National Academies Press: OpenBook

Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise (2012)

Chapter: Appendix G: Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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G

Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals

 

TABLE G-1 Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals

Trade Name Radiopharmaceutical Clinical Indication

Ammonia N13

13N-Ammonia

Myocardial blood flow

Cardio-Gen

82Rb-Rubidium chloride

Myocardial blood flow

Florbetapir F18 **

18F-styryl-pyridine

Amyloid Plaques Alzheimer’s disease

Fluorbetabane F18#

18F-styryl-pyridine

Amyloid Plaques Alzheimer’s disease

Flutemetamol F18#

18F-hydroxy-benzothiazole

Amyloid Plaques Alzheimer’s disease

Fluorpiridaz F18#

18F-pyridazinone

Myocardial blood flow

Fludeoxyglucose F18 Injection

18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose

Oncology,Myocardial Viability, Seizure Foci

Sodium Fluoride F18

Sodium 18F-fluoride

Bone scans



Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Radiopharmaceuticals

Chromitope Mallinkrodt Cr-51

Sodium 51Cr-chromate

Red Blood Cell Labeling

Ga-67

67Ga-Gallium citrate

Soft tissue tumor, Inflammatory processes

Indium In 111 oxyquinoline

111In-Indium oxyquinoline

Luekocyte and platlet labeling

MPI Indium DTPA In 111

111In-Indium Pentetate disodium

Cerebrospinal fluid kinetics

ProstaScint

111In-Indium Capromab Pendetide

Prostate Tumor

Octreoscan

111In-Indium Pentetreotide

Neuroendocrine tumors Gastroenteropancreatic tumors

Zevalin

111In -Ibitumonmab iuxetan

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Sodium Iodide I 123

Sodium 123I-iodide

Thyroid uptake

Datscan

123I-Ioflupane

Striatal Dopaminae Transporters

Adreview

123I-Iobenguane

Pheochromacytoma, Neuroblastoma

Glofil

125I-Iothalamate

Glomerular filtration measurement

Jeanatope

125I-human Serum Albumin

Total blood and plasma volume

Megatope

131I-human Serum Albumin

Total blood and plasma volume

Bexxar

131I-Tositumomab

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Sodium Iodide I 123

Sodium 123I-iodide

Thyroid uptake

Technetium Generator

99mTc-Pertechnetate

Thyroid, salivary and parathyroid

Technelite

   glands, ectopic gastric mucosa,

Ultra-Technekow FM

   dacryocystography, cystography

Neurolite

99mTc-Bicisate (ECD)

Cerebral Perfusion

Hepatolite-CIS

99mTc-Disofenin (DISIDA)

Hepatobiliary function

Ceretec

99mTc-Exametazine (HMPAO)

Cerebral Perfusion

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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Trade Name Radiopharmaceutical Clinical Indication

Pulmolite

99mTc-Aggregated albumin

Pulmonary Perfusion

Technetium Tc 99M Albumin Aggregated Kit

Choletec

99mTc-Mebrofenin

Hepatobiliary function

Osteolite

99mTc-Medronate (MDP)

Bone imaging

Technescan MAG3

99mTc-Mertiatide

Renal function

Techneplex DTPA

99mTc-Pentetate

Renal function, Radioaresol ventilation

Phosphotec Pyrolite Pyro Technescan PYP Amersham PYP

99mTc-Pyrophosphate (PYP)

Infarct imaging, in vivo Red blood cell labeling

Cardiolite Miraluma

99mTc-Sestamibi

Myocardial blood flow, Breast tumor

DMSA

99mTc-Succimer (DMSA)

Renal function

Sulfur Colloid

99mTc-Sulfur Colloid

Liver/spleen gastric emptying, GI bleeds

AN-Sulfur Colloid

Myoview

99mTc-Tetrofosmin

Myocardial blood flow

Thallium

201Tl-Thallium chloride

Myocardial blood flow, Parathyroid, Tumor

Xenon

133Xe-xenon gas

Pulmonary ventilation

Radiotherapeutics

Zevalin

90Y-Ibitumonmab Tiuxetan

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Bexaar

131I-Tositumomab

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Metastron

89Sr-strontium

bone pain from skeletal metastases

Quadramet

153Sm Lexidronin

bone pain from skeletal metastases

Sodium Iodide I 131

Sodium 131I-iodide

Thyroid therapy

HICON

Phosphocol 32

32P-Chromicphosphate

Intracavity malignancies

** Conditionally approved by the FDA

# in Phase 3 clinical trials

SOURCE: NRC/IOM 2007; FDA 2011; UAMS 2011

REFERENCES

FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2011. Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration [online]. Available: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/ob/default.cfm [accessed November 21, 2011].

NRC/IOM (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine). 2007. Appendix C. Commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. Pp. 151-154 in Advancing Nuclear Medicine through Innovation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

UAMS (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences). 2011. Radiopharmaceutical List and Package Inserts. Nuclear Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences [online]. Available: http://nuclearpharmacy.uams.edu/resources/PackageInserts.asp [accessed October 24, 2011].

Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"Appendix G: Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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The growing use of nuclear medicine, the potential expansion of nuclear power generation, and the urgent needs to protect the nation against external nuclear threats, to maintain our nuclear weapons stockpile, and to manage the nuclear wastes generated in past decades, require a substantial, highly trained, and exceptionally talented workforce. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise examines supply and demand for expertise in nuclear chemistry nuclear science, and radiochemistry in the United States and presents possible approaches for ensuring adequate availability of these skills, including necessary science and technology training platforms.

Considering a range of reasonable scenarios looking to the future, none of these areas are likely to experience a decrease in demand for expertise. However, many in the current workforce are approaching retirement age and the number of students opting for careers in nuclear and radiochemistry has decreased dramatically over the past few decades. In order to avoid a gap in these critical areas, increases in student interest in these careers, in the research and educational capacity of universities and colleges, and sector specific on-the-job training will be needed. Concise recommendations are given for actions to avoid a shortage of nuclear chemistry, nuclear scientists, and radiochemists in the future.

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