Sustainable Water and
in the California Bay-Delta
Committee on Sustainable Water and Environmental Management
in the California Bay-Delta
Water Science and Technology Board
Ocean Studies Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
Support for this study was provided under the cooperative agreement F10AP00315 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25619-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25619-4
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Cover photograph by David Policansky.
Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
COMMITTEE ON SUSTAINABLE WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE CALIFORNIA BAY-DELTA*
ROBERT J. HUGGETT, Chair, Professor Emeritus, College of William and Mary, Seaford, Virginia
JAMES J. ANDERSON, University of Washington, Seattle
MICHAEL E. CAMPANA, Oregon State University, Corvallis
THOMAS DUNNE, University of California, Santa Barbara
JEROME GILBERT, Consultant, Orinda, California
ALBERT E. GIORGI, BioAnalysts, Inc., Redmond, Washington
CHRISTINE A. KLEIN, University of Florida College of Law, Gainesville
SAMUEL N. LUOMA, John Muir Institute of the Environment, University of California, Davis
THOMAS MILLER, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, Maryland
STEPHEN G. MONISMITH, Stanford University, California
JAYANTHA OBEYSEKERA, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach
HANS W. PAERL, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
MAX J. PFEFFER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
DENISE J. REED, University of New Orleans, Louisiana
KENNETH A. ROSE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
DESIREE D. TULLOS, Oregon State University, Corvallis
HENRY J. VAUX, JR., Emeritus, University of California
DAVID POLICANSKY, Study Director, Scholar
LAURA J. HELSABECK, Deputy Study Director
JEFFREY JACOBS, WSTB Director, Scholar
STEPHEN D. PARKER, WSTB Director, Scholar, through February 3, 2012
SUSAN ROBERTS, OSB Director
SARAH E. BRENNAN, Senior Program Assistant
*Biographical information for committee members is in Appendix I. This project was organized and overseen by the NRC’s Water Science and Technology Board (lead) and Ocean Studies Board, whose rosters are in Appendixes G and H, respectively.
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Gregory B. Baecher, University of Maryland
Patrick L. Brezonik, University of Minnesota
Cliff Dahm, University of New Mexico
Glen Daigger, CH2M Hill
Frank W. Davis, University of California, Santa Barbara
Holly D. Doremus, University of California, Davis
Erica Fleishman, University of California, Davis
Peter Gleick, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security
Daniel Goodman, Montana State University
Jay R. Lund, University of California, Davis
Lynn Scarlett, Resources for the Future
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael C. Kavanaugh, Geosyntec Consultants, and Leo M. Eisel, Brown and Caldwell (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.