National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

REMEDIATION OF BURIED CHEMICAL WARFARE MATERIEL

Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                  OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-11-C-0213 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-25790-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-25790-5

Limited copies of this report are available from Additional copies are available from
Board on Army Science and Technology
National Research Council
500 Fifth Street, NW, Room 940
Washington, DC 20001
(202) 334-3118
The National Academies Press
500 Fifth Street, NW
Keck 360
Washington, DC 20001
(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313
Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Front cover—Upper: Worker in personnel protective equipment lifting a single-round container (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photo). Left: Degraded military munitions found at Spring Valley, District of Columbia (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photo). Lower background: German Traktor rocket bases filled with hydrogen mustard, Huntsville (now Redstone) Arsenal, Alabama (U.S. Army photo from 1948).

Back cover—Ton containers used for storage of lewisite, a blister agent and lung irritant, Huntsville (now Redstone) Arsenal, Alabama (U.S. Army photo from 1947).

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

This Page is Blank

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

COMMITTEE ON REVIEW OF THE CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS FOR REMEDIATION OF RECOVERED CHEMICAL WARFARE MATERIEL FROM BURIAL SITES

RICHARD J. AYEN, Chair, Waste Management, Inc. (retired), Jamestown, Rhode Island

DOUGLAS M. MEDVILLE, Vice Chair, MITRE (retired), Highlands Ranch, Colorado

DWIGHT A. BERANEK, Michael Baker Jr., Inc. (retired), Bradenton, Florida

EDWARD L. CUSSLER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

GILBERT F. DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering (retired), Los Gatos, California

CLAIR F. GILL, Smithsonian Institution (retired), McLean, Virginia

DEREK GUEST, Derek Guest Environmental and Sustainability Solutions, Pittsford, New York

TODD A. KIMMELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. office

JOANN SLAMA LIGHTY, University of Utah, Salt Lake City

JAMES P. PASTORICK, UXO Pro, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia

JEAN D. REED, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia

WILLIAM R. RHYNE, ABS Consulting, Inc. (retired), Kingston, Tennessee

TIFFANY N. THOMAS, Tetra Tech, Inc., Paradise Valley, Arizona

WILLIAM J. WALSH, Pepper Hamilton LLP, Washington, D.C.

LAWRENCE J. WASHINGTON, Dow Chemical Company (retired), Paradise Valley, Arizona

Staff

NANCY T. SCHULTE, Study Director

HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Senior Program Officer

ANN LARROW, Research Assistant

JOE PALMER, Senior Program/Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Chair, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Connecticut

DAVID M. MADDOX, Vice Chair, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia

DUANE ADAMS, Independent Consultant, Carnegie Mellon University (retired), Arlington, Virginia

ILESANMI ADESIDA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

MARY E. BOYCE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

EDWARD C. BRADY, Strategic Perspectives, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, Florida

W. PETER CHERRY, Independent Consultant, Ann Arbor, Michigan

EARL H. DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

JULIA D. ERDLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College

LESTER A. FOSTER, Electronic Warfare Associates, Herndon, Virginia

JAMES A. FREEBERSYSER, BBN Technology, St. Louis Park, Minnesota

RONALD P. FUCHS, Independent Consultant, Seattle, Washington

W. HARVEY GRAY, Independent Consultant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

JOHN J. HAMMOND, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Fairfax, Virginia

RANDALL W. HILL, JR., University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, Playa Vista

JOHN W. HUTCHINSON, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

MARY JANE IRWIN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

ROBIN L. KEESEE, Independent Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia

ELLIOT D. KIEFF, Channing Laboratory, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

WILLIAM L. MELVIN, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Smyrna

ROBIN MURPHY, Texas A&M University, College Station

SCOTT PARAZYNSKI, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, Texas

RICHARD R. PAUL, Independent Consultant, Bellevue, Washington

JEAN D. REED, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia

LEON E. SALOMON, Independent Consultant, Gulfport, Florida

JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

MARK J.T. SMITH, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

MICHAEL A. STROSCIO, University of Illinois, Chicago

DAVID A. TIRRELL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

JOSEPH YAKOVAC, President, JVM LLC, Hampton, Virginia

Staff

BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director

CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager

DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

Preface

The Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites was appointed by the National Research Council in response to a request by Conrad F. Whyne, Director of the Chemical Materials Agency (CMA). The study dealt primarily with the activities of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project (NSCMP), which falls organizationally under the CMA and is headed by Laurence G. Gottschalk, Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. Mr. Whyne, Mr. Gottschalk, and their staffs heavily supported the activities of the committee.

This report is concerned with the investigation and, if required, the remediation of sites that contain buried chemical materiel. About 250 such sites, located in 40 states and territories of the United States, are thought to exist. Remediation efforts are currently under way in the Spring Valley area of Washington, D.C., and at the Camp Sibert site in Alabama. A substantially larger effort is anticipated at the Redstone Arsenal in Alabama.

The NSCMP plays a major role in remediation efforts. It has project management responsibilities for the assessment and disposal of all recovered chemical warfare materiel (RCWM) and for this purpose identifies assessment and disposal costs, disperses funds for assessment and disposal, prepares project schedules and other required documents, and obtains all approvals needed for the destruction of the RCWM. The NSCMP owns several explosive destruction systems (EDSs), used for destruction of RCWM, and arranges for use of commercial explosive destruction technologies for RCWM when needed.

One focus of the committee was investigating the technologies available to the NSCMP for investigating a burial site that is thought to contain buried chemical weapons, assessing any chemical materiel recovered, and destroying the RCWM. Deficiencies in the available technologies and research and development targeted at those deficiencies are identified.

The committee’s second focus was to investigate the roles and responsibilities of the numerous organizations and offices within the Department of Defense and the Department of the Army that are involved with buried chemical materiel issues. In carrying out its assigned role, the NSCMP coordinated with these agencies and offices to set priorities, obtain funding, and carry out assessment and destruction activities. It also recommended changes to the relationships between some of these organizations and offices.

The committee held six meetings. The first was at the Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Edgewood, Maryland. The second meeting, held at the Keck Center in Washington, D.C., featured a visit to the nearby Spring Valley chemical weapon remediation site. The third, fourth, and sixth meetings were also held at the Keck Center, and the fifth was held at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California. A total of 38 presentations were received from the following entities:

•  Twenty agencies and offices within the Department of Defense;

•  Regulatory officials from the District of Columbia, the states of Alabama and Utah, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regions 4 and 8;

•  The Spring Valley Community Restoration Advisory Board;

•  Vendors for the commercially available explosive destruction technologies; and

•  A member of the staff of the Senate Armed Services Committee.

The presentations are listed in Appendix B.

This report was prepared under the auspices of the Board on Army Science and Technology (BAST) of the National Research Council. The committee offers its thanks to Bruce A. Braun, the Director of BAST, and to Nancy T. Schulte, the Study Director, for their very effective support in the

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

conduct of this study. It also offers its thanks to the BAST staff members who capably assisted in information-gathering activities, meeting and trip arrangements, and the production of this report; they include Ann Larrow, Research Assistant, Joe Palmer, Senior Program/Project Assistant, and Harrison T. Pannella, Senior Program Officer.

Richard J. Ayen, Chair

Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Fred S. Celec, Institute for Defense Analyses,

Martin Gray, State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality,

Henry J. Hatch, NAE, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired),

John R. Howell, NAE, University of Texas at Austin,

Michael F. McGrath, ANSER (Analytic Services Inc.),

Leonard M. Siegel, Center for Public Environmental Oversight, and

Michael V. Tumulty, P.E., STV Incorporated.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elisabeth M. Drake, NAE. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

This Page is Blank

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

The Problem Posed by RCRA Storage Requirements

Regulatory Approval and Permitting of the EDS and EDTs

Recycling of Treated Munition Bodies, Fragments, and Other Metals

Extending the Pine Bluff Model

The Importance of Public Involvement

4    TECHNOLOGIES FOR CLEANUP OF CWM SITES

Technology Work Flow

Geophysical Detection

Personal Protective Equipment

Air Monitoring During Excavation, Interim Storage, and Destruction

Monitoring Equipment

Types of Monitoring

Excavation Equipment and Techniques

Conventional Excavation Equipment

Robotic Excavation Equipment

Packaging, Transportation, Storage (On-Site and Intrastate)

CWM Packaging and Transportation

CWM Storage

Single Chemical Agent Identification Set Access and Neutralization System

Spectroscopic and X-Ray Assessment

Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography

Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy

Mobile Munitions Assessment System

Destruction Technologies

Explosive Destruction System

Transportable Detonation Chamber

Dynasafe Static Detonation Chamber

Detonation of Ammunition in a Vacuum Integrated Chamber

Secondary Waste Storage and Disposal

5    REDSTONE ARSENAL: A CASE STUDY

Introduction

The Challenges at Redstone Arsenal

Chemical Warfare Materiel Inventory

Processing of Unusual Items at Redstone Arsenal

Technical and Operational Issues

Match of Technology Needs with NSCMP Capabilities

Assessment of Intact Munitions

Destruction of RCWM-Containing Energetics

Processing of Nonenergetic RCWM

Regulatory Issues

CERCLA Actions at Redstone Arsenal

RCRA Action at Redstone Arsenal

Cleanup Decision

Maximizing Regulatory Flexibility

Corrective Action Management Units, Temporary Units, and Area of Contamination Concept

Community Concerns

6    THE PATH FORWARD: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TARGETED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Technologies With No Targeted R&D Recommendations

Technologies With Targeted R&D Needs

Robotic Excavation Equipment

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACAT I Acquisition Category I
ACSIM Assistant Chief of Staff, Installation Management (U.S. Army)
ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives
ADEM Alabama Department of Environmental Management
AEC U.S. Army Environmental Command
AEL airborne exposure limit
AFCEE Air Force Center for Engineering and Environment
AMC U.S. Army Materiel Command
ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Alabama)
ARAR applicable, relevant, and appropriate requirement
ASA(ALT) Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology
ASA(IE&E) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Energy and Environment
ASA(ILE) Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installation, Logistics and Environment
ASA(RDA) Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition
ASD(NCB) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Defense Programs)
BES budget execution submission
BRAC base realignment and closure
CAIRA chemical accident or incident response and assistance
CAIS chemical agent identification set(s)
CAM Chemical Agent Monitor
CAMD,D Chemical Agent and Munitions Disposal, Defense
CAMU corrective action management unit
CARA Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear (Enhanced) Analysis and Remediation Activity
CBARR Chemical Biological Applications and Risk Reduction
CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and high yield explosives
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
CG phosgene
CMA Chemical Materials Agency
CNB CN tear gas mixed with carbon tetrachloride and benzene
CNO Chief of Naval Operations
CNS CN tear gas mixed with chloropicrin and chloroform
CONUS continental United States
CSA Chief of Staff of the Army
CSDP chemical stockpile disposal program
CSE Chemical Stockpile Elimination (project)
CSEPP Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Project
CW chemical weapons
CWC Chemical Weapons Convention
CWM chemical warfare materiel
DA diphenylchloroarsine (Clark I)
DAAMS Depot Area Air Monitoring System
DAB Defense Acquisition Board
DASA(ECW) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Elimination of Chemical Weapons
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
DASA(ESOH) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Environment, Safety and Occupational Health)
DAVINCH detonation of ammunition in a vacuum integrated chamber
DC diphenylcyanoarsine (Clark II)
DDESB Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board
DERP Defense Environmental Restoration Program
DM adamsite
DMM discarded military munitions
DOD Department of Defense
DOT Department of Transportation
DRCT digital radiography and computed tomography
DUSD(I&E) Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment
EA executive agent
ECBC Edgewood Chemical Biological Center
EDS Explosive Destruction System
EDS-1 EDS Phase 1
EDS-2 EDS Phase 2
EDS-3 EDS Phase 3
EDT explosive destruction technology
EOD explosive ordnance disposal
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
ER,A Environmental Response, Army
FFA federal facility agreement
FORSCOM Forces Command (U.S. Army)
FSS fragment suppression system
FTO flameless thermal oxidizer
FUDS formerly used defense site(s)
GA tabun (a nerve agent)
GB sarin (a nerve agent)
GD soman (a nerve agent)
H sulfur mustard
HD sulfur mustard (distilled)
HEPA high-efficiency particulate air (filter)
HN nitrogen mustard
HN-3 nitrogen mustard
HNC Huntsville Engineering Center
HS sulfur mustard
HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
HT sulfur mustard, T-mustard combination, also British mustard
IHF interim holding facility
IMCOM Installation Management Command (U.S. Army)
INST CDR installation commander
IO integrating office
IPT integrated product team
IRP Installation Restoration Program
ITRC Interstate Technology Regulatory Council
L lewisite or liter
LDR land disposal restrictions
LITANS large item transportable access and neutralization system
MARB Materiel Assessment Review Board
MC munitions constituents
MDAP major defense acquisition program(s)
MEA monoethanolamine
MEC munitions and explosives of concern
MEL mobile expeditionary laboratory (CARA)
MIL-SPEC military specification
MINICAMS Miniature Chemical Agent Monitoring System(s)
MMAS mobile munitions assessment system
MMRP Military Munitions Response Program
MR munitions rule
MRC multiple round container
MRP munitions response program
MRS munitions response site
MRSPP Munitions Response Site Prioritization Protocol
MSU munitions storage unit
NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command
NCP National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan
NDAA National Defense Authorization Act
NEW net explosive weight
NPL National Priorities List
NRC National Research Council
NSCM non-stockpile chemical materiel
NSCMP Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project
NSCWM non-stockpile chemical warfare materiel
OB/OD open burn/open detonation
OCONUS outside the continental United States
OIPT overarching integrated product team
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
O&M operations and maintenance
OMA Operations and Maintenance, Army
OP-FTIR Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry air monitoring
OSD office of the Secretary of Defense
PIG package in-transit gas (container)
PINS portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy
PMCD program manager for chemical demilitarization
PMNSCM Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel
POM Program Objective Memorandum
PPBES planning, programming, budgeting and execution
PPE personal protective equipment
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RCWM recovered chemical warfare materiel
RDECOM Research, Development, and Engineering Command
RDT&E research, development, test, and evaluation
RFI RCRA Facility Investigation
RI/FS remedial investigation/feasibility study
ROD record of decision
RRS remediation response section (CARA)
RSA Redstone Arsenal
SCANS Single Chemical agent identification set Access and Neutralization System
SDC static detonation chamber
SES Senior Executive Service
SPP site prioritization protocol
SPT CMD Support Command
SRC single round container
STEL short-term exposure limit
SWMU solid waste management unit
TDC transportable detonation chamber
TNT trinitrotoluene
TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Utah)
TPP Technical Project Planning
TRAM throughput, reliability, availability, and maintainability
TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility
TU temporary unit
UMSC universal munitions storage container
USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
USACMDA U.S. Army Chemical Materiel Destruction Agency
USAEC U.S. Army Environmental Command
USAESCH U.S. Army Engineering Support Center, Huntsville
USATCES U.S. Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety
USD(A&T) Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (renamed USD(AT&L))
USD(AT&L) Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics [formerly USD(A&T)]
USD(Comptroller) Under Secretary of Defense Comptroller
USD(I&E) Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment
UTS universal treatment standards
UXO unexploded ordnance
VSL vapor screening level
WP white phosphorus
3X level of agent decontamination (suitable for transport for further processing) (obsolete)
5X level of agent decontamination (suitable for release for unrestricted use) (obsolete)
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13419.
×
Page R18
Next: Summary »
Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $45.00 Buy Ebook | $35.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

As the result of disposal practices from the early to mid-twentieth century, approximately 250 sites in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and 3 territories are known or suspected to have buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). Much of this CWM is likely to occur in the form of small finds that necessitate the continuation of the Army's capability to transport treatment systems to disposal locations for destruction. Of greatest concern for the future are sites in residential areas and large sites on legacy military installations.

The Army mission regarding the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel (RCWM) is turning into a program much larger than the existing munition and hazardous substance cleanup programs. The Army asked the Nation Research Council (NRC) to examine this evolving mission in part because this change is significant and becoming even more prominent as the stockpile destruction is nearing completion. One focus in this report is the current and future status of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Project (NSCMP), which now plays a central role in the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel and which reports to the Chemical Materials Agency.

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel also reviews current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and surveys organizations involved with remediation of suspected CWM disposal sites to determine current practices and coordination. In this report, potential deficiencies in operational areas based on the review of current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and develop options for targeted research and development efforts to mitigate potential problem areas are identified.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!