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This chapter presents an overview of the behind-the-scenes elements of concession programs, including support spaces, the distribution of goods, and the handling of waste, including trash and recyclables. Airport terminals vary widely in configuration, layout, size, age, and condition. The basic principles described in this chapter can be adapted to each airport. The chapter discusses the following: â¢ Loading docks â¢ Security screening of goods â¢ Concession storage facilities â¢ Servicing routes and devices â¢ Use of centralized third-party logistics providers â¢ Waste collection, recycling, and removal â¢ Sustainability â¢ Food preparation 11.1 Loading Docks Loading docks function as areas for receiving incoming goods to be delivered to the terminals and for picking up outgoing goods. Incoming goods may consist of inventory items for conces- sionaires (including food and beverages for restaurants), supplies and equipment for the airline offices, courier service deliveries, and the like. Outgoing goods may consist of trash, recycling materials, inventory returns, and the like. Although the concessionaires are a primary user of a terminalâs loading docks for delivery and waste handling, other terminal operations require deliveries and waste removal and are also served through the same loading dock facilities. Examples include restroom supplies, office supplies, and repair and maintenance supplies. Components of/services accommodated at the loading dock area include the following: â¢ Receiving â¢ Security screening â¢ Incoming holding â¢ Waste holding â¢ Recycling holding â¢ Compactor â¢ Office â¢ Circulation Loading docks should be located for easy access by service vehicles and should be separate from the public entrances to the terminal building. Loading docks also need to be conveniently 173 C H A P T E R 1 1 Services, Storage, and Logistics
located in relation to freight elevators so that service traffic is separated from the main passenger elevator lobbies and public corridors and has direct access to the concessions units and/or the service/storage areas for the concessions. If not immediately adjacent to the service elevators, the loading docks should have immediate access to a service corridor leading to service elevators that provide the required access. The service route from the loading dock to the elevator needs to accommodate the transport of large shipments of goods. Loading docks should be sized to accommodate the vehicles used to deliver or pick up materi- als to and from the building. Typical loading docks are built 55 inches above grade level to accom- modate most trucks. If the bed height of vans and trucks varies more than 18 inches, at least one loading bay must be equipped with a dock leveler. Separate or dedicated loading docks should be considered for food service areas and dumpsters. Loading docks are utilitarian spaces that should be designed for function and durability. How- ever, it is also important that they be designed to ensure the safety and security of their users and the users of other nearby spaces. This type of space must be able to accommodate large vehicles, forklifts, and pedestrian traffic. 11.1.1 Number of Loading Bays Table 11-1 presents loading dock requirements as a function of terminal concession floor area. Figure 11-1 presents an approach to determining the number of loading docks required based on annual enplaned passengers assuming 15 square feet of concession space per 1,000 enplaning passengers. 11.1.2 Loading Area Size and Features The size of the loading area is determined by using the planning ratio of 0.0006 square feet per annual enplaned passenger. A ramp should be provided from the loading dock to the truck parking area to facilitate deliv- eries from small trucks and vans. This ramp should have a maximum slope of 1:12 and comply with Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards/ADA accessibility guidelines, ensuring that it may be easily maneuverable for deliveries on carts and dollies. Other loading area requirements include the following: â¢ Edge guards and dock bumpers. â¢ Easy access overhead coiling door. These doors should be able to close completely and lock after business hours. At least one well-lit personnel door should be provided in addition to the overhead doors. â¢ Adjustable lighting fixtures to illuminate the interiors of trailers. â¢ Noise dampening features, including heavy concrete walls and absorptive acoustical surfacing. â¢ A design to prevent the collection of storm water near the dock. 174 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Size of Terminal Concession Area Required Loading Bays Up to 50,000 square feet of gross floor area 1 per 25,000 square feet or fraction thereof of gross retail floor area Between 50,000 square feet and 100,000 square feet of gross retail floor area 1 per 20,000 square feet or fraction thereof of gross retail floor area Over 100,000 square feet of gross retail floor area 5 plus 1 per 50,000 square feet or fraction thereof of gross retail floor area over 100,000 square feet Source: LeighFisher. Table 11-1. Loading dock requirements as a function of concession floor area.
â¢ A minimum of 4 feet of overhanging canopy to protect users and goods being unloaded from the elements. In cold climates, dock seals should be used at each loading bay. Alternatively, consideration could be given to enclosing the entire loading bay. â¢ A dock managerâs room or booth in a location from which the entire dock area is in view and the entrance and exit from the building can be controlled. Security cameras may serve as a backup. â¢ Loading docks located so that vehicles will not be driven into or parked under the building to protect the building from an explosion. If this is not possible, the service area should be hard- ened for blast. TSA security representatives should be consulted on the security requirements for concession deliveries and loading docks. â¢ Docks separated by at least 50 feet in all directions from utility rooms, utility mains, and service entrances, including electrical, telephone/data, fire detection/alarm systems, fire suppression water mains, cooling and heating mains, fuel storage areas, and the like. â¢ A means to reduce outside debris from filtering into the building. Maintaining a negative air pressure on the docks and positive air pressure in the terminal building will help reduce infil- tration of dust, dirt, and odors and enhance indoor environmental quality. â¢ In colder climates, radiant heating systems in the loading dock area to maintain a reasonable temperature range in the work area while conserving energy. 11.1.3 Loading Area Storage In the loading area, short-term pre-security storage (in the event that screening becomes backed up) may be required, as well as short-term storage for screened goods. The availability of storage rooms is often driven by space availability. Less storage availability means more frequent deliveries to concessions, thereby increasing costs. 11.2 Security Screening of Goods Retail goods may be subject to x-ray screening before they are accepted for storage. The equip- ment used must be of a type approved by the TSA and must be installed in accordance with the applicable regulations, including the provision of adequate space. To this end, the truck bays may Services, Storage, and Logistics 175 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 1,0 00 2,0 00 3,0 00 4,0 00 5,0 00 6,0 00 7,0 00 8,0 00 9,0 00 10 ,00 0 11 ,00 0 12 ,00 0 13 ,00 0 14 ,00 0 15 ,00 0 16 ,00 0 17 ,00 0 18 ,00 0 19 ,00 0 20 ,00 0 21 ,00 0 22 ,00 0 23 ,00 0 24 ,00 0 25 ,00 0 26 ,00 0 27 ,00 0 28 ,00 0 29 ,00 0 30 ,00 0 Enplaned passengers (millions) N u m be r o f l o a di n g ba ys Source: LeighFisher. Figure 11-1. Loading dock requirements as a function of enplaned passengers.
be secured for the delivery of supplies and stock to the concessionaires and the removal of waste. Security screening checkpoints may be located at the airport security perimeter, at the truck bays to screen inbound concession goods, or further downstream in the terminal building. To best accommodate the size of typical loads associated with terminal retail products, an oversized x-ray machine is required. In addition, redundancy in the security screening equipment is recommended to accommodate peak volumes and to provide backup in the event of mechanical failures or main- tenance requirements. Of the airport operators surveyed for this research project, 31% indicated that they had a separate screening checkpoint for concession goods and employees. In designing a new terminal, consideration should be given to providing sufficient area to install security screening devices adjacent to the truck bays with secure airside service corridors from that point. The current practice at many airports of screening concession goods well inside the terminal on the departures or arrivals level means that unscreened goods are being trans- ported through the pre-security areas in the terminal. 11.3 Concession Storage Facilities Concession storage is typically accommodated in a combination of storage space in or near the concession unit, if space is available, and storage space in lower levels of the terminal adjacent to the truck bays. Concession storage space near the truck bays will hold incoming products and inventory for restaurants and retail stores. Where storage for concessions must be remote from the units, there should be access from the concession units via a back-of-house service corridor to the interim storage area, if possible (in expanded or modified terminals this is typically not pos- sible). The different types of storage space typically include the following: â¢ Climate-controlled general storage. Provides space for bulk, rack, and bin storage, aisle space, unpacking space, and office space. â¢ Refrigerated storage. Preserves the quality of perishable goods and duty free products that require refrigeration. Includes freeze and chill space, processing facilities, and mechanical areas. â¢ Controlled humidity storage. Similar to general storage, except that these storage units are constructed with vapor barriers and contain humidity control equipment to maintain humid- ity at desired levels. Many older terminals operate with less-than-desirable storage space and this shortage imposes additional costs on the concessionaires, as frequent deliveries for restocking are required. The need for storage space varies by concession category. Expressed as a percentage of the con- tiguous leasable concession space, the storage ratios range from 10% for services to 30% for duty free, as summarized in Table 11-2. Charging concessionaires for support space would help ensure that the space is effectively used. At airports where concessionaires are not charged for storage space, or where nominal amounts are charged, greater demand and less efficiency in the use of this space will result. Of the airport operators surveyed, 48% indicated that they charge a separate rent for storage space. Storage rooms are used to hold âincomingâ products and inventory for restaurants and retail stores, as well as goods and supplies for terminal operations and other services, from the time of delivery until the concessionaire is available to pick up the goods and transport them to their destination in the terminal. Storage rooms should be located by docks as well as by concession units. Where storage rooms for concessions must be remote from the units, access from the units should be provided via a back-of-house service corridor to the interim storage area. Storage space is often designed with higher bays to take advantage of vertical storage. At large airports, where the volume of goods can be substantial, the spaces need to be large enough to 176 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions
provide circulation space and space for material handling equipment, such as forklift trucks. Designs for storage areas should anticipate the loads of stored materials and associated handling equipment, typically 250 pounds per square foot. Racking in seismic areas must be stronger and better braced. Some storage areas may require power and utilities, and others may be simple storage areas. Depending on the goods being stored and the handling equipment required, well-distributed power and utility lines throughout the space may be required. Storage spaces typically include one floor drain for every two bays of storage, as well as sand and oil traps on waste lines. Food storage areas typically provide for dedicated general dry goods storage, ventilated stor- age, and refrigerator and freezer storage (premanufactured modular units with integrated shelv- ing). A load of 150 pounds per square foot is typical in these areas. 11.4 Servicing Routes and Devices 11.4.1 Service Corridors Service corridors should allow for the transport of goods and people between docks, vertical transport systems, storage areas, service areas, and concession units. Many older terminals do not have service corridors. In a new facility, however, every attempt should be made to create complete back-of-house support facilities, including service corridors and service elevators. To ensure the accommodation of service corridors, such requirements should be taken into account at the preliminary design phase for a terminal; typically, a champion at the airport is required to protect these elements as the design develops. Service corridors are subject to significant wear and tear, with goods, carts, and garbage bins being moved regularly. They typically have hardened concrete, quarry tile, or epoxy floors; con- crete block or drywall walls with epoxy paint finish and protective bumper rails; easily cleanable ceilings; and double doors, center hinged, with a total opening of 6 feet to 7 feet, with protective bumper plates. 11.4.2 Elevators The interior of freight elevators should be stainless steel or some other corrosion-resistant material. In addition to the daily delivery/removal service for concession units, these elevators provide for the movement of major pieces of equipment needed for terminal maintenance. In new terminals, one of the freight elevators should be capable of accommodating an automobile or equipment to support product advertising and promotions. Services, Storage, and Logistics 177 Category Storage (percent of leasable concession space) Duty free 30% Food and beverage 15% Convenience retail 20% Specialty retail 15% Services 10% Source: LeighFisher. Table 11-2. Storage space requirements by concession category.
11.5 Use of Centralized Third-Party Logistics Providers Centralized logistics providers offer cross docking or redistribution services. In providing cross docking services, the logistics provider takes delivery of goods in a central commissary or receiving area and dispatches the goods to the concession units or restaurants on a schedule that recognizes the storage and use patterns of the concession. This service might also include secu- rity screening. In providing redistribution services, the concessionaires place orders with the logistics provider, which may consolidate such purchase orders. The logistics provider receives the goods at the central commissary, makes sure that the goods undergo security screening, breaks out and repackages the goods if necessary, and delivers the goods to the concessionaires on an agreed-upon schedule. 11.5.1 Current Use of Centralized Logistics Centralized logistics providers are used by a small number of airport operators, but this use may increase if security regulations become more stringent. The airports where centralized logis- tics providers are known to be used are summarized in Table 11-3. One of the providers indi- cated that it serves two other airports, but those were not identified. All the airports identified are large hubs with one exception, Pittsburgh International Airport, which was a large hub at the time the airport operator and Third-Party Developer made the deci- sion to use a centralized logistics provider. 11.5.2 Reasons to Use Centralized Logistics Providers In addition to airport size, the reasons that airport operators choose a centralized logistics approach include enhanced security screening of deliveries, reduced congestion at loading docks due to active management by the centralized logistics provider, improved use of limited in- terminal concession storage, and efficiency in managing deliveries and product distribution for numerous small concessionaires. The TSAâs enhanced security requirements mean that concessionaires must be able to demon- strate supply chain control, that is, that control of delivered goods is controlled from the time deliveries are made to the time they are delivered and secured in the concessionaireâs controlled post-security spaces. Airside deliveries must be made by screened and badged personnel. Older practices of âkey dropsâ at the loading docks are no longer acceptable. 178 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Airport 2009 EnplanedPassengers Hub Size Baltimore/Washington Thurgood Marshall Airport 10,338,950 Large Detroit Metro Airport 15,211,402 Large Minneapolis - St. Paul International Airport 15,551,206 Large New York LaGuardia Airport 11,084,300 Large Philadelphia International Airport 15,002,961 Large Pittsburgh International Airport 3,956,842 Medium Reagan Washington National Airport 8,490,288 Large Toronto Pearson International Airport 16,167,415 Large Washington Dulles International Airport 11,131,406 Large Source: LeighFisher using data from the airport surveys conducted for ACRP Project 01-11. Table 11-3. Airports where centralized logistics providers are used.
At large hub airports, particularly those with older terminals, a combination of the lack of con- cession storage space in the terminals and high volumes of food and retail goods being consumed means that individual deliveries to concessionaires become a logistical problem, particularly at the loading docks. Delays can mean that concessionaire staff are spending hours per day at the loading docks waiting for deliveries or managing frequent deliveries. On the whole, concessionaires often do not like centralized logistics providers because of increased direct costs. Savings in terms of concessionaire employee time, for example, may off- set these direct costs, but they are less tangible and more difficult to quantify. 11.5.3 Centralized Logistics Case Studies To provide an overview of some of the scale and effect of centralized logistics, three brief case studies are provided below: Minneapolis-St. Paul International, Reagan Washington National, and Washington Dulles International Airports. Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport The operator of Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport introduced centralized logistics at the time of a major concession expansion within an existing terminal complex. At that time, tenant vehicles and delivery trucks were competing for limited dock space, and concession deliv- eries were commingling with passengers in congested corridors. The airport operator was also interested in ensuring the security of deliveries. A logistics provider was retained to do the following: â¢ Create a centralized command and control area by bringing all deliveries through a single entry point within a very scheduled and managed environment. â¢ Relieve congestion within the terminals by consolidating deliveries, which in turn reduced the number of delivery carts and personnel. â¢ Enhance security through supply chain management. One reported result of the use of a cen- tralized logistics provider was the cancellation of 150 supplier identification badges. â¢ Reduce vehicle traffic, including traffic related to airside deliveries. Over 200 weekly delivery trucks were reportedly replaced with five logistics provider trucks. â¢ Enable expansion of the concession program without expanding storage and delivery systems in the terminal. Reagan Washington National Airport At Reagan Washington National Airport, deliveries for retail concessions are undertaken on a cross-dock basis by a logistics provider contracted by the concession program leasing manager. The logistics provider occupies a 5,000 square foot warehouse/distribution facility located on the airport grounds. This facility is divided among the retail tenants, and space is allocated based on the total square footage of each store. The retail tenantsâ goods are received from the vendors, sorted, placed on the providerâs vehi- cles, and delivered to the retail concessionaires. There are no retail storage spaces in the terminal. The logistics firm does not handle food service deliveries, which are brought directly to the loading docks at the terminal building. The food service deliveries are screened at the loading dock and then handled directly by the concessionaires. Washington Dulles International Airport At Washington Dulles International Airport, food service concession deliveries are han- dled by a logistics provider under contract to the concession leasing manager. The service pro- vided is a cross-dock service using a 7,500-square foot commissary on the airport grounds. Goods Services, Storage, and Logistics 179
are received from the vendors and sorted; pallet deliveries are broken down and deliveries are made by the provider directly to the concourses. With the exception of a bookstore, the logistics provider does not handle retail deliveries, which are handled directly by the concessionaires. 11.5.4 Costs of Centralized Logistics Table 11-4 provides the estimated logistics charge as a percent of sales. Each airport is unique, but the data from the three case study airports are probably indicative of the range of charges for centralized logistics providers. While each airport is unique in terms of volume, layout, and costs, Minneapolis-St. Paul Inter- national Airport provides a good indicator of costs. Food and beverage concessionaires are charged 0.50% of sales, and retail tenants are charged 0.33% of sales. 11.5.5 Implementing Centralized Logistics Although concessionaires are typically not supportive of centralized logistics because of the extra cost involved, implementation is often driven by a significant change in operations such as a terminal redevelopment resulting in a substantial increase in airside concessions, possibly with- out a corresponding increase in concession storage or service corridors, security requirements that can no longer be easily achieved by the individual concessionaires, and congestion levels at the loading docks that are causing gross inefficiencies or failure to deliver goods to concession- aires. This is particularly important where perishables foodstuffs are involved. Even with these triggering events, every attempt should be made to bring the concessionaires on board with the implementation of a centralized logistics system. Concessionaires are natu- rally resistant to increases in operating costs and will need to understand the benefits as well as the costs of implementing such a system. 11.6 Waste Collection, Recycling, and Removal 11.6.1 Airport Waste Characteristics Airport waste is generated by passenger services onboard aircraft; airport offices, shops, restau- rants, restrooms, and flight kitchens; cargo operations, maintenance areas, and hangars; and land- scaping, construction, and demolition. Each of these areas creates distinct waste streams. The three 180 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Logistics Charge (as percent of sales) Minneapolis - St. Paul International Airport Food 0.50% Retail 0.33% Reagan Washington National Airport Food â Retail 1.26% Washington Dulles International Airport Food 1.13% Retail â Airport Sources: Minneapolis charges, Airport Revenue News, July 2008. Washington airports charges calculated by LeighFisher from the dollar value of the charge in 2009 divided by 2008 sales. Table 11-4. Examples of charges for centralized logistics as percent of sales.
passenger-related waste streams (airlines, airport tenants, and the airport operator) are illustrated on Figure 11-2 and described in more detail below. 11.6.2 Airline Waste Airline waste includes waste from passenger aircraft, ticketing counters, and gate areas. This waste typically includes food and drink containers, uneaten food, newspapers, magazines, com- puter printouts, and other paper generated at ticketing counters. The characteristics and quanti- ties of waste generated on an aircraft vary by length of flight and by airline. Low-cost carriers, such as Southwest Airlines, do not use flight-catering services because they do not offer in-flight meals. Because these airlines do not generate in-flight waste associated with meal service, most of their waste comes from beverage containers and small snack wrappers served by the airline and waste related to items brought onboard by passengers, including food, newspapers, and magazines. His- torically, in-flight meals were provided by the larger legacy carriers. However, financial pressures on the airline industry have prompted cost-saving measures among many legacy carriers, includ- ing the elimination of free meal service on most domestic flights (at least in coach). Eliminating food service means that the waste generated on domestic legacy carrier flights resembles the waste generated on low-cost carrier flights. Legacy carriers operating international flights, on the other hand, have more extensive in-flight services and consequently greater volumes of waste. 11.6.3 Retail and Food and Beverage Waste Retail and food and beverage waste includes cardboard boxes, paper and plastic packaging, food scraps, and food wrappers disposed of in shops, restaurant kitchens, and airport dining areas. Waste material also includes aluminum, plastic, and glass containers. Services, Storage, and Logistics 181 Source: Atkin, Hershkowitz, and Hoover 2006. Figure 11-2. Components of an airport waste management system.
11.6.4 Terminal Public Area Waste Terminal public area waste includes food and drink containers, food scraps, newspapers, mag- azines, plastic wrappers, restroom trash, and other waste generated in the public areas of the pas- senger terminal. In addition, the waste includes copier paper, toner cartridges, and discarded office supplies used in airport offices. 11.6.5 Typical Airport Solid Waste Sources, Composition, and Recycling Figure 11-3 provides a breakdown of the types of waste generated by airlines and retail and restau- rant tenants and in public areas of the terminal building at five major U.S. airports. These five air- ports serve 10% of U.S. airline passengers. The figure indicates that nearly three-quarters of the materials in the waste streams of these airports consist of potentially recyclable or compostable materials. Recyclable or compostable materials include paper products, plastics, aluminum, glass, food waste, and some food-contaminated packaging. The typical U.S. average for airport waste recycling is 30%. Many airport operators have established a future recycling target of up to 60%. Furthermore, based on the data provided by the operators of 10 major U.S. airports, it is esti- mated that airline waste accounts for 47% of the waste stream at a typical airport, retail tenants generate 14%, food and beverage tenants generate 27%, and terminal public areas account for 12% of the total waste at these airports, as illustrated in Figure 11-4. 11.6.6 Waste Removal Several types of waste accumulate throughout the airport and require different types of atten- tion. Waste needs to be collected throughout the day as area bins fill and are transported to waste holding rooms or dumpsters via service corridors. Wet waste is generated from the food and bev- erage concessions. Trash is generated in all areas of the terminalâretail concessions, offices, restau- rants, holdrooms, ticket counters, and so forth. Recyclables are generated from the restaurants and any vending areas and primarily consist of glass and aluminum. Recyclable paper is generated in retail units, passenger holdrooms, and office areas. Trash and recyclables need to be held in sepa- rate containers from the wet waste. All waste is transported, as needed, to the waste holding areas, where it is loaded into compactors or other storage containers. Recyclables are not typically com- 182 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Source: Atkin, Hershkowitz, and Hoover 2006. Newspaper, 14% Mixed Paper, 11% Nonrecyclables, 26% Other Plastics (packaging, bags, etc.), 9% Plastic Bottles, 2% Glass Bottles, 2% Compostables, 20% Aluminum, 1% Magazines, 3% Cardboard, 12% Nonrecyclables Compostables Recyclables Figure 11-3. Waste composition estimate based on data from five major airports.
pacted, with the exception of cardboard when the volume justifies. Hazardous waste, such as flu- orescent light tubes, oils, paints, and the like, is held in secure storage for pickup and removal. Typically, two compactors are provided: one refrigerated compactor for wet waste and one for cardboard. A 28-cubic-yard compactor requires approximately 640 square feet of floor space. Airport terminals resemble shopping malls, with public areas, shops, and restaurants. Similar to shopping center recycling programs, airport terminal programs can benefit from addressing recycling when a new terminal is designed. For example, Minnesotaâs Mall of America was designed with recycling in mind. An innovative chute and cart system, designed into the build- ing, moves trash and recyclables through the mall. Mall officials estimate that it saves $200,000 per year in waste management labor costs. It is recommended that terminal plans be designed to include space for recyclable storage, space and appropriate electrical service for balers or com- pactors, and easy access for vendors. Forethought during terminal design would also improve recycling activities at an airport. 11.6.7 Trash Rooms Trash rooms are used to store outgoing trash, wet waste, and recyclables collected in the ter- minal throughout the day. Trash roomsâparticularly for compactors and recyclablesâshould be located near the loading docks for easy access by refuse collectors. Areas should be hose wash- able from floor to ceiling and should typically include hardened concrete floors with metal âwearâ plates for compactor/container runners (where applicable), concrete block walls with epoxy paint finish, and easily cleanable ceilings. Trash rooms should be large enough to accommodate the trash handling equipment required and to provide storage for packaged trash generated during a 3-day period. Space should be pro- vided for sorting paper, glass, and metals for recycling. Airports that have trash containers that are picked up by vendors should have at least one loading bay for the trash container. 11.6.8 Waste Amounts and Recycling The total amounts of waste generated at medium and large hub airports can be large. Table 11-5 provides a rule of thumb for waste volumes generated at airports, and Table 11-6 provides Services, Storage, and Logistics 183 Terminal Users 12% Airlines 47%Food and Beverage Tenants 27% Retail Tenants 14% Source: Atkin, Hershkowitz, and Hoover 2006. Figure 11-4. Airport waste generation source streams.
indicative weights per 1,000 enplaned passengers. A terminal accommodating 5 million annual enplaned passengers will typically generate approximately 19 cubic yards of waste per day, of which 6 cubic yards is recyclable at todayâs recycling average. The 19 cubic yards of waste weighs approximately 10,000 pounds. High passenger traffic levels at larger airports make recycling of even part of the waste stream worthwhile. The operator of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport reports that it recycles 120 tons per year of coffee grounds alone. Table 11-6 also presents typical recycling percentages by waste material based on a study of five airports published by the Natural Resources Defense Council (Atkin, Hershkowitz, and Hoover 2006). The table also provides target percentages that reflect what the authors of the report deemed to be achievable targets with a strong recycling program. Opportunities exist for innovation in diverting waste streams. The Port of Seattle worked with concessionaires at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport to divert unused food that might other- wise go to waste to food banks. Twelve tons of food are diverted to food banks. The Port of Seattle also uses financial incentives to reduce waste at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. 184 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions Source Waste (cubic yards per 1,000 enplaned passengers) Food and Beverage 1.13 Retail 0.18 Office, etc. 0.68 Total 1.99 Source: LeighFisher. Table 11-5. Average waste generation per 1,000 enplaned passengers. Material Waste (pounds per 1,000 enplaned passengers) Percent Recycled Target Recycled Aluminum 2 25% 50% Cardboard 413 30% 60% Newspaper 18 31% 61% Office Paper 113 30% 60% Glass 3 27% 55% Plastic Containers 2 33% 67% Plastic Films 187 30% 60% Food Waste 38 30% 60% Total 776 30% 60% Source: Atkin, Hershkowitz, and Hoover 2006. Table 11-6. Approximate types and weights of airport- generated waste with average and target recycling levels.
Concessionaires and other tenants use an electronic key cart to dump trash and are charged on a per use basis. Other examples of airports with well-developed recycling programs include Salt Lake City International, Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall, and San Diego Inter- national Airports. 11.7 Sustainability Airport policymakers are placing increased importance on sustainability in airport conces- sion development. Sustainability practices at airports go beyond recycling and may include requirements for the following: â¢ Composting food waste â¢ Using recycled materials in construction â¢ Prohibiting the use of Styrofoam in packaging â¢ Using energy efficiency standards for concession development â¢ Using energy efficiency standards for concession operations â¢ Using or adopting the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green build- ing rating system created by the U.S. Green Building Council, which provides voluntary guide- lines for developing high-performance, sustainable buildings â¢ Monitoring and reporting energy and water consumption â¢ Using sustainable cleaning products The survey undertaken for this research project asked airport operators whether their various sustainability actions were required or encouraged. Figure 11-5 summarizes the overall results from the reporting airports, including all hub sizes. Airport encouragement or requirement of sustainability actions increases with overall passenger volume. Of the large hub airports, 76% were encouraged or required to undertake sustainability actions. This percentage declined to 58% at medium hub airports and 37% at small hub airports. Services, Storage, and Logistics 185 Source: LeighFisher using data from the airport surveys conducted for ACRP Project 01-11. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Prohibit use of styrofoam packing/containers Compost food waste Use sustainable cleaning products Use or adopt LEED standards Reporting/monitoring energy/water consumption Use recycled materials in construction Use energy efficiency standards in operations Use energy efficiency standards in design Recycle garbage and trash Percent of Respondents Require Encourage Figure 11-5. Reported levels of encouraged or required sustainability actions by concessionaires at airports.
186 Resource Manual for Airport In-Terminal Concessions 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Compost food waste Monitor energy/water consumption Prohibit use of styrofoam Use LEED standards (where applicable) Use sustainable cleaning products Recycle garbage/trash Establish energy efficiency standards for operations Establish energy efficiency requirements for design/construction Use recycled materials in construction Source: LeighFisher using data from the airport surveys conducted for ACRP Project 01-11. Figure 11-6. Sustainability measures adopted by reporting concessionaires. Concessionaires have also adopted and incorporated sustainability practices into their con- cession developments and operations. These practices are similar to those practices required or encouraged by airport operators, but with a different emphasis. For example, as Figure 11-6 illus- trates, although very few airport operators require the use of recycled materials in construction, almost all the concessionaires report that such use is their corporate policy. Many airport operators are incorporating LEED standards in their new terminal construction programs, but very few are requiring it of their concessionaire tenants. This is true, in part, because LEED criteria for retail and food units are less well developed than LEED criteria for buildings and, in part, because the concessions are all contained within the building envelope of the airport so there is less impact from concessionaires. Importantly, although concessionaires may not be required to be LEED-compliant them- selves, their construction and maintenance actions may affect the airport operatorâs ability to have the terminal certified as LEED-compliant. Concessionaire construction standards, debris management, indoor air quality management and maintenance standards, and so forth, can affect the airportâs certification. If the airport operator intends for its tenants to be LEED compliant or to ensure that conces- sionaire construction actions do not impede the LEED certification of the terminal, require- ments should be detailed in the lease agreements, along with processes to ensure compliance. LEED certification of a building also includes obligations with respect to recycling and other operational requirements. These obligations should be passed through to the concessionaires in their leases.
11.8 Food Preparation The trend at airports has been to prepare food within concession units, in sight of passengers. In-unit cooking requires venting, natural gas service, water, sewer, and electrical service. Airport operators that have moved to fresh food preparation in units have seen significant increases in sales and customer satisfaction. In-unit cooking is not possible at all locations. Some food types are prepared in advance, such as salads, soups, and sandwiches, and some are prepared in a commissary located back-of-house or even off the airport property. These foods are the cornerstone of âgrab and goâ operations. A significant amount of hot food is prepared offsite and reheated with a TurboChef or other vent- less oven, including microwave ovens. This approach is particularly useful in âdry concoursesâ that do not have gas, water, or sewer connections. Services, Storage, and Logistics 187