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10 This chapter outlines a set of strategic recommendations. The recommendations focus on attracting, recruiting, select- ing, and retaining minority CEOs in public transit agencies. While the âResourcesâ chapter provides recommendations for C-level recruitment for public transit systems of all sizes and types, prioritizing the recommendations will be based on the transit systemâs specific needs and organizational strategy. In the acquisition of talent, one size does not fit all and, there- fore, transit systems are advised to analyze their organiza- tional needs against their requirements. The contents of this chapter are presented in the following sections: â¢ Diversity CEO recruitment model, â¢ Executive selection process, and â¢ Retention. Diversity CEO Recruitment Model The research found six unique methods for recruiting and building a diverse executive candidate pool; these are shown in Figure 3-1. Method 1: Combine Internal and External Executive Recruitment Methods Description: Most transit agencies used either an internal or external recruitment source to identify, attract, recruit, and select CEO executives. The research suggests transit agencies combine the use of an internal agency recruiter (i.e., an agencyâs in-house recruiting staff) with the efforts of an external executive recruiter (i.e., search firms). Implementation of Method 1 â¢ The internal transit agency recruiter owns and drives the recruitment and selection process in collaboration with an executive search firm. The study teamâs research indicated that the private sector uses both resources to mount a wide recruitment effort. In this case, the transit agency should use its resources to implement its recruitment strategy by, for example, leveraging its internal network. Agency board members and executive leadership have a circle of poten- tial candidates or know someone who does. â¢ Internal recruiters partner with executive search firms to ensure the creation of a comprehensive recruitment strat- egy, selection process, and identification of appropriate staffing assessments without an overlap in efforts. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Cost â¢ Internal recruiters â¢ Ownership of the re- â¢ Board of directorsâ search cruitment and selection committee process Impact of Method 1 To succeed in building long-term diversity, these efforts must be driven from the executive level and even by the board of directors, according to Hewlett, Luce, and West (2005) and Stuart (2007). Implementing a combined approach that involves internal and external resources can help expand recruitment efforts. Additionally, for transit agencies that have proactive initiatives for promoting diversity, this method ensures that the diversity mind-set is incorporated into the process. Method 2: Create Diversity Executive Recruitment Programs Description: Companies that promoted diversity received tremendous benefits. Hewlett, Luce, and West, and Stuart explain that organizations that were proactive with diversity C H A P T E R 3 Resources for Recruiting Minority CEOs at Public Transit Agencies
established good, measurable objectives that resulted in a clear diversity mind-set. The study teamâs research shows that the majority of CEOs/GMs and HR professionals do not have a formal, fully established diversity recruitment program for senior executive roles at their organizations. Implementation of Method 2 â¢ Transit agencies should align diversity recruitment initia- tives with pay. A study by Tom Warne and Associates (2005) questions the Department of Transportationâs lack of pro- gressive infrastructure and pervasive inadequacies in the areas of planning, accountability, and vision pertaining to hiring minority CEOs and other C-level talent. One effective way in which to ensure that diversity is a priority among key stakeholders is to link it to pay, suggests Edmonds- Wickman; Garden and Rowe (2004); Hasting (2007); and Hewlett et al. (2005). â¢ Establishing affinity groups, also known as business resource groups or networking groups, provides employ- ees with an opportunity to share ideas and to network with people who come from similar ethnic or cultural back- grounds. Larson (2008) points out aspiring leaders have a greater chance of success when they have a support system with experienced senior leaders. Hewlett highlights such companies as Eli Lilly, Ford Motor Company, and General Electric, which have supported a number of different affin- ity groups formed by employees on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and religion. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Diversity may not be â¢ Executive staff a top priority â¢ Lack of progressive com- â¢ Board of directors pensation programs may prevent implementation â¢ Lack of diversity within â¢ In-house recruiters the transit agency Impact of Method 2 With a formal diversity program, transit agencies will be able to create a platform for a diversity mind-set that priori- tizes diversity in the organization. Guidelines on Leadership Diversity in America, a study conducted by the Center of Creative Leadership, emphasized the necessity of active par- ticipation by executives and members of the board of direc- tors to make change occur. Method 3: Require a Mandatory Diverse Talent Pool Description: The study teamâs research indicated that industry search firms should have a mandatory requirement for identifying, attracting, and recruiting a diverse candidate pool. Wheaton (2010) points out, for example, that requiring at least one qualified African-American candidate in the inter- view selection process resulted in more black head coaches being hired in the NFL. Implementation of Method 3 â¢ Hiring the best candidate for the CEO position requires the development of a good job success profile. â¢ Agencies should develop a talent strategy that includes recruitment sources (i.e., COMTO) where qualified minor- ity candidates can be recruited. â¢ Agencies should include a minimum of one qualified minor- ity candidate in the interview selection. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Approach may be viewed â¢ Executive recruiters as preferential treatment â¢ Viewed as not applicable â¢ Board of directors to the public transit industry â¢ Viewed as an affirmative action approach 11 Leverage Professional Associations Use Extensive Internet Search Diverse Executive Talent Pool Combined Recruitment Methods Create Diversity Executive Recruitment Programs Require a Mandatory Diverse Talent Pool Create Succession Plan & Leadership Development Figure 3-1. Diversity executive recruitment strategies.
to three levels below the top position will be beneficial for building an internal diverse leadership pool. â¢ Research suggests that, in order to ensure a good pipeline of leadership talent, some organizations have now focused on developing the talent themselves. Cohn, Khurana, and Reeves (2005) recognize that organizations need to inter- weave their leadership development with talent manage- ment in a way that aligns with strategic priorities. This involves actively involving the CEO and board of directors in leadership development activities and creating leader- ship development programs that fill critical talent gaps. â¢ Hewittâs Human Capital et al. (2008) revealed that success- ful execution of leadership development programs included activities that involved shared responsibility among man- agers and staff. For instance, senior leaders conducted talent reviews on at least a semi-annual basis; leadership perform- ance reviews and activities were based on well-defined leader- ship competencies. â¢ Selection planning requires an assessment for readiness for the final selection and using additional assessment data to finalize decisions. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Transit agency may think â¢ Senior executives it lacks the time and re- sources to start success- ion planning â¢ Transit agency may not â¢ Board of directors have a leadership compe- tency model â¢ Transit agency may not have executives able to train their successors Impact of Method 4 Succession planning and leadership development, when executed well, will enable transit agencies to develop leader- ship with high potential for vacant leadership positions. By developing and promoting internal staff, transit agencies can save time and money on recruitment costs, ensure the right skills are developed, and increase the likelihood of greater retention. Method 5: Leverage Professional Associations Description: Utilizing public transit professional associa- tions is an important element in building a deep and diverse talent pool. Both APTA and COMTO provide a rich source for identifying, meeting, and establishing a diverse talent Impact of Method 3 Wheaton explains that although the Rooney Rule seemed too simple to work, it has increased the number of minority coaches in the NFL. At the start of the 2006 season, the num- ber of minority head coaches had increased to 22% since the Rooney Rule was instituted in 2003. A 2000 U.S. Census revealed that only 4 of the nationâs 20 largest public transit agencies had minority CEOs at the helm. Implementing the Rooney Rule could provide many benefits, including the following: â¢ Increasing the total representation of minority CEOs lead- ing public transit agencies; â¢ Fueling innovation and enhancing the culture of the organization (Executive Leadership Council, 2009); â¢ Bringing different perspectives regarding management and problem-solving practices to bear on organizations (Davis, 2000; Mayo, 1999); and â¢ Creating a ripple effect throughout the organization (Cole, 2008; Kalev et al., 2006). Method 4: Create Succession Planning and Leadership Development Programs Description: Succession planning is the process of identify- ing and preparing qualified employees through such vehicles as mentoring, coaching, training, and job rotation opportuni- ties for key management positions that become vacant in the organization. Organizations must obtain a commitment from top executives to personally mentor successors, according to Greer and Virick (2008) and should identify leadership com- petencies. Additionally, they recommend that candidates with high potential should be informed of their place in the succes- sion pipeline. Implementation of Method 4 â¢ Succession planning should involve the creation of leader- ship competencies for recruitment, selection, training and development, and performance evaluation. â¢ Succession planning requires determining broad capabili- ties and potential. â¢ Succession planning requires valid assessments to meas- ure leadership potential. Prien, Schippmann, and Prien (2003) explain the importance of using standardized, validated assessments to ensure the inclusion of those with the greatest leadership potential in the leader suc- cession plan. â¢ A secondary study conducted on the impact of the NFLâs Rooney Rule suggests that focused minority hiring at one 12
pool. Each association has an annual conference that brings together industry executives from around the country. Implementation of Method 5 â¢ Transit agencies should consistently send a representative to identify, meet, network, and cultivate a professional relationship with diverse talent. â¢ Transit agencies should set up an organization booth to meet potential applicants. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Transit agency may lack â¢ In-house recruiter(s) resources to attend the events â¢ Transit agencies may not â¢ In-house human have a plan or strategy resources executive on the desired outcome of their attendance â¢ Transit agency may â¢ Executive recruiters not have executives able to train their successors Impact of Method 5 Establishing a presence at the industryâs annual conference will help promote greater awareness of the agency, increase the chances of meeting passive candidates, and build an appli- cant pool for future openings. Method 6: Extensive Internet Search Description: Most transit agencies used the Internet to post positions on transit Web sites. The study teamâs research revealed that most private-sector firms regularly use specialized Internet searches, rather than Web sites, to identify minority executive candidates. Effective use of the Internet expands recruitment strategies. Implementation of Method 6 â¢ Transit agencies should use key word searches using Google (e.g., a keyword string such as âminority execu- tives in high technologyâ) as well as searching business and professional-oriented social networking sites such as LinkedIn.com. â¢ Transit agencies should subscribe to services that offer pro- files of professionals in different industries such as Micro- quest, Zoominfo.com, Jigsaw. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Transit agency may lack â¢ In-house recruiters budget to pay for resources beyond current use â¢ Transit agency may re- â¢ Executive recruiters quire specific training on how to leverage LinkedIn Impact of Method 6 Maximizing the use of Internet searches will expand cur- rent recruitment strategies for executive-level professionals and increase the chances of attracting and recruiting passive minority executive professionals. It also provides a mecha- nism to proactively build a pool of future potential minority executive leads and prospects. Executive Selection Process Leadership Success Profile To make optimal leadership hiring decisions and create sys- tems and processes that enhance diversity in senior executive positions, public transit systems should first determine the competencies required for success in the leadership role(s). Research and practice has clearly determined that it is critical that the requirements for the executive leadership role(s) are clarified if candidates are to be effectively screened for their leadership skills, capabilities, and organizational fit (Gate- wood and Feild, 2001). A competency modeling process will create an accurate and broadly useful leadership success profile. After the appropriate attributes and capabilities are identified and clearly outlined in the leadership success pro- file, assessments can be identified or created to determine the degree to which candidates possess those competencies. The basic leadership competency modeling steps are out- lined in the following section (also see Prien, Schippmann, and Prien, 2003). Implementation of Leadership Success Profile â¢ The profile starts with collecting and synthesizing existing organizational literature, information, and formal docu- ments, such as the following: â Documented vision, mission, values, and culture; â Strategic plan, business strategy/annual report, and business goals; â Prior competency models or role requirement/ responsibilities documents (could include existing relevant job descriptions); 13
â Performance evaluations (may be performance review documents, but also could be multi-rater feedback content, balanced scorecards, etc.); and â Organizational charts and structural outlines (this infor- mation will illustrate the span of control, reporting rela- tionships, and career options for the target job, and often yields some insights into how decisions are made in the organization as well as potential leadership needs). â¢ The profile requires a work environment assessment and competency identification as follows: â Interview with a broad/representative sample of key stakeholders to determine what behaviors leaders must demonstrate in order to be successful, and also what knowledge, skills, and abilities are required for success in the leadership role. See Competency Modeling Work- sheet for a general guide (Appendix B). â Solicit input to determine the defining characteristics of organization. See Organization Modeling Worksheet for a general guide (Appendix C). â Utilize a competency library as a guide. See Sample Competency Library (Appendix D). â Include the following participants: âª Executive incumbent; âª Leadership team members; âª Superiors to the executive (e.g., board, etc.); and âª Key subject matter experts (HR lead, consultants, etc.). â¢ Synthesize all information collected to create a leadership competency profile, which â May have prioritized tiers (e.g., primary and secondary competencies); â Has tailored competencies as needed to align with orga- nizational priorities; and â Typically is limited to between 6 and 12 competencies. â¢ Verify/validate the leadership competency model by â Establishing consensus among senior leaders regard- ing the accuracy and completeness of the competency model, â Making changes/revisions as needed, and â âPublishingâ and socializing the new leadership compe- tency model. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Stakeholder time/effort â¢ Internal HR or talent investment management profession- als experienced in competency modeling â¢ Effective use of the com- â¢ Consultants who special- petencies may elude ize in creating leader- some agencies if pro- ship competencies perly trained personnel are not available Impact of the Leadership Success Profile Leadership competency models are essential for determin- ing what knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics leaders should possess in order to be successful in the orga- nization. The process also ensures that the leader fits into the leadership team and enhances stakeholder support for the process resulting in decisions. Stakeholder involvement not only focuses the assessments on the competencies, but also helps build the enthusiasm and commitment needed to sup- port decisions or actions that result from the hiring process. The competency model also can support on-boarding (i.e., a systematic process to socialize a new employee into the orga- nization) and leadership development efforts, performance management, and leadership succession management. Leadership Assessment for Selection Once the competencies have been defined, clarified, and clearly documented in a leadership success profile, assessments can be chosen and configured to effectively evaluate candidates based on specific success criteria. Mapping assessments to the required competencies ensures that all assessments are rele- vant, fair, and accurately screen qualified candidates (Prien, Schippmann, and Prien, 2003). Outputs include reliable and valid information to assist in making the optimal hiring decision, which enhances opportunities for diverse, qualified applicants. Furthermore, utilizing high-quality assessment methods can build a performance-oriented organizational culture that values leadership capabilities over other unrelated characteristics. The basic leadership selection steps are out- lined below (also see Hunt, 2007). Implementation of Assessments â¢ Candidatesâ work experiences, background checks, resumes, and other preliminary and relevant documents/information should be reviewed. â¢ Transit agencies need to use standardized assessments for skills, capabilities, attributes, interests, and preferences. For executive leadership positions, assessments can be catego- rized according to the following areas (see Appendix E for additional information): â Leadership skills inventories; â Personality assessments/inventories; â Values, interests, preferences inventories; â Cognitive ability tests; â Skill/knowledge tests; and â Organizational/environment fit indices. (Note on selecting an assessment vendor: When seeking to utilize existing tests and assessments, be sure to check for evidence or relevance to the specific competencies being assessed. In addition, the vendor should provide assessment validity evidence specifically for leadership positions.) 14
â¢ Transit agencies should create and use structured, competency-focused interviews (see Appendix F) as follows: â Assess relatively recent and relevant leadership behav- iors in similar situations/circumstances; â Assess fit for the leadership team and organization as a whole; â Utilize a mix of types of interview questions (see Appen- dix G); and â Utilize interview templates to enhance standardization and consistency (see Appendix H). â¢ Interviewers should create and utilize simulations and leadership scenarios/role-plays focused on key leadership competencies (e.g., effective interpersonal communica- tion, motivating others, building trust, etc.). â¢ Interviewers should use business case analyses to help determine business acumen, industry knowledge, strategic thinking, etc. (if needed). â¢ Transit agencies should integrate all assessment informa- tion and ratings for each leadership competency. â Weight assessment scores based on importance and prioritization of competencies and â Provide overall strengths, challenges, and recommen- dations. â¢ Transit agencies should make hiring decision utilizing an overall composite of the data. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Stakeholder time invest- â¢ Internal HR or talent ment to choose standard- management profession- ized assessments, create als experienced in tailored assessments, and utilizing valid leadership implement assessments â¢ Effective use of the assess- â¢ Consultants who special- ment information may ize in creating and/or elude some agencies if using valid leadership properly trained person- assessments nel are not available â¢ Using invalid predictors â¢ Candidates tend to react of leadership perfor- favorably to organiza- mance, such as: tions that utilize objec- â Unstructured tive assessments and are interviews seeking highly qualified â Invalidated selection candidates tools and those lacking validity â¢ Rater biases are exacer- bated with unstructured methods (see Appendix I) Impact of Assessments Impacts include better leadership selection decisions, which enhance opportunities for diverse, qualified applicants. Furthermore, utilizing high-quality assessment methods can enhance a performance-oriented organizational culture that values leadership capabilities over other unrelated character- istics. Assessments also can enhance the effectiveness of lead- ership succession management systems (see Appendix J). Ultimately, placing more qualified leaders will contribute to enhanced, overall organizational performance (Cascio and Boudreau, 2008). Retention Retaining valuable employees remains a difficult challenge for organizations. This section provides practical recommen- dations on methods transit agencies may use to enhance retention, especially transit agencies that have budgetary con- straints for offering monetary increases to C-level executives. Effective retention strategies hinge on reliable, timely intel- ligence about employees and corporate culture (Judge, 1993; Lyness and Judiesch, 2001; Trevor, Gerhart, and Boudreau, 1997). According to Strickland (1997), executive coaching has emerged as a method of choice used for retention and leadership development. Additionally, Hayes (1997) explains that coaching helps a candidate transition into the role of an executive. The effectiveness of recruitment and leadership development practices is connected to future retention (ICF et al., 2010). For example, a minority executive professional without good coaching is more likely to leave the organiza- tion than someone who is in a structured coaching program to support the transition into the organization or executive role. This section will highlight effective practices that are specific to minority executives. Specific recommendations and practices to facilitate retention are listed in Figure 3-2. Executive Coaching Transit agencies should offer executive coaching to help retain minority executive leaders. This is especially important for transit agencies hiring a first-time CEO in their organi- zation. The use of an executive coach will assist leaders by providing new perspectives, tools, and knowledge through support, encouragement, and feedback in the context of the organization. 15 Executive Coaching Realisitc Job Previews Mentoring On-Boarding Figure 3-2. Recommendations and practices of retention.
Implementation of Executive Coaching â¢ Use 360-degree feedback tools to understand current strengths as well as areas that require attention for improvement. â¢ Identify an executive coach. Using a coach is a short- term interactive process between a certified coach and a leader to improve leadership effectiveness by enhancing self-awareness and the development of new skills and behaviors (Kilburg, 2004). â¢ Foster factors that ensure a successful coaching engagementâsuch as establishing structure and the expectation of honest communication according to Hall, Otazo, and Hollenbeck (1999). â¢ Create a framework to determine and measure the success of executive coaching. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Transit agency lacks bud- â¢ Outside consultant get to pay for resources â¢ Lack of objectivity if â¢ Human resources conducted by a transit executives agency resource â¢ Lack of commitment by the executive â¢ Concerns of confidentiality Impact of Executive Coaching Research conducted by Kombarkaran, Yang, Baker, and Fernandes (2008) reported positive outcomes in coaching experiences by executives. They found that executives shared an increase in confidence and maximized their contribution to their organizations. Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) RJPs are designed to provide job prospects and applicants with realistic information related to the profession and posi- tion. The information captured in RJPs reflects both positive and negative aspects of the job. RJPs should be incorporated into all levels of the talent acquisition process. Implementation of RJPs â¢ Breaugh (2008) indicates that utilizing RJPs in the begin- ning stages of the talent acquisition process is better than later because they have little effectiveness after someone has been hired. â¢ Current employees can be provided an RJP if they are fac- ing a change in job statusâsuch as a new assignment or promotion into a new position. â¢ RJPs can take a number of formats, including â Company position overview (CPO). Writing and providing a comprehensive CPO will provide applicants with infor- mation beyond the standard job description. The CPO should include an overview of the organization, strategic direction, mission, values, organizational size, position success profile, position selling points, position goals and challenges, relocation information, and benefits. Addi- tionally, it helps provide the framework for a one-on-one discussion between the applicant and hiring authority. â Workplace tours. Providing a tour before or during the interview process will help applicants see the organiza- tion in its true form. During the tours, applicants should have the opportunity to sit in on staff or board meetings. â Assessment centers. Using assessments during the recruit- ment and selection process helps organizations to iden- tify potential variables that impact retention and to develop more effective strategies (Simms, 2008). The use of assessment centers is intended to maximize the effec- tiveness of executive selection by using multiple assess- ment methods and trained multiple ratersâ evaluations (Gatewood and Feild, 2001). â Organization brochure, lectures, and pre-screen question- naires. These are additional forms of one-way RJPs that can be used during the recruitment and selection process. â¢ Consider one-way approaches (e.g., videos, organization brochures, and pre-screen questionnaires), although these are less effective than two-way approaches that allow appli- cants to discuss and ask questions (Breaugh). Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Position may change â¢ Current employees can often due to demands be used to assist in the in the market development of an RJP â¢ Costly to implement â¢ HR executives and execu- some forms of RJPs, tive recruiters are appro- particularly assessment priate developers of RJPs centers since they implement the recruitment strategies â¢ Time it takes to obtain â¢ Board of directors can buy-in and information assist with the develop- from multiple internal ment of RJPs sources â¢ Lack of expertise to develop videos Impact of RJPs According to Dahm (2006), RJPs serve as a âscreening deviceâ for certain types of individuals, namely, those who would be most likely to quit as a result of a poor âmatchâ with the organization. Branham (2005) views RJPs as a means 16
of ensuring that expectations of new hire match on-the-job reality. Although RJPs may reduce a recruitment candidate pool, research indicates that RJPs reduce turnover for appli- cants who receive them and accept a job position (Reinach and Viale, 2007). Mentoring Mentoring is a form of providing support in which individ- uals with more advanced experience and knowledge (mentors) are matched with lesser-experienced and knowledgeable indi- viduals (mentees) for the purpose of advancing the menteeâs development (Watson Wyatt Worldwide, 2004). The two most common styles of mentoring are formal and informal (Wash- ington, 2007). The differences between the two types are based on the structure. Informal mentoring develops when protÃ©gÃ©s (i.e., mentees) seek out individuals they admire and emulate them (Armstrong, Allinson, and Hayes, 2002; Chao and Walz, 1992). Formal mentoring generally consists of an arrangement between mentors and mentees, who have mutual respect as well as similar career goals. Implementation of Mentoring â¢ Support and establish a framework for informal mentor- ing through affinity groups. â¢ Develop a structured mentoring program for director, vice president, and C-level professionals. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Relationships forced or â¢ C-Level executives who assigned can cause both have excelled in their mentors and mentees to career display discontent (Washington, 2007) â¢ Allocated time of C-Level executives â¢ Identifying mentors within the organization â¢ Difficult to measure informal mentoring â¢ Cost to develop formal executive mentoring program Impact of Mentoring Barriers that may have prevented career advancement for minorities have been broken due to mentoring support that created opportunities for promotions, higher salaries, and increased job satisfaction (Noe, 1998; Mullen, 1998; Ragins and Cotton, 1999). The Hunt and Michael, as well as the Chao and Walz, studies found a positive impact on individuals, their level of motivation, and the menteesâ self-image, competence, and career advancement. On-Boarding On-boarding is a comprehensive process of assimilating new hires into the work environment. It involves helping new hires effectively perform their positions early and with a close connection to the organizationâs culture. The process reaches beyond the standard new hire orientation, lasting between 3 to 6 months to ensure a successful integration into the work environment and position. Implementation of On-Boarding â¢ Integrate on-boarding with recruitment and selection processes. â¢ Develop a formal on-boarding process that extends beyond the initial new hire orientation to include a 3- to 6-month assimilation. â¢ Offer executives the opportunity to learn without taking on major responsibilities. â¢ Develop internal networks to ensure executives meet a variety of key stakeholders. â¢ Consistently use a systemic on-boarding process. â¢ Utilize a Web-based technology solution to monitor and measure progress. Potential Barriers Potential Facilitators â¢ Unclear ownership of â¢ Board of directors on-boarding between HR and hiring authority â¢ On-boarding not a â¢ Human resources priority â¢ Viewing on-boarding as a checklist â¢ Lack of defined on-boarding processes Impact of On-Boarding Brodie (2006) incorporates the results of a study con- ducted by Korn/Ferry showing that too many organizations miss the opportunity to build relationships, clarify expecta- tions, and establish priorities that formalize on-boarding efforts. A talent management report sponsored by Aberdeen Consulting concluded that drastic increases in employee retention and productivity could be traced back to effective on-boarding. DiBenedetto also indicates that a critical fac- tor in assimilating leadership into a new role is to have a well- designed on-boarding program. 17