David L. Clark received a B.S. in chemistry in 1982 from the University of Washington, and a Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry in 1986 from Indiana University. His thesis work was recognized by the American Chemical Society with the Nobel Laureate Signature Award for the best chemistry Ph.D. thesis in the United States. Dr. Clark was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Oxford before joining Los Alamos National Laboratory as a J. Robert Oppenheimer Fellow in 1988. He became a technical staff member in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division in 1989. Since then he has held various leadership positions at the Laboratory, including program management for nuclear weapons and Office of Science programs, and Director of the Glenn T. Seaborg Institute for Transactinium Science between 1997-2009. Dr. Clark is currently a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a Laboratory Fellow, and Leader of the Plutonium Science Strategy for Los Alamos National Laboratory. His research interests are in the structure and bonding of actinide materials, applications of synchrotron radiation to actinide science, behavior of actinides in the environment, and in the aging effects of nuclear weapons materials. He has published 145 peer-reviewed publications.
Eric Hostetler joined Merck in 2000 from the Washington University St. Louis School of Medicine where he was a postdoctoral associate at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. He received his B.A. in chemistry from Goshen College and his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana. Dr. Hostetler currently manages the radiochemistry group in Merck’s Imaging Department. He is responsible for leading the preclinical discovery and clinical translation of novel PET tracers for the quantification of target engagement by therapeutics targeting CNS mechanisms. Data from preclinical and clinical studies with these PET trac-
ers are used to guide the development of therapeutic drug candidates. Dr. Hostetler’s research has led to the discovery and application of novel PET tracers for seven different CNS targets.
Samantha E. Kentis is a program manager at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s (DNDO’s) National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center. She manages the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program; leads the Center’s interagency coordination efforts on national-level nuclear forensics policy and planning among the Departments of Defense, Energy, Homeland Security, Justice, State, and the Intelligence Community; and works closely with the State Department and others as the DNDO lead for nuclear forensics-related international activities. Prior to joining DHS, Ms. Kentis worked in the private sector primarily supporting nuclear forensics R&D efforts at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. She holds a B.A. in foreign affairs from the University of Virginia and an M.A. in security studies from Georgetown University’s Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service.
W. Frank Kinard is the Mebane Professor of Chemistry at the College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina. His teaching responsibilities include nuclear chemistry, environmental chemistry, instrumental analysis, and quantitative analysis. He received his B.S. degree in chemistry from Duke University and his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from the University of South Carolina. He was an Atomic Energy Commission Post-Doctoral Fellow at Florida State University and a research associate in chemical oceanography in the Department of Marine Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez. His most recent research activities have centered on the application of inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry to the analysis of high-level wastes at the Savannah River Site. Currently, he is serving as the director of the “Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry” sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the American Chemical Society at San José State University. He is the secretary of the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. He has spent his summers for the last two decades as a senior research scientist in the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, guest scientist in the Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and as a visiting scientist at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory and the Analytical Development Section of the Savannah River Technology Center. He has been a faculty member at the College of Charleston since 1972 and is the author of more than 35 technical publications. Dr. Kinard is an analytical chemist who has worked for the past 20
years in solvent extraction, solution chemistry thermodynamics, and the analysis of high-level radioactive wastes. In the past decade, he has been extensively involved with the Analytical Development Section of the Savannah River Technology Center where he has participated in finding solutions to the many problems related to the analysis of high-level waste tanks and the start-up of the Defense Waste Processing Facility vitrification process. He has participated in review panels for the Characterization, Monitoring and Sensor Technology program for DOE and for the Basic Chemical Sciences panel for the EPA. His main pedagogical interests are in developing experiments involving the use of chemical instrumentation in solving chemical and environmental analytical problems. These experiments emphasize the use of computer based data analyses to answer chemical questions. Recent work has included using the worldwide web as an augmentation to classroom activities. Dr. Kinard received his B.S. from Duke University and his Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina.
Francis Livens is professor of radiochemistry and research director of the Dalton Nuclear Institute in the University of Manchester. He received his Ph.D. in plutonium geochemistry from the University of Glasgow in 1985 and joined the University of Manchester in 1991 where, in 1999, he was the founding director of the Centre for Radiochemistry Research (CRR). He has worked in radionuclide geochemistry, aqueous speciation and spectroscopy, and radioactive waste disposal, with a particular interest in the actinide elements. Dr. Livens provides advice to the U.K. government on nuclear and related matters, and is a member of the Advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management.
Tim McCarthy, a two-time graduate of the University of Liverpool, U.K., with a B.Sc. in chemistry, followed by a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1989. Dr. McCarthy earned an MBA at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, in 2000. He has published more than 45 papers and contributed to four books. He is currently the president of the Academy of Molecular Imaging and founding director and past-president of the Society of Non-Invasive Imagining in Drug Development. In his role at Pfizer Global Research and Development, Dr. McCarthy is responsible for the application of imaging techniques to facilitate the prosecution of compounds in the development portfolio and across all therapeutic areas. Additionally, his role is focused on the application of innovative imaging technologies to accelerate drug development. Since 2003, Dr. McCarthy has held senior management roles with Pfizer Global R&D. Prior to joining the company, he held a number of academic and industry positions in the field of positron emission tomog-
raphy, including more than 10 years at Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, in the departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering and two years at Pharmacia Corporation where he was group manager of tracer technologies and clinical technologies in experimental medicine.
Jason Pruet is a program manager in the Office of Stockpile Stewardship at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). His current focus is on developing the science basis supporting maintenance of the U.S. stockpile into an indefinite future without nuclear testing. Prior to joining NNSA Mr. Pruet was at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. His efforts at Livermore centered on basic research in nuclear physics and astrophysics, applied weapons research, and development of new technologies for detecting clandestine nuclear weapons.
Larry Rahn is currently the program manager in the DOE/SC Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), in the area of Separations and Analysis. He also works in the Heavy Element Chemistry program. Before joining BES in January 2011, Dr. Rahn was a senior scientist in the Transportation Energy Center at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California, and worked on assignment at BES since 2006.
After earning his Ph.D. in physics at Kansas State University and performing postdoctoral studies at Michigan State University, Dr. Rahn joined Sandia where he worked for 35 years and contributed to early efforts that led to the founding of the Combustion Research Facility (CRF). He became a principal investigator in the BES Chemical Science Program at the CRF, earning a promotion to distinguished member of technical staff and election to Fellow of the Optical Society of America. After 17 years of research in laser-based combustion diagnostics, he managed the Reacting Flow Research Department at the CRF for almost a decade, when he was promoted to senior scientist.
Dr. Rahn’s research has resulted in more than 60 journal publications in Raman and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, combustion diagnostics, molecular physics, solid state physics, and collaborative data sharing environments.
Michael J. Scott is an associate professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of Florida, currently serving as program director of solid state and materials chemistry in the Division of Materials Research, and program director of macromolecular, supramolecular and nanochemistry in the Division of Chemistry at the National Science Foundation. His research interests are in development of efficient recognition agents for selective actinide
extractions and the design of reactive transition metal catalysts. Dr. Scott earned a Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry in 1994 from Harvard University and a B.S. in chemistry 1988 from the University of California, Berkeley. He held an NIH Postdoctoral Fellow from 1994-1997 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and joined the faculty of the University of Florida in 1997. Dr. Scott’s honors include: a National Institutes of Health-Postdoctoral Fellowship, Research Corporation-Research Innovation Award, National Science Foundation-CAREER Award, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellowship, and he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Dr. Scott also serves as co-director-research experiences for undergraduate program at the University of Florida.
C. Bradley Moore (NAS) is a professor emeritus in the University of California, Berkeley, Department of Chemistry. Dr. Moore had direct management responsibility for Berkeley’s nuclear chemistry program, as chemistry department chair, as dean, and as director of the Chemistry Division (including chemistry of the actinides) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). From 1988 to 2000, he served on advisory committees at Los Alamos that reviewed nuclear chemistry programs. Dr. Moore has also served as vice president for research at Ohio State and Northwestern Universities during most of this past decade. He was also a member of the governing board of both Argonne and Fermi National Labs and was instrumental in creating the current arrangement for a shared management of those labs that includes Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois, and others. Dr. Moore was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1986.
Carolyn J. Anderson is a professor of radiology, and pharmacology and chemical biology, and is the director of the Molecular Imaging Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Anderson received her B.S. in chemistry in 1985 from the University of Wisconsin-Superior, and her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry in 1990 from Florida State University, where she carried out her dissertation research with Professor Gregory R. Choppin in the area of actinide chemistry. After obtaining her Ph.D., Anderson was a research associate in the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University
School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, in Professor Michael J. Welch’s group. In 1993, she was promoted to assistant professor of radiology, and held the position of professor in the Departments of Radiology, Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics, and Chemistry from 2007-2011, before moving to the University of Pittsburgh in May 2011. Dr. Anderson’s research interests include the development and evaluation of novel radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of cancer and other diseases. She pioneered the development of copper-64-based radiopharmaceuticals, and her research group carries out research on the interface of chemistry and biology. She has had NIH funding since 1994 and has co-authored over 135 peer-reviewed and invited publications, mostly in the area of developing radiopharmaceuticals for oncological imaging and targeted radiotherapy. Dr. Anderson has been actively involved in the education and training of graduate and undergraduate students in the areas of nuclear and radiochemistry, imaging sciences, and nanotechnology.
Trish Baisden is the deputy director of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national, multi-laboratory effort led by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NIC is the scientific and technology development program on NIF focused on using inertial confinement fusion to achieve ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. Dr. Baisden is a nuclear chemist and during her 30-year career at LLNL she has held a number of technical management positions including division leader for analytical sciences, deputy director of the Seaborg Institute, materials program leader for NIF, chief scientist and deputy associate director for the Chemistry and Material Sciences Directorate. Professionally she has served on numerous study panels and review committees, as an editor of the journal Radiochimica Acta, and chairperson of the American Chemical Society’s Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. Dr. Baisden’s research interests include nuclear fusion, lasers and optical materials, heavy ion reactions, heavy element fission properties, the chemistry of 4 and 5f elements, and nuclear power and advanced fuel cycles. Dr. Baisden earned a B.S. in 1971 and a Ph.D. in 1975 in chemistry from Florida State University and then held a 2-year postdoctoral appointment with Professor Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, before joining the staff at LLNL.
Carol Burns is a Laboratory Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and serves as the group leader for nuclear and radiochemistry in the Chemistry Division. She received her Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Cali-
fornia, Berkeley in 1987. She came to LANL as a J. Robert Oppenheimer Postdoctoral Fellow, and has been employed at LANL since that time, serving in a variety of line and program management positions. She served as a senior policy advisor in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in 2003-2004. She provided technical and policy assistance on national and homeland security science and technology issues involving defense infrastructure (including workforce issues) and threat preparedness, as well as coordination of science and technology policies within the national security and intelligence communities. She continues to support LANL in the coordination of activities in nuclear forensics, including working with the interagency on workforce pipeline and educational program development. She established the first summer undergraduate school in nuclear forensics, funded by the Department of Homeland Security. She was awarded the LANL Fellows Publication Prize in 2002, and was named a Laboratory Fellow in 2003. She was named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2009. She is a recognized expert in actinide and radionuclide chemistry, with more than 95 peer-reviewed publications and invited book chapters, and has served on a number of editorial boards, review boards, and advisory panels.
Ronald Chrzanowski is a senior power plant manager with Exelon Nuclear. He has 30 years experience in nuclear power plants including chemistry, engineering, nuclear oversight, operations, regulatory assurance, licensing, and security. He is currently the Exelon Chemistry Corporate functional area manager, where he is responsible for supervising 4 experienced corporate chemists, leading the chemistry peer group, and chemistry governance and oversight functional area for 17 nuclear units at 10 stations. Mr. Chrzanowski previously held the position of chemistry manager at Exelon’s LaSalle Station, where for 5 years he was responsible for managing the chemistry department of 26 employees including 13 represented employees and budget responsibility for $10M/yr. His prior experience includes obtaining a senior reactor operator’s license at the Byron Nuclear Generating Station as well as manager positions in many other departments over the years. Mr. Chrzanowski received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Marquette University. His industry leadership service includes EPRI Chemistry, RP, LLW TAC (Technical Advisory Committee) member for 2.5 years, Regulatory Ground Water Protection Program Working Group 2008-2009, and Radiation Sourcebook Committee 2010. Previously he was the EPRI ORSERG (Operational Reactor Safety Engineering Review Group) chairman, 2001-2002, and currently he is the EPRI Chemistry, LLW, RP TAC vice chairman.
Sue B. Clark is an expert in environmental chemistry of plutonium and other actinides, chemistry of high-level radioactive waste systems, and chemistry of actinide-bearing solid phases in natural environments. She is Regents Professor of Chemistry at Washington State University in Pullman. She has previously served as the interim dean of the College of Sciences at WSU (statewide), and the interim vice chancellor for academic affairs at Washington State University, Tri-Cities campus. Previously, she was an assistant research ecologist at the University of Georgia’s Savannah River Ecology Laboratory and senior scientist at Westinghouse Savannah River Company’s Savannah River Technology Center. She currently is a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. She has received several awards, including the Westinghouse Distinguished Professor of Chemistry (2000 to present), the Edward R. Meyer Distinguished Professor of Chemistry (1998 to 2000), and the Young Faculty Achievement Award (1998 to 1999) in the College of Sciences at Washington State University. She is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Dr. Clark received her Ph.D. in inorganic and radiochemistry from Florida State University. She has previously served on the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board and several National Research Council committees.
Richard B. Freeman holds the Herbert Ascherman Chair in Economics at Harvard University. He is currently serving as faculty co-director of the Labor and Worklife Program at the Harvard Law School. He directs the National Bureau of Economic Research-Sloan Science Engineering Workforce Projects, and is senior research fellow in labor markets at the London School of Economics’ Centre for Economic Performance. Dr. Freeman is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and is currently serving as a member of the AAAS Initiative for Science and Technology. Dr. Freeman served on the study on Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States. He also served on five panels of the National Research Council, including the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. He received the Mincer Lifetime Achievement Prize from the Society of Labor Economics in 2006. In 2007 he was awarded the IZA Prize in Labor Economics. His recent publications include: Can Labor Standards Improve Under Globalization (2004), Emerging Labor Market Institutions for the 21st Century (2005), America Works: The Exceptional Labor Market (2007), What Workers Want (2007 2nd edition), What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo American World (2007), International Differences in the Business Practices & Productivity of
Firms (2009), Science and Engineering Careers in the United States (2009), Reforming the Welfare State: Recovery and Beyond in Sweden (2010), and Shared Capitalism at Work: Employee Ownership, Profit and Gain Sharing, and Broad-based Stock Options (2010). His forthcoming IZA Prize book is Making Europe Work: IZA Labor Economics Series (2010). Dr. Freeman has also received an NSF Science of Science and Innovation Policy Award # 0915670 “DAT: Scientists and Engineers as Agents of Technological Progress: Measuring the Returns to R&D and the Economic Impact of Science & Engineering Workers.”
Howard Hall is the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory Governor’s Chair in Nuclear Security, in the department of nuclear engineering at UT. He also serves as director of the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy’s Global Security Policy Program. Dr. Hall received his Ph.D. in chemistry (focused on nuclear and radiochemistry) from the University of California in 1989, and his B.S. in chemistry from the College of Charleston in 1985. Prior to joining UT, he spent 20 years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Northern California, where he led major scientific and operational missions in nuclear and homeland security. Dr. Hall is a member of the ANS, the APS, the ACS, and is a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists. His research interests include nuclear security applications, including proliferation detection, counter-proliferation, detection of and response to radiological or nuclear threats, radiochemistry, nuclear forensics, and applications of nuclear-based methods to other security needs (such as explosives detection). His work with the Baker Center focuses on the intersection of science, security, and public policy.
Lester R. Morss began his scientific career in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry by carrying out research on the actinide elements uranium through californium under Professor Burris B. Cunningham, achieving a Ph.D. at University of California, Berkeley in 1969. After postdoctoral study with James W. Cobble at Purdue University, he reached the rank of full professor of chemistry at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, doing research in synthetic inorganic chemistry and thermochemistry of transition elements. He joined the Chemistry Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 1980, where he resumed his primary research focus of solid-state and thermochemistry of the transuranium elements. After reaching the rank of senior chemist at Argonne, he was elected a fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science and spent 6 months as an Alexander von Humboldt senior research scientist at the University of Hannover, Germany, in 1992. He retired from Argonne in 2002 and then served until 2010 as program manager
for heavy element chemistry in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of U.S. Department of Energy. He resides in Columbia, Maryland, where he is now an adjunct professor of chemistry at University of Maryland, College Park.
Graham F. Peaslee is a professor and chair of the chemistry department at Hope College, where he has been doing research and teaching for the past 18 years. He is a member of the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the ACS and the Division of Nuclear Physics of the APS. He chairs the Coryell Award Committee for undergraduate research for the DNCT, and is currently a councilor for the Chemistry Division of the Council on Undergraduate Research, and is past-chair of the Leadership Group for Research Experiences for Undergraduates for the Chemistry Division of the National Science Foundation. He has served on an IAEA panel for “Enhancing Nuclear Science Education and Training using Accelerators” and runs the Hope College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory. He has been funded by the NSF for 18 years as co-PI of the Hope College Nuclear Group, and is currently funded to study radioactive nuclear beam reactions, as well as pursuing interdisciplinary nuclear science that includes Particle Induced X-ray Emission, Rutherford Backscattering and Ion-Beam-Induced Luminescence studies. This cross-disciplinary research has expanded to include environmental and forensic applications, including a nuclear forensics project funded by the Department of Homeland Security. Dr. Peaslee has more than 145 refereed publications, which include more than 100 undergraduate co-authors.
Georgine M. Pion is a research associate professor in the Quantitative Methods Program within the department of psychology and human development at Vanderbilt University. Dr. Pion’s research has focused on career development and research policy, particularly as it pertains to determining the effectiveness of training programs of scientists in the biomedical, behavioral, and clinical sciences. She conducted a large-scale evaluation of predoctoral research training programs in the biomedical and behavioral sciences for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as well as evaluations of peer review in the neurosciences, clinical, and behavioral sciences for the NIH’s Center of Scientific Review. Additionally, her work has involved evaluations of other research training initiatives, including the Burroughs Wellcome Career Award in the Biomedical Sciences and the American Association of Gynecology and Obstetrics Foundation Scholars program. She has served as chair of the Technical Advisory Committee for the Survey of Earned Doctorates and as a member of several NRC and IOM committees involved in research and clinical training, including the Panel on the Career Outcomes of Men and Women Scientists and Engineers, Evaluation of the
Lucille S. Markey Charitable Foundation, the Committee on Bridges to Independence, the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Personnel, and the Committee on Training Needs of Health Professionals in Domestic Violence. Dr. Pion received a Merit Award from the NIH in 1999 for her survey and evaluation work and is an associate member of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Pion obtained her Ph.D. from Claremont University in 1980 and completed a National Research Service Award (NRSA) postdoctoral traineeship in Northwestern University’s Evaluation and Research Methodology program.
Henry F. VanBrocklin is currently professor of radiology and biomedical imaging at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) and director of radiopharmaceutical research in the Center for Functional and Molecular Imaging. His work in the field spans many disciplines from short-lived radioisotope production to the creation of fluorine-18 and carbon-11 labeling chemistry strategies for new radiotracer preparation and application. His current research interests include development of automated devices for the production of fluorine-18 labeled molecules, preparation of radiopharmaceutical probes for PET and SPECT blood flow measurement, design of imaging agents targeting cancer cell surface markers, and the application of imaging in drug development. He has on-going collaborations with several pharmaceutical companies. He has been very active within the SNM (Society of Nuclear Medicine) leadership as the president of the Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Council and recently as president of the Molecular Imaging Center of Excellence. He participated in the development and implementation of the SNM’s Molecular Imaging strategic five-year plan. He has been an advocate for the appropriate regulation of radiopharmaceuticals working on multiple task forces within the SNM and in workshops with the FDA. He led a task force to respond to the FDA regarding the exploratory IND (XIND) draft guidance and has subsequently successfully implemented XIND studies at UCSF using the final FDA guidance. Additionally, Dr. VanBrocklin has overseen the complete build out of a state-of-the-art radiochemistry, imaging, training and treatment facility at UCSF for basic R&D and preclinical studies as well as clinical applications.
John F. Wacker is a laboratory fellow at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Dr. Wacker currently works on nuclear forensic analysis and related fields, as well as working on projects that improve and utilize various ultratrace analytical techniques. He supports both the U.S. and international Technical Nuclear Forensics communities as a lead technical expert on the laboratory analysis of nuclear and
radiological materials and on nuclear materials production and usage. From May 2007 to May 2010, Dr. Wacker was detailed to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC, where he served as the chief scientist on the Nuclear Materials Information Program. In his role he advised the DOE and other U.S. government agencies and departments on issues relating to nuclear materials and nuclear forensics. Since returning to PNNL in May 2010, he has continued advising the DOE on issues that include nuclear material analysis, sample archives, and data libraries, as well as assisting at the interagency level in the development of policy-level requirements for nuclear forensics. Prior to May 2007, Dr. Wacker managed research and development programs at PNNL that developed and applied nuclear detection and analysis techniques for the DOE and other U.S. government departments and agencies. From 1993 to 2004, Dr. Wacker managed an analytical laboratory at PNNL that performs nuclear material analyses in support of environmental analysis, treaty verification, and other nuclear safeguards activities. Dr. Wacker earned a Ph.D. in planetary sciences from the University of Arizona and a S.B. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.