National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix D - Leadership Competency Library
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 27
Page 28
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 28
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 29
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 30
Page 31
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 31
Page 32
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 32
Page 33
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Types of Assessments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2011. Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13324.
×
Page 33

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

27 A P P E N D I X E Types of Assessments Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do Physical Exams Drug screens Use medical screening procedures to detect whether candidates have used illegal or controlled substances (e.g., urinalysis, analysis of hair samples). X Identify people who may work under the influence of controlled substances and engage in other counter- productive behaviors associated with drug use Not useful for predicting superior job performance Will not identify poor hires who do not use drugs May be relatively costly compared to other assessments Physical ability tests Require candidates to perform physical tasks such as lifting weights, completing cardiovascular exercises, or demonstrating flexibility. X Determine if people can handle physical demands associated with a job Only relevant for jobs that have a clear and well- defined physical component May pose legal risks associated with Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and/or potential adverse impact against women May be relatively costly compared to other assessments

28 Social Security verification Searches online databases to ensure that a candidate’s social security number is valid. X Verify candidate’s identity Comply with regulations related to U.S. and state hiring laws Not useful for predicting actual job performance Reference checks Collect information from former employers or academic institutions to verify previous employment status and educational credentials; may also gather information about candidate performance in previous jobs. X Verify candidate employment and educational history Additional source of information about a candidate Many former employers are reluctant to provide reference information Reference information is often of questionable quality May be relatively costly compared to other assessments Credit reports Contact credit reporting agencies to obtain information about a candidate’s financial history. X Provide insight into candidate’s fiscal responsibility; may be particularly relevant for jobs where candidates will have direct access to cash Debate exists about appropriate- ness of using credit information to evaluate candidates; may be perceived as invasive by candidates May be relatively costly compared to other assessments Investigations Criminal record checks Searches public records and private databases to determine if applicants have any prior criminal convictions. X Identify people with known criminal histories who are more likely to engage in counter- productive behavior Not useful for predicting superior job performance Will not identify poor hires who do not have a criminal record compared to other assessments May be relatively costly Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do

29 on the content of resumes they submit directly to the company or that are posted to Web-based job boards. screening candidates based on unique skills and qualifications candidates who have incomplete resumes, and overly favor candidates with inflated resumes Can be time consuming and complex to use with large numbers of candidates sharing similar backgrounds Interviews Unstructured interviews Evaluate candidates by having a discussion with them about topics that seem relevant to the job. Depends on the questions used Depends on the questions used Depends on the questions used Can be used to build relationships with candidates Build “buy in” toward selection decisions among hiring process stakeholders May not predict job performance Structured interviews: motivational questions Evaluate candidates by asking pre-defined questions about interests, career goals, and plans. X All the benefits of unstructured interviews May be useful for predicting tenure and organizational commitment May not predict job performance as well as situational or behavioral interview questions Resume capture & reviews Evaluate candidates based X Good for May overlook Resume Screens Electronic recruiting agents Search the Web for qualified candidates based on words found in resumes posted on internal or external career boards. X Can uncover candidates that might have gone unnoticed otherwise Good for finding candidates with unique skills and qualifications Effectiveness is limited by quality of resumes posted on the Web May overlook candidates who have incomplete resumes, and overly favor candidates with inflated resumes Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do

30 Structured interviews: behavioral questions Evaluate candidates by asking them to describe experiences and accomplishments that relate to things they will have to do on the job. X All the benefits of unstructured interviews Considered to be the most effective type of interview May be less valuable for predicting how candidates will handle situations they have not previously encountered determine if they possess specific skills, experiences, or credentials needed to perform a job (e.g., “are you willing to work weekends,” “have you ever used MS Excel?”). screen out poorly qualified candidates Readily available through many applicant tracking and staffing systems between top candidates Susceptible to candidate faking Can be difficult to develop effective questions Personality questionnaires Ask candidates a series of self- descriptive questions about their likes, preferences, behaviors, and past experiences that reflect personality traits associated with job performance. X Effective for predicting “soft” aspects of performance related to interpersonal style, emotional stability, attitudes, and motivation May be perceived as invasive or non-job- relevant by candidates Difficult to develop; easy to create measures that do not work well Self-Report Measures Pre-screening questionnaires/weighted application blanks Ask very direct questions to candidates to X X Can be an efficient method to Provides little value for differentiating Structured interviews: situational questions Evaluate candidates by asking how they would respond to hypothetical situations similar to what they may encounter on the job. X All the benefits of unstructured interviews May be useful for predicting how candidates will handle situations they have not encountered in the past May not predict job performance as well as behavioral interview questions Interviews Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do

31 Culture & work environment fit inventories Ask questions about job preferences, values, beliefs, and desired work environment to predict organizational commitment and job satisfaction with a specific job X Can be effective for predicting job satisfaction and tenure Tend to show low relationships to actual job performance Difficult to develop; easy to create measures that or company. do not work well Integrity & reliability tests for Ask candidates about beliefs, preferences, and experiences that reflect a propensity counterproductive behavior. X X Useful for screening out applicants likely to engage in theft, drug use, and other highly deviant behaviors Little value for predicting superior job performance Only relevant for those jobs where employee counter- productivity is an issue Some questions may offend or insult applicants May be subject to legal restrictions in some states Biodata inventories Ask questions about previous life experiences and accomplishments that show statistical relationships to job performance. X X Effective for predicting “soft” aspects of performance such as interpersonal style, emotional stability, attitudes, and motivation May be perceived as invasive or non-job- relevant by candidates Difficult to develop; easy to create measures that do not work well Self-Report Measures Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do

32 Knowledge, Skill, & Ability Tests Ability tests and measures of problem solving aptitude Predict ability to solve problems and interpret information by asking applicants to solve questions that require processing information to arrive at logically based conclusions. X X Considered to be the single most accurate type of assessment for predicting job performance Particularly valuable for jobs that require ongoing learning, processing complex information, and solving novel problems Show adverse impact against certain EEOC- protected groups Tend to be disliked by applicants Knowledge & skills tests and measures of past learning “achievement” Assess familiarity and mastery with regard to specific types of information or tasks (e.g., knowledge of accounting rules, ability to use certain software programs, typing skills). X X Useful for determining candidates’ skill level with regard to critical job functions May assess things that could be learned on- the-job Situational Measures Low-fidelity job simulations/situational judgment tests Ask candidates questions about different hypothetical work situations. X X X Tap into a broad range of job- relevant interests, experiences, and abilities Can predict “soft” skills associated with interpersonal behavior and work style Highly job realistic; tend to be favorably received by applicants May only be relevant for a narrow range of jobs Can require somewhat more time to administer than measures of personality and ability that may predict the same aspects of job performance Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do

33 High-fidelity job simulations/assessment centers/work samples Use audio, video, computer simulations, and/or human actors to recreate actual job situations and then assess how candidates react to these scenarios. X X X Tap into a broad range of job- relevant interests, experiences, and abilities Labor intensive to construct May only be relevant for a narrow range of jobs with interpersonal behavior and work style Highly job realistic; tend to be favorably received by applicants administer than other measures of personality and ability that may predict the same aspects of job performance Can be very costly to create and support Cognitive task simulations Candidates perform simple tasks or “video games” that require the use of skills that influence job performance. X Can be very effective for predicting performance of job tasks that involve processing and reacting to information in real time If designed properly, can be highly engaging for applicants; provide a realistic preview of job activities Relatively unexplored type of assessment Scores on cognitive tasks tend to be related to ability test scores; may show adverse impact Can predict “soft” skills associated Can require considerably more time to Situational Measures Assessment tool How does it evaluate candidates? What it measures What it does Common limitations What people have done What people want to do What people can do

Next: Appendix F - Competency-Focused Structured Interviews (Information Outline and Process Protocol) »
Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 148: Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of public transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs.

The report also assesses the transit industry's recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that documents the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions.

The report also describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!