Growers Association, and the Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose U.S. Food and Drug Administration for financial support of of this independent review is to provide candid and criti- the committee’s work. cal comments that will assist the institution in making its The committee would also like to thank Dr. Austin Lewis, published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the Senior Program Officer, and Ruthie Arieti, Research Asso- report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, ciate, for their tireless effort on this project. Dr. Lewis has and responsiveness to the study charge. The review com- provided excellent guidance, advice, and encouragement ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect throughout the development of the report and the commit- the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank tee is extremely grateful for his support and friendship. Ms. the following for their review of this report: Arieti has been wonderful in the process of writing, revising, and editing sections and keeping them moving smoothly. Michael J. Azain, University of Georgia, Athens She was also our caretaker for conference calls and meeting R. Dean Boyd, The Hanor Company, Franklin, KY plans. The committee thanks Robin Schoen, Director of the Patrick C. H. Morel, Massey University, Palmerston Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, for her efforts North, New Zealand to get the revision under way and for her support and encour- Paul J. Moughan, Massey University, Palmerston North, agement during its preparation. New Zealand Several other individuals provided important support Elizabeth (Betsy) A. Newton, Akey, Lewisburg, OH to the committee’s work. The committee members wish to C. M. (Martin) Nyachoti, University of Manitoba, thank Jason Schmidt and Stephen Treese (School of Animal ­Winnipeg, Canada Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center) for John F. Patience, Iowa State University, Ames their efforts on the feed ingredient tables. The openness and Gerald C. Shurson, University of Minnesota, St. Paul guidance from Drs. Jean-Yves Dourmad, Jaap van Milgen, and Jean Noblet (INRA, France) and Dr. Allan Schinckel Although the reviewers listed above have provided many (Purdue University) toward development of the models for constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked generating nutrient requirements is much appreciated. Drs. to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they Dean Boyd (The Hanor Co.), Mike Tokach (Kansas State see the final draft of the report before its release. The review University), and Soenke Moehn (University of Alberta) of this report was overseen by Dale E. Bauman, Cornell provided valuable information and feedback about feeding University. Appointed by the National Research Council, management and levels of animal productivity on commer- he was responsible for making certain that an independent cial swine operations. The committee’s measurements of examination of this report was carried out in accordance with amino acid profiles in sow reproductive tissues were made institutional procedures and that all review comments were possible by the generous donation of mammary tissue from carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of gestating sows by Dr. Walter Hurley (University of Illinois) this report rests entirely with the author committee and the and amino acid analyses of mammary, placental, fetal, and institution. uterine tissues by Drs. Robert Payne and John Thomson The committee would like to express gratitude to the Illi- (Evonik Degussa). vii

 

Contents PREFACE xvii SUMMARY 1 1 ENERGY 4 Introduction, 4 Definition of Terms, 4 Partitioning of Energy, 4 Components of Heat Production, 7 Physiological States, 9 Modeling Energy Utilization—The Concept of Effective Metabolizable Energy, 11 References, 12 2 PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS 15 Introduction, 15 Proteins, 15 Essential, Nonessential, and Conditionally Essential Amino Acids, 15 Amino Acid Sources, 16 Amino Acid Analysis, 17 Means of Expressing Amino Acid Requirements, 17 Dietary Disproportions of Amino Acids, 19 Ratios of Amino Acids to Lysine, 19 Empirical Estimates of Amino Acid Requirements, 20 Determinants of Amino Acid Requirements—A Modeling Approach, 23 Efficiency of Amino Acid Utilization, 32 References, 38 3 LIPIDS 45 Introduction, 45 Digestibility and Energy Value of Lipids, 45 Dietary Fat and Performance throughout the Life Cycle, 46 Dietary Essential and Bioactive Fatty Acids, 47 Dietary Fat, Iodine Value, and Pork Fat Quality, 48 Carnitine, 49 Quality Measures of Dietary Fat, 49 Lipid Analysis, 52 References, 52 ix

x CONTENTS 4 CARBOHYDRATES 58 Introduction, 58 Monosaccharides, 58 Disaccharides, 58 Oligosaccharides, 59 Polysaccharides, 60 Analyses for Carbohydrates, 63 References, 64 5 WATER 66 Introduction, 66 Functions of Water, 66 Water Turnover, 66 Water Requirements, 67 Water Quality, 69 References, 71 6 MINERALS 74 Introduction, 74 Macrominerals, 74 Micro/Trace Minerals, 81 References, 88 7 VITAMINS 104 Introduction, 104 Fat-Soluble Vitamins, 105 Water-Soluble Vitamins, 110 References, 117 8 MODELS FOR ESTIMATING NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF SWINE 127 Introduction, 127 Growing-Finishing Pig Model, 128 Gestating Sow Model, 136 Lactating Sow Model, 140 Starting Pigs, 143 Mineral and Vitamin Requirements, 143 Estimation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Carbon Retention Efficiencies, 145 Evaluation of the Models, 145 References, 154 9 COPRODUCTS FROM THE CORN AND SOYBEAN INDUSTRIES 157 Introduction, 157 Corn Coproducts, 157 Soybean Products, 160 Crude Glycerin, 161 References, 161 10 NONNUTRITIVE FEED ADDITIVES 165 Introduction, 165 Antimicrobial Agents, 165 Anthelmintics, 165 Acidifiers, 166 Direct-Fed Microbials, 166 Nondigestible Oligosaccharides, 167 Plant Extracts, 167

CONTENTS xi Exogenous Enzymes, 167 Feed Flavors, 168 Mycotoxin Binders, 169 Antioxidants, 170 Pellet Binders, 170 Flow Agents, 170 Ractopamine, 170 Carnitine and Conjugated Linoleic Acids, 171 Odor and Ammonia Control Compounds, 171 References, 171 11 FEED CONTAMINANTS 177 Introduction, 177 Chemical Contaminants, 177 Biological Contaminants, 180 Physical Contaminants, 181 Potential Future Issues, 181 Animal Feed Safety System, 182 Other Sources of Information, 182 References, 182 12 FEED PROCESSING 184 Introduction, 184 Effects of Processing on Nutrient Utilization, 184 Additional Prospects and Sources of Information, 185 References, 185 13 DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY 187 Introduction, 187 Crude Protein and Amino Acids, 187 Lipids, 189 Carbohydrates, 189 Phosphorus, 190 Energy, 191 References, 192 14 INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON NUTRIENT EXCRETION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 194 Introduction, 194 Nitrogen, 195 Calcium and Phosphorus, 195 Copper, Iron, Manganese, Magnesium, Potassium, and Zinc, 196 Sulfur, 196 Carbon, 196 Diet Formulation and Gaseous Emissions, 197 Integrated Approaches, 198 References, 198 15 RESEARCH NEEDS 203 Introduction, 203 Methods of Nutrient Requirement Assessment, 203 Nutrient Utilization and Feed Intake, 203 Energy, 204 Amino Acids, 204 Minerals, 204

xii CONTENTS Lipids, 205 Vitamins, 205 Feed Ingredient Composition, 205 Other Areas and Priorities, 205 16 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS TABLES 208 Introduction, 208 Tables, 210 17 FEED INGREDIENT COMPOSITION 239 Introduction, 239 Proximate Components and Carbohydrates, 239 Amino Acids, 239 Minerals, 240 Vitamins, 240 Fatty Acids, 240 Energy, 240 List of Ingredients, 240 References, 241 Tables, 242 APPENDIXES A MODEL USER GUIDE 369 General Overview, 369 Using the Program, 369 B COMMITTEE STATEMENT OF TASK 380 C ABBREVIATONS AND ACRONYMS 381 D COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES 386 E RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES 388 Policy and Resources, 388 Animal Nutrition Program—Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals   Series and Related Titles, 389 INDEX 391

Tables and Figures TABLES 2-1 Essential, Nonessential, and Conditionally Essential Amino Acids, 15 2-2 Summary of Amino Acid Requirement Estimates in Growing-Finishing Pigs and Associated Performance Parameters, 21 2-3 Summary of Amino Acid Requirement Estimates in Gestating Sows and Associated Performance Parameters, 24 2-4 Summary of Amino Acid Requirement Estimates in Lactating Sows and Associated Performance Parameters, 25 2-5 Amino Acid Profile and Composition of Protein Losses via the Intestine, and Skin and Hair Losses, 26 2-6 Daily Losses of Amino Acids via the Intestine, and Skin and Hair Losses During Growth, Gestation, and Lactation, 26 2-7 Standardized Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Requirements and the Optimum Ratio for Maintenance, 27 2-8 Lysine Content and Amino Acid Profile of Whole-Body Protein Gain in Growing- Finishing Pigs and Ractopamine-Induced Body Protein Gain, 27 2-9 Summary of Studies Selected for Estimation of Nitrogen Content of the Gestation Pools and Their Corresponding Sampling Days, 28 2-10 Summary of Nitrogen Retention (g/day) in Relation to Day of Gestation and the Associated Litter Performance, 30 2-11 Lysine Content and Amino Acid Profile of Maternal and Fetal Body Protein Gain, and of Placenta, Uterus, Chorioallantoic Fluid, Udder and Milk Expressed as a Percentage of Lysine Content, 31 2-12 Efficiency of Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Utilization for Maintenance and for Protein Gain and Milk Protein Output in Growing-Finishing Pigs, Gestating Sows, and Lactating Sows, 36 5-1 Evaluation of Water Quality for Pigs Based on Total Dissolved Solids, 70 5-2 Water Quality Guidelines for Livestock, 71 6-1 Empirical Phosphorus Requirement Estimates in Growing-Finishing Pigs as Affected by Body Weight, 75 8-1 Model Estimated Typical Growth Performance of Gilts, Barrows, and Entire Male Pigs Between 20 and 130 kg BW, 133 8-2 Coefficients Used in the Growth Model to Predict Daily Mineral, Vitamin, and Linoleic Acid Requirements for Pigs of Various Body Weights, 144 xiii

xiv TABLES AND FIGURES 8-3 Estimated Requirements for Standardized Ileal Digestible (SID) Amino Acids, Total Calcium, and Standardized Total Tract Digestible (STTD) Phosphorus According to the New Growing-Finishing Pig Model and NRC (1998) for Levels of Performance Specified in NRC (1998, Table 10-1), 148 8-4 Experimentally Determined Versus Model-Predicted Lysine Requirements of Growing-Finishing Pigs, 149 8-5 Observed Versus Model-Predicted Gestation Weight and Backfat Changes During Gestation, 150 8-6 Estimated Requirements for Standardized Ileal Digestible (SID) Amino Acids, Total Calcium, and Standardized Total Tract Digestible (STTD) Phosphorus According to the New Gestating Sow Model and NRC (1998) for Levels of Performance Specified in NRC (1998, Table 10-8), 151 8-7 Estimated Requirements for Standardized Ileal Digestible (SID) Amino Acids, Total Calcium, and Standardized Total Tract Digestible (STTD) Phosphorus According to the New Lactating Sow Model and NRC (1998) for Levels of Performance Specified in NRC (1998, Table 10-10), 153 8-8 Experimentally Determined Versus Model-Predicted Lysine Requirements of Lactating Sows, 154 16-1A Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Growing Pigs When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 210 16-1B Daily Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Growing Pigs When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 212 16-2A Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Barrows, Gilts, and Entire Males of Different Weights When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 214 16-2B Daily Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Barrows, Gilts, and Entire Males of Different Weights When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 216 16-3A Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Pigs with Different Mean Whole-Body Protein Depositions from 25 to 125 kg and of Different Weights When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 218 16-3B Daily Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Pigs with Different Mean Whole-Body Protein Depositions from 25 to 125 kg and of Different Weights When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 220 16-4A Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Entire Males Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone or Fed Ractopamine, and Barrows and Gilts Fed Ractopamine, When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 222 16-4B Daily Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Entire Males Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone or Fed Ractopamine, and Barrows and Gilts Fed Ractopamine, When Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 224 16-5A Dietary Mineral, Vitamin, and Fatty Acid Requirements of Growing Pigs Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 226 16-5B Daily Mineral, Vitamin, and Fatty Acid Requirements of Growing Pigs Allowed Feed Ad Libitum (90% dry matter), 227 16-6A Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Gestating Sows (90% dry matter), 228 16-6B Daily Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Gestating Sows (90% dry matter), 230 16-7A Dietary Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Lactating Sows (90% dry matter), 232 16-7B Daily Calcium, Phosphorus, and Amino Acid Requirements of Lactating Sows (90% dry matter), 234

TABLES AND FIGURES xv 16-8A Dietary Mineral, Vitamin, and Fatty Acid Requirements of Gestating and Lactating Sows (90% dry matter), 236 16-8B Daily Mineral, Vitamin, and Fatty Acid Requirements of Gestating and Lactating Sows (90% dry matter), 236 16-9 Dietary and Daily Amino Acid, Mineral, Vitamin, and Fatty Acid Requirements of Sexually Active Boars (90% dry matter), 237 17-1 Composition of Feed Ingredients Used in Swine Diets (data on as-fed basis), 242 17-2 Mineral Concentrations in Macromineral Sources (data on as-fed basis), 364 17-3 Inorganic Sources and Estimated Bioavailabilities of Trace Minerals, 365 17-4 Characteristics and Energy Values of Various Sources of Fats and Oils (data on as-fed basis), 366 FIGURES 1-1 Partitioning of nutrient/dietary energy, 4 2-1 Relationship between total protein content (grams) in the fetal litter (n = 12), 29 2-2 Relationship between time-dependent maternal body protein deposition (g/day) and day in gestation, 30 2-3A Standardized ileal digestible lysine requirements observed in empirical studies and predicted with the pig growth model, 33 2-3B Standardized ileal digestible threonine requirements observed in empirical studies and predicted with the pig growth model, 33 2-3C Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan requirements observed in empirical studies and predicted with the pig growth model, 34 2-3D Standardized ileal digestible methionine requirements observed in empirical studies and predicted with the pig growth model, 34 2-3E Standardized ileal digestible methionine + cysteine requirements observed in empirical studies and predicted with the pig growth model, 35 2-4 Relationship between estimated lysine in milk derived from SID lysine intake and estimated SID lysine intake for milk, 37 2-5 Relationship between standardized ileal digestible lysine requirements (standardized ileal digestible lysine estimated experimentally) and litter growth rate, 38 3-1 Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from C18 precursors, 47 3-2 Composite changes in selective oxidative products during oxidation of lipids, 50 4-1 Carbohydrates in feed, 59 4-2 Structure of amylose, 61 4-3 Structure of amylopectin, 62 4-4 Categories of dietary carbohydrates based on current analytical methods, 64 6-1 An empirical estimate of the ATTD and STTD P requirement as a function of body weight, 76 6-2 Relationship between whole-body phosphorus and whole-body nitrogen content in growing-finishing pigs, 79 8-1 Typical daily ME intakes in barrows, gilts, and entire males between 20 and 140 kg body weight, 130 8-2 Typical whole-body protein deposition curves in entire males, gilts, and barrows between 20 and 140 kg body weight, 131 8-3 Relationship between whole-body protein deposition and metabolizable energy intake in gilts at various body weights and typical performance potentials, 132

xvi NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF SWINE 8-4 Simulated SID lysine requirements (g/kg of diet) of entire males, gilts, and barrows between 20 and 130 kg body weight, 135 8-5 Typical protein deposition patterns for fetus, mammary tissue, placenta and fluids, maternal protein as a function of time, and maternal protein as a function of energy intake during gestation in parity-2 sows, 138 8-6 Simulated SID lysine requirements (g/day) of primiparous and parity-4 gestating sows, 139 8-7 Typical daily metabolizable energy intake in primiparous and multiparous sows, 141 8-8 Simulated SID lysine requirements (g/day) of lactating sows during parity 1 and parity 2 and greater, 142 8-9 Estimated dietary riboflavin requirements (mg/kg of diet) for 5-135 kg body weight using the generalized exponential equation in the model, 144 8-10 Relationship between model-predicted and observed SID lysine (A), threonine (B), methionine (C), methionine plus cysteine (D), tryptophan (E) requirements (% of diet) of growing-finishing pigs, 147 8-11 Relationships between observed or model-predicted SID lysine requirements (g/kg BW gain) and mean BW, 148 8-12 Relationship between model-predicted and observed SID lysine requirements (g/day) of lactating sows, 152 A-1 Main menu, 371 A-2 Inputs and results for the starting pigs module, 372 A-3a Inputs for the growing-finishing pig model, 373 A-3b Results for the growing-finishing pig model, 374 A-4a Inputs for the gestating sow model, 375 A-4b Results for the gestating sow model, 376 A-5a Inputs for the lactating sow model, 377 A-5b Results for the lactating sow model, 378 A-6 Feeding program and diet formulation, 379

Preface This eleventh revised edition of the Nutrient Require- tained. This principle was also applied to the text. Therefore, ments of Swine builds on the previous editions published by portions of the text from the tenth revision were also retained. the National Research Council. The tenth edition,1 in par- In this sense the report is truly a “revised edition,” and will ticular, provided a major foundation for the current edition. eliminate the need for a reader to refer to previous editions. Although a great deal of new research has been published In contrast, the committee decided that the tables of feed during the last 15 years and there is a large amount of new ingredient composition were due for a major update. Thus, information, for many nutrients (e.g., vitamins) there is little as explained in Chapter 17, the committee conducted an or no new research data on requirements. exhaustive review of published data and completely revised The committee established the principle that without new both the format and content of the ingredient composition research results indicating a need to revise a nutrient require- tables. ment, the values published in the tenth edition would be re- 1NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Tenth Edition. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. xvii

 

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Since 1944, the National Research Council has published 10 editions of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine. This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the swine and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for swine. The swine industry has undergone considerable changes since the tenth edition was published in 1998 and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate.

The eleventh revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine builds on the previous editions published by the National Research Council. A great deal of new research has been published during the last 15 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of swine in all stages of life, this volume includes information about feed ingredients from the biofuels industry and other new ingredients, requirements for digestible phosphorus and concentrations of it in feed ingredients, a review of the effects of feed additives and feed processing, and strategies to increase nutrient retention and thus reduce fecal and urinary excretions that could contribute to environmental pollution. The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine represents a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on swine nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious swine production.

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