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Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Notes to Financial Statements

December 31, 2011 and 2010

(1) ORGANIZATION AND RELATED ENTITIES

(a) National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was formed under a charter that was passed as an Act of Incorporation by the United States Congress and signed into law on March 3, 1863. NAS operates as a private cooperative society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific or engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and its use for the general welfare.

(b) National Research Council

Most of the activities undertaken by NAS are carried out through the divisions and boards of the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC draws on a wide cross section of the nation’s leading scientists and engineers for advisory services to government agencies and Congress. To respond effectively to both the disciplinary concerns of the research community and the complex interdisciplinary problems facing American society, NRC is organized into the following five major divisions responsible for most study activities:

  • Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
  • Earth and Life Studies
  • Engineering and Physical Sciences
  • Policy and Global Affairs
  • Transportation Research Board

NRC activities are under the control of the NAS governance structure and, therefore, are included in the NAS financial statements.

(c) Institute of Medicine

The Institute of Medicine (IOM), established in 1970, conducts studies of policy issues related to health and medicine. IOM issues position statements on these policies, cooperates with the major scientific and professional societies in the field, identifies qualified individuals to serve on study groups in other organizational units, and disseminates information to the public and the relevant professions. IOM was established as a separate membership organization within NAS. The financial activities and results of IOM are included in the NAS financial statements.

(d) National Academy of Engineering

The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) was established in 1964 under the charter of NAS as a related parallel organization, autonomous in its governance, administration, and the selection of its members. NAE shares with NAS the responsibility for advising the federal government on scientific issues. The NAE conducts independent program activities and activities through the NRC. The results of both of these activities are included in the NAS financial statements.

(e) National Academy of Engineering Fund

The National Academy of Engineering Fund (NAEF) is a separately incorporated not-for-profit organization established and controlled by NAE to raise funds to support its goals. The financial activities and results of NAEF are not included in the NAS financial statements.

(f) The National Academies’ Corporation

The National Academies’ Corporation (TNAC) was separately incorporated in 1986 as a not-for-profit corporation for the purpose of constructing and maintaining a study and conference facility. This facility, the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center, located in Irvine, California, operates to expand and support the general activities of NAS, NRC, IOM, and NAE. TNAC is controlled by NAS and NAEF. The financial position and results of TNAC are not consolidated in the NAS financial statements.

NAS manages the operations of the Beckman Center. There were no contributions from TNAC to the NRC during 2011 and 2010 to support operations of the Beckman Center. TNAC contributed $0 and $5,000 to the NRC for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, to be spent on programs conducted in whole or in part at the Beckman Center.

(2) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

(a) Basis of Accounting

Net assets, revenues, gains, and losses are classified based on the existence or absence of donor-imposed restrictions. Accordingly, net assets of NAS are classified and reported as follows:

Permanently restricted – Net assets subject to donor-imposed stipulations that they be maintained in

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
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perpetuity by NAS. Generally, the donors of these assets permit NAS to use all or part of the income earned on related investments for general or specific purposes.

Temporarily restricted – Net assets subject to donor-imposed stipulations that may or will be met either by actions of NAS and/or the passage of time. When a donor restriction expires, temporarily restricted net assets are reclassified to unrestricted net assets.

Unrestricted – Net assets arising from exchange transactions and contributions not subject to donor-imposed stipulations.

(b) Cash Equivalents

NAS reports liquid, temporary investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less as cash equivalents.

(c) Investments

Investments are stated at fair value. Changes in the fair value of investments are reported within investment income in the statements of activities.

Certain investments are pooled for long-term investment purposes. Investments in the pool are administered as an open-end investment trust, with shares of the pool funds expressed in terms of participating capital units (PCUs). PCU values are used to determine equity in the allocation of investment income among funds in the pool whenever additional funds are contributed or withdrawn.

(d) Contributions

Contributions, including unconditional promises to give, are recognized as revenues in the period received. Conditional promises to give are not recognized until all conditions are substantially met.

Gifts of land, buildings, or equipment are reported as unrestricted net assets unless explicit donor stipulations specify how the donated assets must be used. Temporary restrictions on gifts that must be used to acquire long-lived assets are released in the period in which the assets are acquired or placed in service.

Allowances are recorded for estimated uncollectible contributions based upon management’s judgment and analysis of the credit worthiness of the donor, past collection experience, and other relevant factors. Contributions to be received after one year are discounted at an appropriate rate commensurate with risks involved. Amortization of the discount is recorded as additional revenue and is used in accordance with donor-imposed restrictions, if any, on the contributions.

NAS performs certain fundraising activities on behalf of NAEF. NAS collected a total of $3.5 million and $4.1 million in 2011 and 2010, respectively, on behalf of NAEF. NAS disbursed $3.7 million and $4.1 million to NAEF from these collected amounts in 2011 and 2010, respectively. Amounts collected but not yet remitted to NAEF are included in other current liabilities in the statements of financial position

(e) Contracts and Grants

The majority of NAS activities are performed under cost-reimbursable contracts with the U.S. government. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, the Department of Transportation provided 44% and 45%, respectively, of NAS government grant and contract revenue.

NAS records federal contracts as exchange transactions, recognizing revenue as recoverable costs are incurred.

Revenues from nonfederal grants qualifying as contributions are recorded by NAS upon notification of the grant award. Such grants are classified as temporarily restricted net assets when use of the grant funds is limited to specific areas of study or is designated for use in future periods.

Contracts receivable consisted of $28.7 million of billed receivables and $63.7 million of unbilled receivables as of December 31, 2011. Contracts receivable consisted of $38.2 million of billed receivables and $20.2 million of unbilled receivables as of December 31, 2010.

(f) Deferred Revenue

For both federal and nonfederal grants and contracts that are determined to be exchange transactions, revenue is recognized as the related costs are incurred. Funds received in advance of being earned for these grants are recorded as deferred revenue in the statements of financial position.

(g) Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and include both work in-process and finished goods related to publication activities. The majority of NAS publication inventories and supplies reside with an NAS unit, the National Academy Press (NAP). NAP uses the full absorption costing methodology in pricing finished products. This methodology includes direct printing and related indirect costs. Inventories are included in other current assets in the statements of financial position.

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

(h) Property and Equipment

Depreciation of NAS buildings and equipment is computed on a straight-line basis using the following lives:

Asset Class Depreciable Lives
Buildings 40 years

Buildings and leasehold improvements

Lesser of the remaining life of the building or improvement

Furniture and equipment

4 to 10 years
Capitalized software 3 to 10 years

The Einstein Memorial sculpture is valued at cost and is not depreciated. Construction-in-progress is not depreciated until the related assets are placed in service. Capitalized software is amortized over its depreciable life when it is ready for its intended use and placed in service.

(i) Split-Interest Agreements

Charitable gift annuity agreements are classified as other assets and other long-term liabilities in the statements of financial position. Periodically, NAS pays a fixed amount of the assets to the beneficiary designated by the donor. Upon termination of an annuity, the remainder interest in the assets is available for use by NAS as restricted or unrestricted assets in accordance with the donor’s designation. At December 31, 2011 and 2010, NAS had charitable gift annuity assets of $2.0 million and $2.1 million, respectively. NAS has recorded a liability of $1.3 million and $1.3 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, representing the present value of estimated future cash payments to annuitants based on the annuitant’s life expectancy.

(j) Income Taxes

NAS is exempt from federal income taxes under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, except for unrelated business income. NAS recognizes the effect of income tax positions only if those positions are more likely than not of being sustained. NAS does not believe its financial statements include any uncertain tax positions.

(k) Risks and Uncertainties

NAS invests in various investment securities. Investment securities are exposed to various risks such as interest rate, market and credit risks. Due to the level of risk associated with investment securities, it is at least reasonably possible that changes in the values of investment securities will occur in the near term and that such changes could materially affect the amounts reported.

(l) Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

Effective December 31, 2010, NAS applied the guidance in FASB Accounting Standards Update 2010-06, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures – Improving Disclosures about Fair Value Measurements, to its financial assets and liabilities disclosed at fair value. This guidance requires fair value measurement disclosures for each class of assets and liabilities and enhanced disclosures for transfers among the fair value hierarchy.

(m) Use of Estimates

The preparation of these financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions may affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures in the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

(n) Reclassifications

Certain amounts from the prior year have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.

(3) INVESTMENTS

Investments, which are reported at fair value (except as noted), consisted of the following as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 (in thousands):

2011 2010
Short-term investments:
Cash equivalents $ 12,779 $ 12,503
Bonds and notes 32,129 31,666
Equity securities 9,404 12,608
Total short-term investments $ 54,312 $ 56,777
Long-term investments:
Investment pool, including endowment assets:
Cash equivalents $ 28,429 $ 6,381
Bonds and notes 38,902 38,775
Equity securities 173,972 263,900
Hedge funds 85,318 55,303
Private equity 25,555 19,570
352,176 383,929
Other long-term investments:
Cash equivalents 882 3,004
Bonds and notes 17,483 16,463
Equity securities 21,484 19,666
39,849 39,133
Total long-term investments $ 392,025 $ 423,062
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

NAS holds alternative investments, comprised of private equity securities and hedge funds, in its long-term investment pool. At December 31, 2011 and 2010, these funds had a fair value of approximately $110.8 million and $74.9 million, respectively. The hedge funds had an unrealized loss of approximately $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2011 and an unrealized gain of approximately $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2010. The unrealized loss or gain is included as a component of investment income in the accompanying statements of activities. Private equity investments are comprised of limited partnership interests.

TNAC, a related entity, invests certain of its assets in the NAS long-term investment pool. TNAC investments participate in the investment pool proportionally with all other funds in this pool.

The NAS obligation to TNAC for these funds held in trust, which totaled approximately $9.2 million and $9.9 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, is reported as funds held on behalf of others in the statements of financial position.

Investment income is reported net of investment expenses of approximately $599,000 and $446,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and is comprised of the following (in thousands):

2011 2010
Interest and dividends income $ 15,536 $ 9,610
Net (loss)/gain on investments (36,264) 49,231
Total investment (loss) income $ (20,728) $ 58,841

(4) FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. FASB ASC Topic 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The standard describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:

Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the asset or liabilities.

The following discussion describes the valuation methodologies used for financial assets measured at fair value. The techniques utilized in estimating the fair values are affected by the assumptions used, including discount rates and estimates of the amount and timing of future cash flows. Care should be exercised in deriving conclusions about NAS’ business, its value or financial position based on the fair value information of financial assets presented below.

Fair value estimates are made at a specific point in time, based on available market information and judgments about the financial asset, including estimates of timing, amount of expected future cash flows and the credit standing of the issuer. In some cases, the fair value estimates cannot be substantiated by comparison to independent markets. In addition, the disclosed fair value may not be realized in the immediate settlement of the financial asset. Furthermore, the disclosed fair values do not reflect any premium or discount that could result from offering for sale at one time an entire holding of a particular financial asset. Potential taxes and other expenses that would be incurred in an actual sale or settlement are not reflected in amounts disclosed.

The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments:

The carrying value of cash equivalents such as money market funds approximates the fair value because of the short maturity of these investments. These amounts are disclosed in Level 1.

NAS’ fixed maturity investments (bonds and notes), other than U.S. Treasury securities, generally do not trade on a daily basis. The fair value estimates of such debt securities are based on prices provided by NAS’ investment managers and custodian bank. Both the investment managers and the custodian bank use a variety of pricing sources to determine market valuations. Each designate specific pricing services or indexes for each sector of the market based upon the provider’s expertise. NAS’ debt securities portfolio is highly liquid, which allows for a high percentage of the portfolio to be priced through pricing services. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value for such debt securities are included in Level 2 inputs. The estimated values of U.S. Treasury securities are based on actively traded market prices and are accordingly included in the bonds and notes amount in Level 1.

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

Fair values of exchange-traded equity securities have been determined by NAS from observable market quotations on major trade exchanges. Accordingly, such equity securities are disclosed in Level 1.

NAS also invests in debt and equity mutual funds. For purposes of the fair value disclosure, mutual funds are presented based on the class of the underlying investment holdings. The fair values of such mutual funds are based on observable market information from active markets. Accordingly, the estimates of fair value for such mutual funds are included in Level 1.

Fair value of alternative investments including private equity securities and hedge funds is based on the alternative investment fund managers’ net asset value (NAV). Valuations provided by alternative investment fund managers include estimates, appraisals, assumptions and methods that are reviewed by management. When necessary, NAS adjusts NAV for contributions, distributions, or general market conditions subsequent to the latest NAV valuation date when calculating fair value. Since the most significant valuation inputs are not observable in the marketplace, the alternative investment valuations are disclosed in Level 2 or Level 3. The distinction is that those funds which are available for redemption in the near term at NAV are included in Level 2.

Funds on deposit with trustee are held in U.S. Treasury securities or funds of U.S. Treasury securities and therefore included in Level 1. Charitable gift annuity investments and deferred compensation investments are held in debt and equity mutual funds along with some U.S. Treasury securities, all of which are included in Level 1. The deferred compensation obligation to employees is equal to the fair value of the investments held and is disclosed in the same levels as the investment assets.

NAS has interest rate swap agreements covering the variable-rate bonds payable. The fair value of the swaps are determined using pricing models based on observable market data such as prices of instruments with similar maturities and characteristics, interest rate yield curves, and measures of interest rate volatility. The value was determined after considering the potential impact of collateralization and netting agreements, adjusted to reflect nonperformance risk of both the counterparty and NAS. Accordingly, the interest rate swaps are included in Level 2.

The funds held on behalf of others liability approximates the investments held in NAS’ long-term investment pool on behalf of TNAC. Therefore, the liability is disclosed in the same levels as the investment assets.

The following table presents NAS’ fair value hierarchy for those assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2011 (in thousands):

Fair value Fair value measurements using
Level 1 Level 2   Level 3
Financial Assets:

Short-term and long-term investments:

Cash equivalents

$ 42,090 $ 42,090 $ - $ -

Bonds and notes

U.S. treasuries/government bonds

  8,310   7,367   943   -

Mortgage-backed securities

  37,603   17,014   20,589   -

Corporate bonds

  20,737   11,009   9,728   -

Non-U.S. fixed income

  21,864   21,864   -   -

Equity securities

U.S. large stock

  47,994   47,994   -   -

U.S. small/mid cap

  43,441   43,441   -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries)

  57,056   57,056   -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (emerging countries)

  44,653   44,653   -   -

Real estate stocks

  11,716   11,716   -   -

Hedge funds

Fund of fund – multi-strategies

  26,540   -   26,540   -

Multi-strategies/multi-vehicle

  11,223   -   -   11,223

Fixed income single strategy

  2,448   -   2,448   -

Long/short equity

  45,107   -   37,382   7,725

Private equity

Asia

  20,450   -   -   20,450

Global

  3,560   -   -   3,560
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Fair value Fair value measurements using
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Domestic

  1,545     -   -   1,545

Total short-term and long-term investments

  446,337     304,204   97,630   44,503

Deposit with trustee

Bonds and notes

U.S. treasuries/government bonds

  22,512     22,512   -   -

Total deposit with trustee

  22,512     22,512        

Charitable gift annuity assets:

Cash equivalents

  74     74   -   -

Bonds and notes

                 

U.S. treasuries/government bonds

  75     75   -   -

Mortgage-backed securities

  397     397   -   -

Corporate bonds

  93     93   -   -

Equity securities

                 

U.S. small/mid cap

  1,329     1,329   -   -

Total charitable gift annuity assets

  1,968     1,968   -   -

Deferred compensation assets:

Bonds and notes

U.S. treasuries/government bonds

  76     76   -   -

Corporate bonds

  434     434   -   -

Equity securities

                 

U.S. large stock

  187     187   -   -

U.S. small/mid cap

  1,002     1,002   -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries)

  232     232   -   -

Total deferred compensation assets

  1,931     1,931   -   -

Total financial assets

$ 472,748   $ 330,615 $ 97,630 $ 44,503

Financial Liabilities:

Funds held on behalf of others

$ 9,185   $ 6,293 $ 1,731 $ 1,161

Deferred compensation liability

  1,931     1,931   -   -

Interest rate swaps

  14,109     -   14,109   -

Total financial liabilities

$ 25,225   $ 8,224 $ 15,840 $ 1,161

The following table presents NAS’ fair value hierarchy for those assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2010 (in thousands):

Fair value Fair value measurements using
Level 1   Level 2   Level 3  
Financial Assets:

Short-term and long-term investments:

Cash equivalents

$ 21,888 $ 21,888 $ - $   -

Bonds and notes

U.S. treasuries/government bonds

  6,964   5,844   1,120     -

Mortgage-backed securities

  32,044   16,980   15,064     -
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Fair value Fair value measurements using
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Corporate bonds

  26,122     11,146   14,976   -

Non-U.S. fixed income

  21,774     21,774   -   -

U.S. large stock

  70,619     70,619   -   -

U.S. small/mid cap

  67,547     67,547   -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries)

  89,016     89,016   -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (emerging countries)

  57,054     57,054   -   -

Real estate stocks

  11,938     11,938   -   -

Hedge funds

Fund of fund – multi-strategies

  27,104     -   27,104   -

Multi-strategies/multi-vehicle

  11,028     -   -   11,028

Fixed income single strategy

  1,185     -   1,185   -

Long/short equity

  15,986     -   2,500   13,486

Private equity

Asia

  12,725     -   -   12,725

Global

  4,840     -   -   4,840

Domestic

  2,005     -   -   2,005

Total short-term and long-term investments

  479,839     373,806   61,949   44,084
Deposit with trustee:

Bonds and notes

U.S treasuries/government bonds

  47,216     47,216   -   -

Total deposit with trustee

  47,216     47,216   -   -
Charitable gift annuity assets:

Cash equivalents

  56     56   -   -

Bonds and notes

                 

U.S treasuries/government bonds

  66     66   -   -

Mortgage-backed securities

  376     376   -   -

Corporate bonds

  86     86   -   -

Equity securities

                 

U.S. small/mid cap

  1,475     1,475   -   -

Total charitable gift annuity assets

  2,059     2,059   -   -

Deferred compensation assets:

Cash equivalents

  13     13   -   -

Bonds and notes

                 

U.S. treasuries/government bonds

  97     97   -   -

Corporate bonds

  426     426   -   -

Equity securities

                 

U.S. large stock

  164     164   -   -

U.S. small/mid cap

  1,279     1,279   -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries)

  339     339   -   -

Total deferred compensation assets

  2,318     2,318   -   -

Total financial assets

$ 531,432   $ 425,399 $ 61,949 $ 44,084

Financial Liabilities:

Funds held on behalf of others

$ 9,918   $ 7,984 $ 795 $ 1,139

Deferred compensation liability

  2,318     2,318   -   -

Interest rate swaps

  10,534     -   10,534   -

Total financial liabilities

$ 22,770   $ 10,302 $ 11,329 $ 1,139
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

The following table presents the changes in Level 3 assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis for the year ended December 31, 2011 (in thousands):

  Balance January 1, 2011 Net gain (loss) on investments Purchases Sales Transfers out of Level 3 (a)   Balance December 31, 2011
Hedge funds:

Multi-strategies/multi-vehicle

$ 11,028 $ 195 $ - $ - $ -   $ 11,223

Long/short equity

  13,486   (2,798)   5,000   -   (7,963) (b)   7,725
Private equity:

Asia

  12,725   7,203   1,703   (1,181)   -     20,450

Global

  4,840   457   25   (1,762)   -     3,560

Domestic

  2,005   208   -   (668)   -     1,545

 

$ 44,084 $ 5,265 $ 6,728   $ (3,611) $ (7,963)   $ 44,503

The following table presents the changes in Level 3 assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis for the year ended December 31, 2010 (in thousands):

Balance January 1, 2010 Net gain (loss) on investments Purchases Sales Transfers out of Level 3 (a)   Balance December 31, 2010
Hedge funds:

Multi-strategies/multi-vehicle

$ 10,000 $ 1,028 $ - $ - $ -   $ 11,028

Fixed income single strategy

  1,281   (96)   -   -   (1,185) (b)   -

Long/short equity

  -   486   13,000   -   -     13,486
Private equity:

Asia

  4,990   6,407   1,428   (100)   -     12,725

Global

  5,073   481   90   (804)   -     4,840

Domestic

  1,972   251   -   (218)   -     2,005

 

$ 23,316 $ 8,557 $ 14,518 $ (1,122) $ (1,185)   $ 44,084

Notes:

  1. (a) NAS’ policy is to recognize transfers in and transfers out as of the end of the reporting period in which the event or change in circumstances occurred.
  2. (b) Transferred from Level 3 to Level 2 due to expiration of lock up period allowing for redemption in the near term.

The following table presents the nature and risk of assets with fair values estimated using NAV held at December 31, 2011 (in thousands):

  Fair value Unfunded Commitments Redemption Frequency Redemption Notice Period
Fund of hedge funds – multi-strategies (a) $ 26,540   N/A   Quarterly 90 days
Hedge fund – multi-strategies/multi-vehicle (b)   11,223   N/A   Annually 365 days
Hedge fund – fixed income single strategy (c)   2,448   N/A   Quarterly 30 days
Hedge fund – long/short equity strategy (d)   45,107   N/A   Monthly/Quarterly/Annually 45/60/90 days
Private equity – Asia (e)   20,450   3,738   N/A N/A
Private equity – Global (f)   3,560   302   N/A N/A
Private equity – Domestic (g)   1,545   303   N/A N/A

Total

$ 110,873 $ 4,343      

Notes:

(a) This class includes investments in funds of hedge funds that use multiple strategies to obtain total returns on a leveraged basis. Direct and indirect investments are made using equity long/short, event driven, relative value, and tactical trading strategies. The funds have investments in multiple investees which may trade various financial instruments such as, but not limited to, securities sold short, futures, forwards, swaps, and written options. The

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

fair values of the investments in this class have been estimated using the NAV per share of the investments.

(b) This class includes investments in a multi-strategy, multi-vehicle hedge fund with the objective of maximizing long-term, risk-adjusted returns and capital appreciation by investing in securities, investment funds, discretionary accounts, and investment partnerships across a broad range of marketable and alternative asset classes. Asset classes include domestic and international marketable equity securities, hedged equity, real estate, natural resource, fixed income, and private equity and absolute return strategies, primarily focused in the United States. The fair values of the investments in this class have been estimated using the NAV per share of the investments.

(c) This class includes investments in a single strategy hedge fund focused on undervalued fixed income securities. Investments held by this fund consist of U.S. government agency mortgage-backed securities and derivatives, primarily in the form of collateralized mortgage obligations. Securities are generally held in the portfolio as long as interest rates and repayment rates are unfolding as anticipated. The majority of the investment return is expected to come from trading mortgage-backed securities in an attempt to maximize interest income. The fair values of the investments in this class have been estimated using the NAV per share of the investments.

(d) This category is comprised of long-short equity hedge funds investing in securities of U.S. companies as well as securities of developed and emerging countries. The geographical allocation among U.S. equity funds, global funds and emerging market funds is approximately 49%, 44% and 7%, respectively. Each of these funds buys securities long and sells short securities with the ability to use leverage. These funds can also invest in derivative instruments such as forward, futures and options contracts. The fair values of the investments in this category have been estimated using the net asset value per share of the investments. Currently, approximately $37.4 million of investments in this category is redeemable within the near term from December 31, 2011. The remaining investments are redeemable annually on the anniversary of the investment.

(e) This class includes several private equity funds that invest in equity, debt or debt-oriented instruments, primarily in privately held companies which own or contractually control operating entities located in the Peoples’ Republic of China and India. Investments held in India primarily include equity securities of “early to early growth stage” companies in multiple sectors, except real estate. The fair values of these investments have been estimated using the NAV of NAS’ ownership interest in partners’ capital. These investments can never be redeemed with the funds. Instead, the nature of the investments in this class is that distributions are received through liquidation of the underlying assets of the funds. It is estimated that the underlying assets of the funds will be liquidated over 1 to 10 years.

(f) This class includes several global private equity funds with diverse portfolios consisting primarily of venture capital funds, leveraged buyout funds, mid-stage growth capital funds, and international private equity funds. These investments are focused on several industries including, but not limited to, insurance, services, and consumer-related industries. The fair values of these investments have been estimated using the NAV of NAS’ ownership interest in partners’ capital. These investments can never be redeemed with the funds. Instead, the nature of the investments in this class is that distributions are received through liquidation of the underlying assets of the funds. It is estimated that the underlying assets of the funds will be liquidated over 1 to 4 years.

(g) This class includes several domestic private equity funds which make investments in domestic equity securities, warrants or other securities that are generally not actively traded at the time of investment. These investments are focused on several industries including, but not limited to, insurance, financial services, consumer-related, and communications. The fair values of these investments have been estimated using the NAV of NAS’ ownership interest in partners’ capital. These investments can never be redeemed with the funds. Instead, the nature of the investments in this class is that distributions are received through liquidation of the underlying assets of the funds. It is estimated that the underlying assets of the funds will be liquidated over 1 year.

(5) PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT

Property and equipment as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, is comprised of the following (in thousands):

2011 2010
Land $ 29,689 $ 29,689
Furniture and equipment 31,298 28,811
Buildings and improvements 109,631 109,518
Capitalized software 11,631 6,219
Construction in progress 41,921 14,207
Software development in process - 5,062
Leasehold improvements 4,701 4,635
228,871 198,141

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization

(69,220) (63,188)
Total property and equipment, net $ 159,651 $ 134,953
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

(6) CONTRIBUTIONS RECEIVABLE

Contributions not yet collected are included in contributions and other receivables (current) and contributions receivable (long-term) in the statements of financial position, and mature as follows (in thousands):

Year ending December 31:
Less than one year $ 7,863
One to five years 20,495
More than five years 1,937
30,295
Less:
Discount at rates from 1.20% to 6.75% to estimated net present value (1,530)
Allowance for uncollectible contributions (700)
28,065
Less current portion (7,163)
Total contributions receivable, long-term $ 20,902

At December 31, 2010, the discount on contributions receivable was approximately $2.2 million at rates ranging from 3.00% to 6.75% and the allowance for uncollectible contributions was approximately $701,000.

(7) DEFERRED REVENUE

Deferred revenue consisted of the following as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 (in thousands):

2011 2010

Advances from private grants and contract sponsors

$15,771 $15,828
Advances from U.S. government sponsors 12,539 7,320
Publication subscriptions and other 4,787 4,859
Total deferred revenue $33,097 $28,007

(8) LINE OF CREDIT

NAS is party to a $34 million unsecured line of credit from Bank of America, which bears interest at LIBOR plus 0.65% and expires on August 30, 2012. Effective November 1, 2010, NAS is also party to a $15 million unsecured line of credit from Wells Fargo, which bears interest at LIBOR plus 0.65% and expires on April 30, 2013. Interest expense related to the lines of credit for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, was approximately $216,000 and $84,000, respectively.

(9) TEMPORARILY RESTRICTED NET ASSETS

Temporarily restricted net assets were available for the following purposes as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 (in thousands):

2011 2010
Sponsored research and advisory programs $140,334 $156,557
General endowment 68,311 79,400
Prizes and awards 23,681 26,385
Woods Hole facility 2,678 3,360
Total temporarily restricted net assets $235,004 $265,702

Temporarily restricted net assets were released from restriction for the following purposes during the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 (in thousands):

2011 2010
Sponsored research and advisory programs $ 28,206 $ 32,040
General endowment 4,532 4,927
Prizes and awards 933 799
Woods Hole facility 277 372
Total temporarily restricted net assets released from restriction $ 33,948 $ 38,138

(10) ENDOWMENT

(a) Permanently Restricted Net Assets

The income generated by permanently restricted net assets is available to support donor-specified programs. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, NAS held the following permanently restricted net assets, classified by the purpose for which the income is to be used (in thousands):

2011 2010
Sponsored research and advisory programs $ 80,972 $ 77, 682
General Endowment 32,374 32,032
Prizes and awards 5,116 5,116
Woods Hole facility 3,539 3,539
Total permanently restricted net assets $122,001 $118,369

(b) Endowment Assets

The NAS endowment consists of approximately 110 individual funds established to support general operations, sponsored research and advisory programs, prizes and awards, and the operations of the Woods Hole facility. The endowment is comprised solely of donor-restricted

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

endowment funds. The investments of the endowment are included in the NAS long-term investment pool, as described in note 3.

Interpretation of Relevant Law

NAS has interpreted the District of Columbia “Uniform Prudent Management of Institutional Funds Act of 2007” (the Act) as requiring NAS, absent explicit donor stipulations to the contrary, to act in good faith and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would exercise under similar circumstances in making determinations to appropriate or accumulate endowment funds, taking into account both its obligation to preserve the value of the endowment and its obligation to use the endowment to achieve the purposes for which it was donated. NAS classifies as permanently restricted net assets (a) the original value of gifts donated to the permanent endowment, (b) the original value of subsequent gifts to the permanent endowment, and (c) accumulations to the permanent endowment required by the applicable donor gift instrument. The remaining portion of donor-restricted endowment funds that are not classified as permanently restricted are classified as temporarily restricted net assets until those amounts are appropriated for expenditure by NAS. In making a determination to appropriate or accumulate, NAS adheres to the standard of prudence prescribed by the Act and considers the following factors:

  1. (1) The duration and preservation of the endowment fund;
  2. (2) The purposes of the institution and the endowment fund;
  3. (3) General economic conditions;
  4. (4) The possible effect of inflation or deflation;
  5. (5) The expected total return from income and the appreciation of investments;
  6. (6) Other resources of the institution; and
  7. (7) The investment policy of the institution.

Return Objectives and Strategies

NAS has adopted an investment and spending policy for endowment assets that is designed to provide a predictable stream of funding to programs supported by the endowment while seeking to protect the real purchasing power of the assets from inflation. Accordingly, NAS has adopted guidelines which feature a material commitment to equity and equity-like investments.

The asset allocation guidelines are as follows:

Asset Category Guideline percentage
U.S. large stocks 19%
U.S. small/mid cap stocks 9
Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries) 20
Non-U.S. stocks (emerging countries) 15
Real estate stocks 3
Total equity 66
U.S. fixed/cash 9
Non-U.S. fixed 5
Total fixed 14

Hedge funds and alternative investments

20%
Total 100%

NAS has adopted a spending policy that limits the annual spending to 5% of the three-year average fair value of the participating funds in the endowment portfolio. This is consistent with NAS’ objective to maintain the purchasing power of the endowment assets held in perpetuity as well as to provide additional real growth through new gifts and investment return.

Changes in endowment assets for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011 are as follows (in thousands):

  Unrestricted Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted   Total
Endowment assets, January 1, 2011 $ - $ 180,868 $ 114,202 $ 295,070
Investment return (loss):
Interest and dividend income   -   10,445   -   10,445
Net loss on investments   (160)   (27,530)   -   (27,690)
Total investment return (loss)   (160)   (17,085)   -   (17,245)
Contributions   -   -   5,615   5,615
Amounts appropriated for expenditure   -   (11,205)   -   (11,205)
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Unrestricted Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted Total
Other changes:                
2010 appropriation expended in 2011   -   (2,613)   -   (2,613)
Unspent purpose restricted appropriations   -   4,429   -   4,429
Accrued expenses withdrawn in 2012   -   637   -   637
Endowment assets, December 31, 2011 $ (160) $ 155,031 $ 119,817 $ 274,688

Changes in endowment assets for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010 are as follows (in thousands):

  Unrestricted Temporarily restricted Permanently restricted Total
Endowment assets, January 1, 2010 $ (214) $ 152,382 $ 111,055 $ 263,223
Investment return:
Interest and dividend income   -   5,021   -   5,021
Net gain on investments   214   34,530   -   34,744
Total investment return   214   39,551   -   39,765
Contributions   -   -   3,147   3,147
Amounts appropriated for expenditure   -   (11,074)   -   (11,074)
Other changes:
2009 appropriation expended in 2010   -   (2,604)   -   (2,604)
Unspent purpose restricted appropriations   -   2,443   -   2,443
Accrued expenses withdrawn in 2011   -   170   -   170
Endowment assets, December 31, 2010 $ - $ 180,868 $ 114,202 $ 295,070

Funds with Deficiencies

From time to time, the fair value of assets associated with individual donor-restricted endowment funds may fall below the original value of the gift donated to the permanent endowment. Deficiencies of this nature are reported as unrestricted net assets. At December 31, 2011, there were three endowment funds with a fair value below the original value of the gift. These deficiencies were primarily a result of unfavorable market fluctuations that occurred shortly after the investment of new permanently restricted contributions. Subsequent gains that restore the fair value of the assets of the endowment fund to the required level are classified as an increase in unrestricted net assets. At December 31, 2010, there were no endowment funds with a fair value below the original value of the gift.

(11) PROGRAM EXPENSES

Program expenses for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 are summarized as follows (in thousands):

2011 2010
Transportation Research Board $126,172 $112,445
Policy and Global Affairs 58,527 55,117
Institute of Medicine 37,459 32,116
Earth and Life Sciences 21,720 21,371
Engineering and Physical Sciences 20,380 18,250

Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

11,775 12,042

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

12,370 11,762
National Academy Press 3,964 4,412
National Academy of Engineering 3,614 3,158
Koshland Science Museum 2,316 1,850
NAS 11,008 7,834
Total program expenses $309,305 $280,357

(12) RECOVERY OF INDIRECT COSTS

NAS receives indirect cost recovery on its federal contracts and grants. An overhead assessment is applied to direct salaries, accrued leave, fringe benefits, and services provided by outside contractors (e.g., temporary personnel agencies, consultants) on NAS property. A general and administrative assessment (G&A) is

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

applied to direct costs and overhead less subcontract costs and stipends. Therefore, both the overhead and G&A rates are applied to projects incurring direct salaries and other direct costs such as travel. If a program does not require direct salaries, such as a travel grant program, a subcontract/flow-through administration rate is applied. Certain off-site work (not performed on NAS property) is assessed reduced overhead rates.

NAS bills for indirect cost recovery throughout the year based on negotiated rates. At the end of each year, NAS compares actual expenses incurred in each of its cost pools to the amounts recovered based on its billing rates. The difference is recorded as its indirect cost carryforward. If NAS over recovers on its indirect costs during the year, a liability is recorded. If NAS under recovers, a receivable is recorded.

NAS has a cumulative net overrecovery of approximately $9.9 million and $4.8 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The overrecovery is included in the deferred revenue balance in the statements of financial position.

(13) BUILDING PROJECT AND FINANCING

(a) Building Project Revenue Bonds

In January 1999, the District of Columbia issued Series 1999A, Series 1999B, and Series 1999C tax-exempt revenue bonds on behalf of NAS. Proceeds from the sale of the revenue bonds financed the cost of the acquisition of 44,250 square feet of land and related construction of an office building, as well as paid certain costs of issuing the bonds. This building consolidates most of NAS’ program activities into one location.

In June 2008, the District of Columbia issued Series 2008A tax-exempt revenue bonds in the amount of $66,325,000 on behalf of NAS. The proceeds were used to refund the Series 1999B and Series 1999C revenue bonds, as well as pay certain costs of issuing the bonds.

In April 2009, the District of Columbia issued Series 2009A tax-exempt revenue bonds in the amount of $57,500,000 on behalf of NAS. The proceeds were used to refund the Series 1999A revenue bonds, as well as pay certain costs of issuing the bonds.

In May 2010, the District of Columbia issued Series 2010A tax-exempt revenue bonds in the amount of $59,550,000 on behalf of NAS. These bonds were sold to finance the cost to restore the NAS headquarters building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C. and pay for certain costs of issuance. The restoration is expected to be completed in May 2012.

The bond proceeds are held by a Trustee and invested in U.S. government obligations or funds of U.S. government obligations. The Trustee reimburses NAS and third-party vendors for expenditures related to the restoration project.

NAS is obligated under the revenue bonds as follows (in thousands):

2011 2010

Series 2008A revenue bonds, term, at flexible rates (0.2% in 2011 and 0.3% in 2010) maturing at various dates from January 1, 2029 through 2039

$   66,325 $   66,325

Series 2009A revenue bonds, term, at flexible rates (0.3% in 2011 and 0.3% in 2010) maturing at various dates from January 1, 2010 through 2028

54,220 56,220

Series 2010A revenue bonds, serial, with interest rates ranging from 3.0% to 5.0%, maturing at various dates from April 1, 2013 through 2030

29,385 29,385
Series 2010A revenue bonds, term,
Interest rate 5%, maturing April 1, 2035 13,205 13,205
Interest rate 5%, maturing April 1, 2040 16,960 16,960
Total bonds, at face value 180,095 182,095
Plus unamortized premium 1,108 1,244
Total bonds payable 181,203 183,339

Less current portion (included in other current liabilities)

(2,241) (2,137)
Bonds payable, long-term $ 178,962 $ 181,202

The serial and term bonds represent unsecured general obligations of NAS.

Interest on the 2008A and 2009A bonds is payable monthly. Interest on the 2010A bonds is payable semiannually every April 1 and October 1.

The term bonds maturing on April 1, 2035, and April 1, 2040, are subject to mandatory redemption by operation of sinking fund installments. Installment payments for the term bond maturing April 1, 2035, begin on April 1, 2031, and range from $2.4 to $2.9 million per year through the maturity date. Installment payments for the term bond maturing April 1, 2040, begin on April 1, 2036, and range from $3.1 to $3.8 million per year through the maturity date.

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

Scheduled maturities and sinking fund requirements are as follows (in thousands):

Years ending December 31:
2012 $     2,100
2013 3,325
2014 3,475
2015 3,645
2016 3,820
Thereafter 163,730
$ 180,095

The carrying value of bonds payable in the financial statements was approximately $2.5 million less than fair value as of December 31, 2011 and approximately $3.7 million greater than fair value as of December 31, 2010.

Interest expense on the bonds payable for 2011 and 2010 totaled $2.9 million and $2.0 million, respectively. Of this amount, $2.4 million and $1.4 million was capitalized as part of the building restoration project for 2011 and 2010, respectively.

(b) Interest Rate Swaps

In October 1999, NAS entered into a swap agreement, with an effective date of February 1, 2000, relating to the $66 million face amount of its Series 1999A revenue bonds. The agreement provides for NAS to receive 4.97% in interest on a notional amount of $65 million and to pay interest at a floating rate option based on the weekly interest rate resets of tax-exempt variable-rate issues per the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) Municipal Swap Index. NAS amended the agreement for the 2005 – 2020 period by agreeing to give up the benefit of any 30-day period during which the SIFMA index remains below 2.25% for the entire 30 days. Each time this occurs, the rate on the swap portfolio reverts to the fixed rate noted above for that month only.

NAS entered into this fixed-to-variable swap agreement to manage its exposure to interest rate changes. The fixed-rate debt obligations exposed NAS to variability in the cost recovery stream due to changes in interest rates. NAS recovers the costs of borrowing through a capital investment incentive rate that is set by the U.S. government and is tied to a variable index. If interest rates increase, the capital investment incentive recovery increases.

Conversely, if interest rates decrease, the capital investment incentive recovery decreases. Therefore, NAS entered into a derivative instrument that ties the fixed-rate debt to a variable index to manage fluctuations in cash flows resulting from interest rate risk. By using derivative financial instruments to hedge exposures to changes in interest rates, NAS exposes itself to credit risk and market risk. Credit risk is the failure of the counterparty to perform under the terms of the derivative contract. When the fair value of a derivative contract is positive, the counterparty owes NAS, which creates credit risk for NAS. When the fair value of a derivative contract is negative, NAS owes the counterparty, and therefore, it does not possess credit risk. NAS minimizes the credit risk in derivative instruments by entering into transactions with high-quality counterparties.

In May 2009, NAS entered into an additional swap agreement as a result of a counterparty exercising a swaption related to the Series 1999A Revenue Bonds. The variable-to-fixed swap requires NAS to pay 5.00% on a notional amount of $55 million and to receive a floating rate equal to 67% of 1-month LIBOR plus 0.41%.

NAS entered into this variable-to-fixed swap agreement in order to preserve the synthetic variable rate achieved through the 1999 swap agreement once the fixed-rate Series 1999A bonds were refunded with the variable-rate Series 2009A bonds.

With regard to the fixed-to-variable interest rate swap, NAS recorded a gain on the change in the fair value of its swap agreement of $20,000 and $17,000, for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, which is included in other income in the accompanying statements of activities. The fair value of the interest rate swap was recorded as an asset of $37,000 and $17,000 as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and is included in other assets in the statements of financial position.

Pertaining to the swaption and resultant variable-to-fixed interest rate swap, NAS recorded a loss on the change in the fair value of approximately $3.6 million and $1.3 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010. The loss is included in other income in the statements of activities. The fair value of the swap is recorded as a liability of $14.1 million and $10.5 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and is included in other current liabilities and other long-term liabilities.

(14) NOTE PAYABLE

During 2006, NAS entered into a loan agreement with Bank of America for an amount up to $5 million. The principal balance of this note is payable in equal

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

monthly installments until January 1, 2012. On December 31, 2011 and 2010, the principal balance was approximately $0.1 million and $0.8 million, respectively. The note bears interest at 30-day LIBOR plus 40 basis points. The interest rate at December 31, 2011 and 2010 was 0.69% and 0.66%, respectively.

(15) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

(a) Retirement Plans

NAS has a noncontributory defined contribution retirement plan covering substantially all of its employees (based on certain benefit eligibility requirements). The funding vehicles under the plan consist of group investments issued by Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF), known collectively as TIAA-CREF, as well as mutual funds issued by TIAA-CREF and other third-parties. Participants in this plan vest immediately. NAS has received a favorable determination letter from the IRS on the qualification of this plan under Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

In addition, NAS has a voluntary employee contribution retirement plan that is funded solely by employee contributions made on a pretax salary-reduction basis under Section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue Code. The funding vehicles under the plan consist of group investments issued by TIAA and CREF, as well as mutual funds issued by TIAA-CREF, Vanguard Fiduciary Trust Company, and other third-parties.

Pension expense for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, amounted to approximately $12.4 million and $12.0 million, respectively. The NAS policy is to fund pension benefits as they are earned. The NAS normal retirement age is 60, but there is no mandatory age for retirement.

(b) Deferred Compensation

NAS holds long-term investments as part of a frozen deferred compensation arrangement for certain employees. The fair value of these investments was approximately $1.9 million and $2.3 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, which is reported within other assets in the statements of financial position. The related obligation is included in accrued employee benefits in the statements of financial position.

(c) Postretirement and Postemployment Benefits

NAS provides certain health and life insurance benefits for employees retired due to length of service. All benefit-eligible employees may become eligible for service retiree benefits if they reach age 60 while working for NAS and complete 5 years of service in a benefit-eligible status for medical and life insurance benefits. In addition, certain health and life insurance benefits are provided for employees retired due to disability. A benefit-eligible employee may become eligible for disabled retiree benefits if deemed totally disabled under NAS’ long-term disability insurance or if they are eligible for disability benefits from the Social Security Administration. Life insurance benefits are provided based on coverage at date of disability and health insurance may be continued if the disabled retiree had participated in an NAS health insurance plan for 5 years at the date of disability. Insurance companies whose premiums are determined on an experience-rated basis provide life and health insurance benefits for retirees. Medicare supplement insurance is not experience rated. The retiree welfare benefit plan is contributory for health insurance purposes for employees who retired on or after January 1, 1990. Participant contributions for health insurance are based on a percentage of the monthly premium paid by NAS (from 25% to 100%). The participant contribution is also based on their date of retirement, length of service and choice of health insurance carrier.

NAS has elected to recognize the initial postretirement benefit obligation over a period of 20 years. The accrued postretirement benefit obligation is reported in accrued employee benefits in the statements of financial position.

Postretirement changes other than net periodic benefit cost are as follows (in thousands):

2011 2010
Net actuarial loss $ 3,908 $ 424
Recognized net actuarial loss (214) (190)
Recognized prior service cost (210) (210)
Recognized net initial obligation (26) (26)
Total $ 3,458 $ (2)

Items not yet recognized as a component of net periodic benefit cost at December 31, 2011 and 2010 are as follows (in thousands):

2011 2010
Net actuarial loss $ 7,441 $ 3,747
Prior service cost 722 932
Unrecognized net initial obligation 64 90
Total $ 8,227 $ 4,769
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

The estimated amounts, measured at year-end, that are expected to be recognized in the net periodic benefit cost over the next fiscal year for the postretirement benefit plan are as follows (in thousands):

2011 2010
Prior service cost $ 210 $ 210
Recognized actuarial loss 692 302
Recognized net initial obligation 26 26
Total $ 928 $ 538

The following table presents the changes in benefit obligations, changes in plan assets, funded status, and the components of net periodic benefit cost for the year ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 (in thousands):

  2011 2010
Change in benefit obligations:

Benefit obligation, January 1

$ 22,484 $ 19,914

Service cost

669 625

Interest cost

1,156 1,168

Plan participants contributions

119 105

Actuarial loss

2,188 1,307

Benefits provided

(678) (635)

Benefits obligation, December 31

25,938 22,484

Change in plan assets, combined:

Fair value of plan assets, January 1

20,185 17,701

Actual return on plan assets

(205) 2,210

Employer contributions

849 891

Benefits paid

(625) (617)

Fair value of plan assets, December 31

20,204 20,185

Funded status

$ (5,734) $ (2,299)

Components of net periodic benefit

cost:

Service cost

$ 669 $ 625

Interest cost

1,156 1,168

Expected return on plan assets

(1,514) (1,328)

Recognized prior service cost

210 210

Recognized actuarial loss

214 190

Recognized net initial obligation

26 26

Net periodic benefit cost

$ 761 $ 891

The assumptions used to determine net periodic benefit cost for years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 are as follows:

2011 2010
Discount rate 5.25% 6.00%
Expected long-term return on plan assets 7.50 7.50

The assumptions used to calculate the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 are as follows:

2011 2010
Discount rate 4.50% 5.25%

 
 
NAS postretirement benefit plan asset allocations at December 31, 2011 and 2010, by asset class are as follows:

2011 2010
Cash 4% 5%
Bonds and notes 34 38
Equity securities 62 57
100% 100%

The investment objective of the Plan is to produce a rate of return over the long term that will provide for fund growth, protect against the effect of inflation, and provide for some stability in different market environments. The fund is diversified between fixed income and equity investments. With this diversification and investment in broader market funds, there is reasonable assurance that no single security or class of securities will have a disproportionate impact on the Plan assets. The Plan assets are invested with a long-term growth strategy, with a 70% equity guideline.

The overall long-term rate of return was developed by estimating the long-term real rate of return for the Plan’s asset mix, while taking into account the effects of inflation. This estimate was developed by evaluating the history and similar asset allocation of the NAS Endowment.

The following table presents the fair value hierarchy for the postretirement benefit plan assets at December 31, 2011 (in thousands):

Fair Fair value measurements using
Value Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Financial Assets:

Retiree Welfare Benefit Plan investments:

Cash equivalents

$ 760 $ 760 $ - $ -
Bonds and notes

U.S. treasuries/gov.bonds

774   774   -   -

Mortgage-backed securities

1,748   -   1,748   -

Corporate bonds

4,280 4,280   -   -
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
  Fair Value Fair value measurements using
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Equity securities

U.S. small/mid cap

  9,820   9.820   - -

Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries)

  2,620   2,620      

Non-U.S. stocks (emerging countries)

  202   202   - -

Total investments

$ 20,204 $ 18,456 $ 1,748 $ -

The following table presents the fair value hierarchy for the postretirement benefit plan assets at December 31, 2010 (in thousands):

Fair Value Fair value measurements using
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Financial Assets:
Retiree Welfare Benefit Plan investments:

Cash equivalents

$ 1,034 $ 1,034 $ - $ -

Bonds and notes U.S. treasuries/gov.bonds

  2,395   2,395 -   -

Mortgage-backed securities

  1,294   - 1,294   -

Corporate bonds

  3,879   3,879 -   -

Equity securities U.S. small/mid cap

  9,823   9,823 -   -

Non-U.S. stocks (developed countries)

  1,760   1,760 -   -

Total investments

$ 20,185 $ 18,891 $ 1,294 $ -

The methods and assumptions used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instrument are further discussed in footnote 4, Fair Value Measurements.

NAS expects to contribute to the Plan the actuarially determined net periodic cost for 2012, which is approximately $1,362,000.

The following benefit payments, which reflect future services, are expected to be paid in future years as noted, as of December 31, 2011 (in thousands):

2012 $ 953
2013 1,138
2014 1,269
2015 1,391
2016 1,433
2017-2021 7,846
$ 14,030

The measurement date of the plan assets and benefit obligations for 2011 and 2010 is December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

The trend rate for growth in healthcare costs used in calculating the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation was 8.0% for under age 65 and 6.0% for over age 65 declining gradually to 5% in the year 2017 and 2013 for under age 65 and over age 65, respectively, for year ended December 31, 2011. The trend rate for growth in healthcare costs was 8.5% for under age 65 and 6.5% for over age 65 declining gradually to 5% in the year 2017 and 2013 for under age 65 and over age 65, respectively, for year ended December 31, 2010. The healthcare cost trend rate assumption has a significant impact on the postretirement benefit costs and obligations. The effect of a 1% change in the assumed healthcare cost trend rate at December 31, 2011, would have resulted in an estimated $3.1 million increase or $2.5 million decrease in the postretirement benefit obligation and an estimated $252,000 increase or $205,000 decrease in the 2011 benefit expense.

The effect of a 1% change in the assumed healthcare cost trend rate at December 31, 2010, would have resulted in an estimated $2.4 million increase or $2.0 million decrease in the postretirement benefit obligation and an estimated $226,000 increase or $186,000 decrease in the 2010 benefit expense.

(16) CONDITIONAL ASSET RETIREMENT OBLIGATION

NAS recorded an asset retirement obligation for which fair value of the liability could be reasonably estimated relating to the regulatory remediation of asbestos and other hazardous materials in one of its office buildings. During 2010, NAS remediated a significant portion of the asbestos and hazardous materials. During 2011, NAS remediated additional asbestos and hazardous materials with the remaining remediation expected to occur in early 2012. NAS recognized a gain on the settlement of the asset retirement obligation of $785,000 for the year ended December 31, 2010, which is included in other income in the statement of activities. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, NAS has a liability of $60,000 for the remaining remediation costs included in other long-term liabilities in the statements of financial position.

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×

(17) RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

The NAS Council has authorized two agreements providing noninterest-bearing, collateralized advances to two employees in connection with the purchase of each employee’s residence. The agreements between the parties were executed in May 2005 and May 2007. They each provide that the repayment obligation will be adjusted to allocate to each party its proportional share of the appreciation or depreciation in the value of the residence, which is based on the relative financing percentage provided by each party. The agreements will terminate upon pay-back of the advance, sale of the property, or the end of each individual’s employment with NAS, which will not exceed 12 years. The estimated present value of the receivables is $3.0 million at December 31, 2011 and 2010, and is included in other assets in the statements of financial position.

(18) COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

(a) Leases

NAS is committed to several noncancelable operating leases for office space. Future minimum rental payments due under noncancelable operating leases are as follows (in thousands):

Years ending December 31:
2012 $ 2,234
2013 422
2014 435
2015 448
2016 113
$ 3,652

Rental expense amounted to approximately $4.1 million and $3.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.

During the year ended December 31, 2011, NAS exercised an option to terminate one of its leases early. The lease was originally scheduled to end December 31, 2017, and under the revised agreement will end on December 31, 2012. NAS’ obligation under the lease will terminate on that date.

(b) Contingencies

NAS receives a portion of its revenues directly or indirectly from federal government grants and contracts, all of which are subject to audit by the Defense Contract Audit Agency, which has completed its examinations through December 31, 2005. A contingency exists relating to unexamined periods and final settlements of examined periods to refund any amounts received in excess of allowable costs. Management is of the opinion that no material liability will result from such audits.

(c) Litigation

NAS is involved in one litigation matter. While the ultimate outcome of the litigation is uncertain, NAS management believes that it has a strong legal position, intends to vigorously defend against any liability, and has concluded that the probable outcome will not have a material impact on NAS.

(19) SUBSEQUENT EVENT

NAS has evaluated subsequent events from the statement of financial position date through June 1, 2012, the date at which the financial statements were available to be issued, and determined that there are no other items to disclose.

Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 60
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Notes to Financial Statements." National Academy of Sciences. 2012. Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13445.
×
Page 62
Next: 2011 Officers and Committees »
Report of the Treasurer of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year Ended December 31, 2011 Get This Book
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The income that supports the activities of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) comes from two major sources: program revenue received from sponsors to pay for the myriad studies and other activities undertaken each year by the National Research Council (NRC), and a much smaller sum that is obtained from our endowment under the endowment spending policies adopted by the Council. The goal of the endowment is to provide stable support for the Academy's programs and activities. To achieve this goal, the Council, acting on the recommendations of the Finance Committee, has historically authorized spending from the portfolio at a rate designed to maintain the purchasing power of the endowment over time.

This Report of the Treasure of the National Academy of Sciences presents the financial position and results of operations as well as a review of the endowment, trust, and other long-term investments portfolio activities of our Academy for the year ended December 31, 2011. While this book provides essential financial summary to key personnel, it also serves as a vital informative resource for various members of the public, private, and governmental sectors.

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