National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
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Page 1
Page 2
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
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Page 2
Page 3
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
×
Page 3
Page 4
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
×
Page 4
Page 5
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
×
Page 5
Page 6
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
×
Page 6
Page 7
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
×
Page 7
Page 8
Suggested Citation:"FrontMatter." Transportation Research Board. 2012. TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13434.
×
Page 8

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Special RepoRt 309 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems

MARINE BOARD Chair: Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey Vice Chair: Thomas M. Leschine, University of Washington, Seattle Steven R. Barnum, Hydrographic Consultation Services, Suffolk, Virginia Jerry A. Bridges, Virginia Port Authority, Norfolk Mary R. Brooks, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada James C. Card, Maritime Consultant, The Woodlands, Texas Stephen M. Carmel, Maersk Line Limited, Norfolk, Virginia Edward N. Comstock, Raytheon Company, Sudbury, Massachusetts Stéphan T. Grilli, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Douglas J. Grubbs, Crescent River Port Pilots Association, Metairie, Louisiana Judith Hill Harris, City of Portland, Maine John R. Headland, Moffatt & Nichol Engineers, New York, New York John M. Holmes, Port of Los Angeles, San Pedro, California Donald Liu, Marine Consultant, Willis, Texas Richard S. Mercier, Texas A&M University, College Station Edmond J. Moran, Jr., Moran Towing Corporation, New Canaan, Connecticut Ali Mosleh, University of Maryland, College Park George Berryman Newton, QinetiQ North America, Marstons Mills, Massachusetts Peter K. Velez, Shell International Exploration and Production, Inc., Houston, Texas John William Waggoner, HMS Global Maritime, New Albany, Indiana TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Division Chair for NRC Oversight: C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) Vice Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board

SPECIAL REPORT 309 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems Committee on the Effectiveness of Safety and Environmental Management Systems for Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Operations TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

Transportation Research Board Special Report 309 Subscriber Categories Safety and human factors, marine transportation, environment Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual pub- lications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or national-academies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or indi- vidual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202- 334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement of the U.S. Department of the Interior. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data United States. Committee on the Effectiveness of Safety and Environmental Management Systems for Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Operations. Evaluating the effectiveness of offshore safety and environmental management systems/ Committee on the Effectiveness of Safety and Environmental Management Systems for Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Operations. pages cm.—(Transportation Research Board special report ; 309) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-309-22308-9 1. Offshore oil well drilling—United States—Safety measures—Evaluation. 2. Offshore gas well drilling—United States—Safety measures—Evaluation. 3. Continental shelf— United States. 4. Environmental protection—Government policy—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. II. Title. TN872.A45 2012 363.11'9622338190973—dc23 2012026029

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

Committee on the Effectiveness of Safety and Environmental Management Systems for Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Operations Kenneth E. Arnold, WorleyParsons, Inc., Houston, Texas, Chair J. Ford Brett, PetroSkills, Tulsa, Oklahoma Paul S. Fischbeck, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Stuart Jones, Lloyd’s Register EMEA, Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom Thomas Kitsos, Consultant, Bethesda, Maryland Frank J. Puskar, Energo Engineering, Houston, Texas Darin W. Qualkenbush, Chevron North America Exploration and Production Company, Covington, Louisiana Raja V. Ramani, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (emeritus) Vikki Sanders, JMJ Associates, Austin, Texas Transportation Research Board Staff Beverly Huey, Project Director

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TRB Special Report 309: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems recommends that the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) take a holistic approach to evaluating the effectiveness offshore oil and gas industry operators' Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) programs. According to the report, this approach should, at a minimum, include inspections, audits by the operator and BSEE, key performance indicators, and a whistleblower program.

SEMS is a safety management system(SMS) aimed at shifting from a completely prescriptive regulatory approach to one that is proactive, risk based, and goal oriented in an attempt to improve safety and reduce the likelihood that events similar to the April 2010 Macondo incident will reoccur.

According to the committee that produced the report, it is not possible for a regulator to create a culture of safety in an organization by inspection or audit; that culture needs to come from within the organization. To be successful, the tenets of SEMS must be fully acknowledged and accepted by workers, motivated from the top, and supported throughout the organization and must drive workers' actions.

The report also notes that BSEE can encourage and aid industry in development of a culture of safety by the way it measures and enforces SEMS. The Committee believes BSEE should seize this opportunity to make a step change in safety culture by adopting a goal based holistic approach to evaluating the effectiveness of SEMS programs.

In recommending a holistic approach to evaluating the effectiveness of SEMS programs, the report explores in detail SEMS' role in helping to develop a culture of safety, highlights the pros and cons of various methods of assessing the effectiveness of a SEMS program, and investigates existing approaches for assessing the SMS programs of various U.S. and international regulatory agencies whose safety mandates are similar to that of BSEE.

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