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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
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SEX-SPECIFIC REPORTING
OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

 

 

Theresa M. Wizemann, Ph.D.
Rapporteur

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

 

 

 

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
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      THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by Contract N01-OD-4-2139, TO 246 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22524-3
International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-22524-8

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu.

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2012. Sex-specific reporting of scientific research: A workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
×

 

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.”
    
                                                —Goethe

 

 

 

 

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INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
             OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON SEX-SPECIFIC REPORTING OF
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A WORKSHOP1

NANCY E. ADLER (Chair), Professor of Medical Psychology, Vice Chair of the Department of Psychiatry, Director of the Center for Health and Community, University of California, San Francisco

MARIETTA ANTHONY, Director of Women’s Health, Critical Path Institute

FLOYD BLOOM, Executive Director of Scientific Communications, Professor Emeritus, Scripps Research Institute

JEROME P. KASSIRER, Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine

JON LEVINE, Director of the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, Professor of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin–Madison

HAROLD C. SOX, Editor Emeritus, Annals of Internal Medicine

Study Staff

MICHELLE C. CATLIN, Study Director

TREVONNE WALFORD, Research Assistant

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor

____________________________

1Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshops, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. Responsibility for the published workshop summaries rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2012. Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13307.
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Reviewers

This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of the summary:

Nancy E. Adler, Ph.D., Lisa and John Pritzker Professor of Psychology, University of California, San Francisco and Chair, Workshop Planning Committee

Jeanne Miranda, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles

Rita F. Redberg, M.D., Director, Women’s Cardiovascular Services, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center

John B. Wong, M.D., Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Clinical Decision Making, Informatics, and Telemedicine, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of the summary was overseen by Kristine M. Gebbie, Dr.P.H., R.N., Adjunct Professor,

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Flinders University School of Nursing and Midwifery, Adelaide, South Australia. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the workshop summary rests entirely with the institution.

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The number of women participating in clinical trials has increased during the last two decades, but women are still underrepresented in clinical trials in general. Some of the overall increase can be attributed to the greater number of women-only trials (of therapies for diseases that affect only women). Even when women are included in clinical trials, the results are often not analyzed separately by sex.

On August 30, 2011, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice hosted the workshop Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research. The workshop explored the need for sex-specific reporting of scientific results; potential barriers and unintended consequences of sex-specific reporting of scientific results; experiences of journals that have implemented sex-specific requirements, including the challenges and benefits of such editorial policies; and steps to facilitate the reporting of sex-specific results. Presenters and participants included current and former editors of scientific journals, researchers, and scientists and policymakers from government, industry, and nonprofit organizations. Presentations and discussions highlighted the importance to both women and men of having sex-specific data, the problems with sample size and financial constraints for conducting the research, the appropriateness of sex-specific analyses, and the limitations of journal policies to change experimental designs.

Sex-Specific Reporting of Scientific Research summarizes the presentations and discussions by the expert panelists during the IOM workshop. The workshop's first session focused on why sex-specific reporting is important. Panelists highlighted historical and current events that have hindered or helped to advance the study of women. In the next session, panelists in academe discussed the challenges of collecting, analyzing, and reporting sex-specific data from the researcher's perspective. That was followed by two panels of leading journal editors who shared their experiences in developing and implementing editorial policies and the implications of sex-specific reporting policies for journals.

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