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2Research has been conducted over the years on various methods and processes used to recruit, select, and retain exec- utives, but there is a paucity of information available on minor- ity executives in the public transit industry or elsewhere. The TCRP F-15 Project research team conducted a compre- hensive review of relevant literature related to the recruitment, selection, and retention of executives in both the public and private sectors, focusing on information related to minor- ity executives in the public transit industry. Included in the research were best practices, challenges, and trends that shed light on current and past executive talent management (that is, the system by which minority individuals are recruited, hired, developed, promoted, and retained) into leadership positions. Key reference materials and sources of information are identi- fied in the References, and the review and findings from these materials are discussed below. A computerized bibliographic search was conducted using the following databases: Regional Business Review, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, ERIC, Academic Search Premiere, Business Source Elite, Business Source Complete, and Academy of Management. These databases consist of abstracts, confer- ence papers, and peer-reviewed research articles from various research journals. In addition, a manual search was con- ducted of journals that publish research findings on mentor- ing. Some of these were as follows: â¢ Academy of Management Journal, â¢ Journal of Applied Psychology, â¢ Journal of Vocational Behavior, â¢ Personnel Psychology, Work, Gender and Behavior Journal, â¢ Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, and â¢ Journal of Career Development. Other sources included the Society of Human Resources Management, Society of Industrial Organizational Psychol- ogy, Human Capital Institute, Center for Creative Leadership, Gallup Research, Institute for Executive Development, the Federal Transit Administration, and the Conference Board. There were a number of major findings and themes from the study teamâs literature review. A common recommen- dation was to make diversity an integral part of the organi- zation. For example, several articles advise that diversity at any level, particularly the executive level, requires active endorsement from senior leaders, including the board of direc- tors (Edmonds-Wickman, 2008; Gardenswartz and Rowe, 2006; Hastings, 2007). Many experts suggest that linking pay to diversity would drive the required outcomes (Edmonds- Wickman, 2008; Gardenswartz and Rowe, 2001; Hastings, 2007; Hewlett et al., 2005). The healthcare industry, for exam- ple, has increasingly tied measures of commitment to ethnic and gender diversity directly to annual performance evalua- tions (Larson, 2008). There were several topics related to the barriers for recruit- ing minority executives. Many authors cited as a common barrier the fact that managers and recruiters believe that tal- ented minority candidates are either difficult to find or non- existent, according to Gardenswartz and Row (2004). Several authors (Digh, 2005; Edmonds-Wickman, 2008; Ford, 2004) suggest that the ways in which organizations search for minor- ity candidates and the places they search should expand to nontraditional avenues. The National Football League (NFL) addressed similar challenges by adopting the Rooney Rule, which required decisionmakers to include at least one qualified minority candidate in the recruitment and selection process (Wheaton, 2010). Consequently, the number of minorities occupying head football coaching positions increased. The State of Oregon adopted this practice when it signed legisla- tion that will require all state universities to interview at least one minority candidate for each head coach and athletic director position that becomes available in the future. Finally, one major barrier discussed by Larson is that some executives and boards are not accustomed to working with minority candidates and, frankly, do not know how to do so. In the GOLD study, The New Leaders: Guidelines on Leadership Diversity in America (Morrison, 1992), the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) focused on addressing existing barriers and C H A P T E R 1 Literature Review
implementing strategies for promoting and executing minor- ity advancement at all levels, particularly in the executive suite. One key finding was that, in order for change and progress to occur, high-level executives within the organization, includ- ing CEOs, CEO-level (or âC-levelâ) employees, and boards of directors, must lead the effort and be active participants in making diversity an important part of the business plan. Literature regarding retaining minority executives had a few common themes. For example, Chhabra and Mishra (2008) suggested mentoring programs and knowledge trans- fer. They found that mentoring is a good method for devel- oping individuals professionally. Planning for succession and acceleration was another strong recommendation. Organiza- tions need to identify, track, and develop key individuals who have the potential to rise to top-level positions. The literature review includes seminal, dated, and current research articles on minorities in executive positions. More specifically, the research focused on best practices, challenges, trends, and strategies that companies and organizations have faced in recruiting and retaining minorities in executive lead- ership positions. The seminal research dates back to the 1970s and also includes sources as current as 2010. 3