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Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Notes

MAIN TEXT

1.   Section based on National Research Council (NRC)/Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem: Retaining Leadership in an Increasingly Global Environment, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., with additional data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) program.

2.   NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem.

3.   As defined by the Department of Commerce, this industry cluster consists of “computer and electronic products within durable-goods manufacturing; publishing industries (includes software) and information and data processing services within information; and computer systems design and related services within professional, scientific, and technical services.” See 4.bea.gov/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/2011/txt/gdpind10_rev.

4.   Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2011, “2010 Recovery Widespread Across Industries,” April 26, http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/industry/gdpindustry/2011/pdf/gdpind10_adv_fax.pdf. See also “Interactive Access to Industry Economic Accounts Data,” http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=5&step=1.

5.   Matthieu Pélissié du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Rémi Said, 2011, “Internet Matters: The Net’s Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity,” McKinsey Global Institute, May, http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/MGI/Research/Technology_and_Innovation/Internet_matters. The authors define “Internet-related activities” as the “totality of Internet activities (e.g., e-commerce) and … a portion of the information and communication technologies sector delineated by such activities, technologies, and services linked to the Web.”

6.   This number may overestimate the investment in computing research. A 2010 PCAST report observes that “[a] large portion of the ‘High End Computing Infrastructure and Applications’ … is attributable to computational infrastructure used to conduct R&D in other fields.” See President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010, Report to the President and Congress: Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information Technology, Executive Office of the President, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-nitrd-report-2010.pdf.

7.   NITRD, 2009, “FY 2010 Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Supplement to the President’s Budget,” May, http://www.nitrd.gov/pubs/2010supplement/FY10Supp-FINALFormat-Web.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
×

8.   Section based on NRC/CSTB, 2003, Innovation in Information Technology, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., with discussion updated to take into account revisions reflected in Figure 1 of the present report.

9.   NRC/CSTB, 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

10.   NRC/CSTB, 2003, Innovation in Information Technology.

11.   The idea that research in IT not only builds in part on research in physics, mathematics, electrical engineering, psychology, and other fields but also strongly influences them is consistent with what Donald Stokes has characterized in his four-part taxonomy as “Pasteur’s Quadrant” research: use- or application-inspired basic research that pursues fundamental understanding (such as Louis Pasteur’s research on the biological bases of fermentation and disease). See the discussion on pp. 26-29 of NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.; see also Donald E. Stokes, 1997, Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

12.   NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem.

13.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

14.   NRC/CSTB, 2009, Assessing the Impacts of Changes in the Information Technology R&D Ecosystem.

15.   Some of the agencies within the Department of Defense that made major contributions include the Office of Naval Research, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Army Research Office, and the Army’s Satellite Communications Agency.

16.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

17.   In addition to provision of research funding, complementary activities have been undertaken by other agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which often brings together people from universities and industry on issues relating to standards setting and measurement.

18.   Member agencies include the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; Department of Homeland Security; Department of Energy—National Nuclear Security Administration and DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research; Environmental Protection Agency; Department of Health and Human Services—Office of the National Coordinator, National Archives and Records Administration; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Standards and Technology; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; National Security Agency; National Science Foundation; and Office of the Secretary of Defense and Department of Defense service research organizations (Defense Research and Engineering and Deputy Under Secretary of Defense Science & Technology). See http://www.nitrd.gov/Subcommittee/agency-web-sites.aspx.

19.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution.

20.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

21.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution.

22.   See, for example, previous CSTB reports (all published by the National Academy/Academies Press, Washington, D.C.), including NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure; 1992, Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computers; and 1997, More Than Screen Deep: Toward Every-Citizen Interfaces to the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

23.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

24.   Timothy Prickett Morgan, 2011, “ARM Holdings Eager for PC and Server Expansion: Record 2010, Looking for Killer 2020,” The Register Online, February 1, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/02/01/arm_holdings_q4_2010_numbers/.

25.   In some cases, the Semiconductor Research Corporation provided the funding. For additional information, see http://web.archive.org/web/20080103002836/ and http://www.src.org/member/about/history.asp.

26.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
×

27.   See, for example, the following previous CSTB reports: NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

28.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

29.   NRC/CSTB, 2010, Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 37.

30.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

31.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

32.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution.

33.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

34.   The concentration of research in universities is particularly true for computer science research; industry played an important role in telecommunications research before the breakup of AT&T and the original Bell Labs. Important research has also been conducted at Department of Energy and other government laboratories.

35.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

36.   See, for example the following previous CSTB reports: NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

37.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering.

38.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better; 1992, Computing the Future.

39.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

40.   NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy.

41.   NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy.

42.   To the extent that U.S. research produces people who move to U.S. product development, the U.S. economy gains an “appropriable” benefit from funding research.

43.   Computing Research Association (CRA), 2010, Taulbee Survey Report, CRA, Washington, D.C., Table 25, http://www.cra.org/resources/taulbee/.

44.   NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy.

45.   In computing, electronics, telecommunications, and biotechnology, evidence of the correlation abounds—in Boston (Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Research Triangle Park (Duke University, the University of North Carolina, and North Carolina State University); New Jersey (Princeton University, Rutgers University, and New York City–based Columbia University); Austin (the University of Texas); southern California (the University of California, San Diego, the University of California, Los Angeles, the California Institute of Technology, and the University of Southern California); northern California (the University of California, Berkeley, the University of California, San Francisco, and Stanford University); and Seattle (the University of Washington).

46.   See, for example, previous CSTB reports, including NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure; 1992, Computing the Future; 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Embedded, Everywhere; and 1997, More Than Screen Deep.

TABLE 1

Qualcomm—-Equipment and services ($6.98 billion); licensing and royalties ($4.01 billion). Qualcomm 2010 Annual Report, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/QCOM/1510480689x0x451979/c5ba4b26-fe1d-4756-a735-ed1d972402cb/2010-10-K.pdf.

Motorola—Net sales, products ($6.1 billion); net sales, services ($2.1 billion). Motorola 2011 Annual Report, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/ABEA-2FO3VV/1751114768x0x552627/1344EB61-45BA-4EAD-9EC4-A99116BE997C/MSI_2011_AR.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
×

nVidia—FY2011 total revenue. nVidia Corporation, 2011 Annual Review, Notice of Annual Meeting, Proxy Statement and nVidia Form 10-K (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; SEC).

Intel—2011 revenue based on general accepted accounting principles (GAAP); non-GAAP revenue $54.2 billion. See http://www.intc.com/financials.cfm.

AMD—Computing solutions only (excludes “graphics,” “foundries,” and “other”). AMD 2011 Annual Report, http://ir.amd.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=74093&p=irol-reportsannual.

Texas Instruments—2011 revenue from embedded processing segment, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/TXN/1710273597x0x535657/2de80eb4-2af1-4e4e-bd7f-f36811701b17/TXN_News_2012_1_23_Financial.pdf.

Dell—Desktop PCs ($18.97 billion) and mobile and laptop PCs ($14.69 billion) (excludes software, services, and enterprise/server sales). Dell 2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

HP—Revenue from Personal Systems Group (excludes software, services, and printers). HP 2011 Annual Report, http://h30261.www3.hp.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=71087&p=irol-reportsAnnual.

Apple—Includes desktop and portable device sales ($21.78 billion), iPhone ($47.0 billion), and iPad ($20.3 billion). 2011 Apple, Inc. Form 10-K (SEC).

Symantec—Symantec FY2011 net revenue, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NDQ2MTY2fENoaWxkSUQ9NDY5NTEwfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1.

Juniper—Total revenue. Juniper Networks FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Cisco—Total revenue. Cisco Systems 2011 Annual Report, http://www.cisco.com/assets/cdc_content_elements/docs/annualreports/media/2011-ar.pdf.

Akamai—Total revenue. Akamai FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Twitter—Estimated total revenue. Wall Street Journal, 2011, “Twitter as Tech Bubble Barometer,” http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/02/10/133648669/twitters-value-up-to-10-billion-wall-street-journal-reports.

Facebook—Total 2011 revenue. Form 424B4 (SEC), filed May 18, 2012.

eBay—Total revenue. eBay FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Amazon—Sum of U.S.-based media sales ($8 billion) and electronics and merchandise sales ($17.3 billion); excludes Amazon Web Services and “other,” which encompasses such things as Amazon-branded credit cards. Amazon FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Google—Revenue except “other.” Google FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC).

Yahoo!—Total FY2011 revenue. Yahoo! FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Google—Non-advertising revenue. Google FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC).

VMware—Total revenue. VMware FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC).

Amazon—Non-e-commerce revenue from Amazon Web Services. Amazon FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Oracle—Revenue total for new software licenses ($9.2 billion), hardware systems ($4.4 billion), software license updates and product support ($14.8 billion), and hardware systems support ($2.56 billion) and excluding cloud, consulting, and education. Oracle FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC).

IBM—2011 revenue from software ($24.94 billion) and systems and technology ($18.99 billion) and excluding global business services, global technology services, and global financing. IBM 2011 Annual Report, http://www.ibm.com/annualreport/2011/.

Microsoft—Revenue from server and tools product and service offerings (includes Windows Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Azure, Visual Studio, System Center products, Windows Embedded device platforms, and Enterprise Services) ($17.1 billion); Business Division offerings (includes the Microsoft Office system, comprising mainly Office, SharePoint, Exchange, and Lync; and Microsoft Dynamics business solutions) ($22.2 billion). Microsoft FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Electronic Arts—Electronic Arts FY2010 Form 10-K (SEC).

Pixar—Pixar became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Walt Disney Company in 2006. Worldwide gross revenue from Pixar Studio releases was $766 million in 2009, $1.06 billion in 2010, and $554 million in 2011. See http://www.the-numbers.com/movies/series/Pixar.php.

Adobe—Total revenue. Adobe FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

iRobot—Total revenue. iRobot 2010 Annual Report, April 13, 2011, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NDIxNzg2fENoaWxkSUQ9NDM1NTYzfFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1.

Nuance—Total revenue. Nuance FY2011 Form 10-K (SEC).

Intuitive Surgical—Total revenue. Intuitive Surgical 2010 Annual Report, http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9ODQxMTJ8Q2hpbGRJRD0tMXxUeXBlPTM=&t=1.

Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
×

TABLE 2

Column Headed “Today”

Wireless and broadband industry

subscribers worldwide: International Telecommunication Union, 2011, “The World in 2011: ICT Facts and Figures,” http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2010.pdf.

subscribers in the United States: CTIA, “50 Wireless Quick Facts,” http://www.ctia.org/consumer_info/index.cfm/AID/10323.

mobile-broadband subscribers: International Telecommunication Union, 2011, “Measuring the Information Society,” http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2011/Material/MIS_2011_without_annex_5.pdf.

fixed broadband subscriptions: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry, “OECD Broadband Portal,” http://www.oecd.org/document/54/0,3746,en_2649_34225_38690102_1_1_1_1,00.html.

Microprocessor industry

8.3 billion: Lee Eng Kean, 2010, “MCU to Intel Architecture Conversion,” EE Times, May 31, http://www.eetimes.com/design/microcontroller-mcu/4199788/MCU-to-Intel-architecture-conversion.

$40 billion: http://www.isuppli.com/Home-and-Consumer-Electronics/News/Pages/Fourth-Quarter-2010-Microprocessor-Shares–Final-Microprocessor-Revenue-Share-Data.aspx.

Personal computing industry

1.4 billion: eTForecasts, “Worldwide PC Market,” http://www.etforecasts.com/products/ES_pcww1203.htm.

100 million: “Gartner Survey Shows U.S. Consumers More Likely to Purchase a Smartphone Than Other Consumer Devices in 2011,” http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1550814.

Internet and Web industries

One third … online, and 45%: International Telecommunication Union, 2011, “The World in 2011: ICT Facts and Figures,” http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/facts/2011/material/ICTFactsFigures2010.pdf.

18 billion searches: comScore, 2011, “comScore Releases 2011 U.S. Search Engine Rankings,” press release, November 11, http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2011/11/comScore_Releases_October_2011_U.S._Search_Engine_Rankings.

$48.2 billion and … 4.6% of total sales: U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, “Quarterly Retail E-Commerce Sales: 3rd Quarter 2011,” November 17, http://www.fortune3.com/blog/2011/01/ecommerce-sales-2011/.

$8 trillion: Matthieu Pélissié du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Rémi Said, 2011, “Internet Matters: The Net’s Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity,” McKinsey Global Institute, May, http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/MGI/Research/Technology_and_Innovation/Internet_matters.

Cloud computing industry

$1 billion … by 2013: In Stat, 2011, “Healthcare to Spend $518 Million on Infrastructure as a Service in 2015,” August 1, http://www.instat.com/newmk.asp?ID=3219&SourceID=00000352000000000000.

Expand 139% from 2010 to 2011: Business Technology Roundtable, 2011, “Increased Spending on Public Cloud Computing Services,” August 9, http://business-technology-roundtable.blogspot.com/2011/08/increased-spending-on-public-cloud.html.

Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
×

Enterprise systems industry

583 terabytes of sales: Information Week, 2006, “Data, Data Everywhere,” http://www.informationweek.com/news/175801775?pgno=2; Regis McKenna, 2002, Total Access: Giving Customers What They Want in an Anytime Anywhere World, Harvard Business Press.

Entertainment industry

Highest-grossing film of 2010: Box Office Mojo, “2010 Worldwide Grosses,” http://boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?view2=worldwide&yr=2010&p=.htm.

Column Headed “Advances Expected,”
in Research Topic Noted

Networking

embedded everywhere: NRC/CSTB, 2001, Embedded, Everywhere: A Research Agenda for Networked Systems of Embedded Computers, National Academy Press, Washington. D.C.

Databases

energy-efficient computing: Stavros Harizopoulos, Mehul Shah, Justin Mexa, and Parthasarathy Ranganathan, 2009, “Energy Efficiency: The New Holy Grail of Data Management Systems Research,” 4th Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research (CIDR), January 4-7, Asilomar, California.

and other large-scale data management systems: Daniel J. Abadi, 2009, “Data Management in the Cloud: Limitations and Opportunities,” Bulletin of the [IEEE Computer Society] Technical Committee on Data Engineering 32(1):3-12; Sam Madden and Maarten van Steen, 2012, “Internet-Scale Data Management,” IEEE Internet Computing 16(1):10-12.

Computer graphics

to the simulation code: James Ahrens and Han-Wei Shen, 2010, “Ultrascale Visualization,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 30(3):20-21.

Artificial intelligence and robotics

robots for more than vacuuming: Hans Moravec, 2009, “Rise of the Robots—The Future of Artificial Intelligence,” Scientific American, March 23, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=rise-of-the-robots.

Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Suggested Citation:"Notes." National Research Council. 2012. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13427.
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Page 23
Next: Appendix A: Short Biographies of Committee Members »
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Information technology (IT) is widely understood to be the enabling technology of the 21st century. IT has transformed, and continues to transform, all aspects of our lives: commerce and finance, education, employment, energy, health care, manufacturing, government, national security, transportation, communications, entertainment, science, and engineering. IT and its impact on the U.S. economy-both directly (the IT sector itself) and indirectly (other sectors that are powered by advances in IT)--continue to grow in size and importance.

In 1995, the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) produced the report Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation's Information Infrastructure. A graphic in that report, often called the "tire tracks" diagram because of its appearance, produced an extraordinary response by clearly linking government investments in academic and industry research to the ultimate creation of new information technology industries with more than $1 billion in annual revenue.

Used in presentations to Congress and executive branch decision makers and discussed broadly in the research and innovation policy communities, the tire tracks figure dispelled the assumption that the commercially successful IT industry is self-sufficient, underscoring through long incubation periods of years and even decades. The figure was updated in 2002, 2003, and 2009 reports produced by the CSTB. With the support of the National Science Foundation, CSTB updated the tire tracks figure. Continuing Innovation in Information Technology includes the updated figure and a brief text based in large part on prior CSTB reports.

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