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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Index

A

Abetalipoproteinemia, 99

Absorption of nutrients age and, 19, 104

ß-carotene, 83

carotenoids, 79, 80-81, 83, 86

consideration in formulating RDAs, 13

fiber intake and, 42

physiological requirements and, 11

see also specific nutrients

Acetyl coenzyme A, 45, 166

Achlorhydria, 5, 162

Adenosine triphosphate, 166, 184

Age groupings, for RDAs, changes in, 2

Alcohol (ethanol) caloric value of, 25, 39

underreporting intakes of, 36, 68

Alcoholics and alcoholism, 126, 189

American Academy of Pediatrics biotin recommendation for infants, 168

chloride recommendation for infants, 258

copper recommendation for infants, 227-228

fluoride recommendations for children, 239

linoleic acid allowance for infants, 48

thiamin allowance for infants, 128

Amino acids

age and requirements for, 56-58, 63, 64-68

conversion to glucose, 41

deficiency symptoms, 56

digestibility of, 69

essential, 53, 56-58, 64

excess intakes of, 53

metabolism, 142, 143, 150, 160, 166

and nitrogen balance, 56

nonessential, 262

patterns of dietary intake, 68-69

requirements for, 13, 56-58, 64-68

reutilization of, 52, 54

scoring of dietary protein quality, 58, 67-70

Amygdalin, 268

Anemia copper deficiency, 224, 226-227

definitions of, 196

hemolytic, 112

macrocytic, 152

megaloblastic, 155, 159

normocytic, 133

pernicious, 5, 160, 161, 162, 195, 196-197, 200

from vitamin A deficiency, 83

from vitamin B6 deficiency, 143

Application of RDAs, 8-9, 10, 20-21

Arachidonic acid, 47

Arginine, 53

Arsenic, 267

Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C

Avidin, 166

B

Basal metabolic rate, 25, 26

Beriberi, 125

Biotin

adult requirements, 167-168

bioavailability of, 167, 168

deficiency, 166-167

dietary sources and usual intakes, 167

ESADDI, 7, 13, 167-168, 284

forms and functions of, 165-166

infant and child requirements, 168

intestinal synthesis of, 165-166, 167, 168

during pregnancy and lactation, 168

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Body composition  age and, 30

and energy requirements, 29, 30

gender and, 30

Body weight

and bone fracture risk, 178

and energy allowances, 33

extrapolation of RDAs and ESADDIs by, 86, 221, 232, 245

and folate allowances, 152-153, 154

and iron allowances, 199, 201-202

and magnesium allowances, 190, 191

and manganese ESADDIs, 232

and molybdenum  ESADDIs, 245

physical activity and, 27

and protein allowances, 66

and resting energy expenditure, 26

and selenium allowances, 220, 221

and vitamin A allowances, 83, 84, 86

and vitamin B12, allowances, 163

and vitamin E requirements, 103, 104

and vitamin K allowances, 111

weight-for-height ratios, reference, 2, 14-18, 33

and zinc allowances, 209

Bone

demineralization 224

formation and retention, 174, 176-178

fractures, 178

peak bone mass, 2, 5, 18, 96, 176, 177, 179

Boron, 176, 267

Breast milk,

see Human milk

C

Cadmium, 267

Caffeine, 263

Calcium

absorption, 5, 93-96, 175-176, 179-180

adult and adolescent requirements, 179-180

biological role of, 174-175, 176-178, 179

carbohydrate intake and, 175

changes in RDAs, 5

dietary sources and usual intakes of, 176

excessive intakes and toxicity, 180-181

excretion, 175

infant and child requirements, 180

interaction with other dietary constituents, 176, 177, 181, 189

and phosphorus intake, 5, 72, 175, 177, 178-179, 186

during pregnancy and lactation,  180

and protein intake, 72, 175, 177, 178-179

recommended allowances, 179-180

sodium intake and, 175

vitamin A and, 5, 93-94, 95, 96, 175, 176, 177

Cancer

calcium  intake and, 179

carotenoids, retinoids, and preformed vitamin A, and, 86-87

and chromium, 243

fat intake and, 49

vitamin C and, 120

Carbohydrates

cariogenicity of, 41

and alcium balance, 175

complex, 39, 40; see also Dietary fiber

and copper deficiency, 226

digestible, 40-42

energy conversion factor for, 25, 41

intakes and sources, 40

metabolism of, 125, 128, 166, 169

pathophysiological significance of, 41-42

recommended intakes of, 41

value in food composition tables, 40

Carnitine, 265-266

Carotenoids

absorption and bioavailability of, 79, 80-81, 83, 86, 88

and cancer, 87

ß-carotene, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 87

contribution to vitamin  A activity, 81, 84

deposition in human tissues, 79

dietary sources of, 81

efficiency of conversion to vitamin A, 13, 88

nutritional relationship with pre-formed vitamin A, retinoids, and, 80-81

precursors of retinol, 78

toxicity, lack of, 88

Ceruloplasmin, 224

Chloride

biological role of, 257-258

changes in ESADDI, 13

deficiency, 258

dietary sources and usual intakes of, 258

estimate of requirements, 253, 258

excessive intakes and toxicity, 258-259

Chlorophyll, 268

Cholesterol (blood)

biological role of, 45

biotin deficiency and, 166

determinants of, 49

fat intake and, 49

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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fiber intake and, 42

structure, 44

Cholesterol (dietary)

efficiency of absorption of, 45

recommended intakes of, 50

Choline, 263-264

Chromium

absorption and excretion, 241

bioavailability of, 242

biological role, 241, 242

and cancer, 243

deficiency, 241

ESADDI, 13, 241-242, 284

excessive intakes and toxicity, 242-243

intakes (usual), 241

Chylomicrons, 79, 94, 100, 108

Cigarette smoking, and vitamin C, 4, 119

Climate

adjustment of RDAs for, 19, 31

and energy requirements, 31-32

and nutrient losses, 213

Clinical considerations in RDAs, 20, 49, 71-72, 86-87, 96-97, 111-112, 120-121, 140, 155, 161, 178, 180

Cobalt, 267-268

Coenzymes, 268

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals energy intake data from, 36

see alsoNationwide Food Consumption Surveys

Copper

adult requirements, 226-227

bioavailability, 226

deficiency, 224, 226

dietary sources and usual intakes, 225

ESADDI, 7, 13, 226-228, 284

evidence for human requirement, 224-225

excessive intakes and toxicity, 228

indicators of status, 224

infant and child requirements, 227-228

interaction with other nutrients, 176, 210-211, 224, 225, 226, 245

losses, 7, 226, 228

Coronary heart disease, 49

Cystine, 53, 56, 57, 66, 67, 68, 71

D

Definition of RDAs, 1, 10

Dehydroascorbate, 115, 117

Dental caries, 41-42

Dietary data amino acid scoring patterns relative to, 58

underestimation of food intakes, 36

underreporting of alcohol intakes, 36, 68

Dietary fiber, 39, 42, 69, 175-176, 198, 206, 207, 208

Dietary recommendations

establishment of, 12-13

for meeting RDAs, 9, 13-14

see also specific nutrients

Diseases,

see specific diseases

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 45, 47, 48-49

E

Eicosanoids, 45, 47, 48

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 45, 47, 48-49

5,8,1l-Eicosatrienoic acid, 47

Elderly people

activity levels of, 30, 33

amino acid requirements of, 57-58

anemia in, 201

energy expenditures of, 30

energy requirements of, 33-34

intestinal absorption of minerals, 19

iron status of, 201

estimation of nutrient requirements for, 19

folate needs of, 153

malabsorption of vitamin B12, 162

referenceprotein requirement for 59-60

thiamin requirements of, 127

vitamin A status, 84

vitamin B12 deficiency in, 159

vitamin C status, 118-119

vitamin D status of, 93, 95

vitamin E requirements, 103

vitamin K requirements, 111

water needs of, 249-250

zinc status in, 208

Endemic cretinism, 215

Endemic goiter, 213-214

Energy

major dietary sources of, 39, 40, 45

values, 24-25, 39

Energy allowances

age and, 33-34

activity factor in, 28-29, 32-33, 36

adjustments in, 32

for adults, 32-34

body height and, 33

body weight and, 31, 33, 36

changes in, 2, 37

comparison with reported energy in-takes, 36

estimation of, 2, 12, 21, 24, 28-29, 32-37

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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energy requirement calculation for, 28, 31

gender differences in, 36

for infants, children, and adolescents, 33, 35-36

for lactation, 33, 34-35

during pregnancy, 33, 34

resting energy expenditure and, 32-33

Energy conversion factors, 25

Energy expenditures

age and, 30

body size and, 31

climate and, 31-32

day-to-day variation in, 30

growth, costs of, 31

hobbling effect of clothing, 32

measurements of, 35

occupational, 26, 31, 32

in physical activity, 26-29, 32

and protein requirements, 54-55, 61

and riboflavin requirements, 134

thermic effect of meals, 25, 30

total, 25, 26

see also Resting energy expenditure

Energy intakes

and body weight and body composition, 24

comparison of RDAs with, 36

niacin allowances and, 140

and nitrogen balance, 59-60

and protein synthesis and breakdown, 54-55, 61

surplus, 12, 45

WHO data on, 35

Energy requirements

and activity level, 3, 19, 28-29

age and, 30, 35

body composition and, 29, 30

body size and, 31

climate and, 31-32

definition of, 24

deuterium oxide methodology for extimating, 35

distribution of, 12

estimation of, 25-32, 35

gender and, 30-31, 36

for growth, 31, 32

individual variability in, 24

for pregnancy and lactation, 34, 140

and metabolic response to food, 29-30

physical activity and, 3, 19, 26-29

resting energy expenditures and, 25-26, 28

ESADDI,

see Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes

Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes (ESADDI)

caution, 7

changes in, 7-8, 13

summary table, 284

see also specific nutrients

Estrogen therapy, 177-178

F

Fat

digestion of, 45

energy conversion factor for, 25

intestinal absorption of vitamins with, 45, 80, 83, 86, 108

malabsorption of, 80, 99, 108, 112

and plasma cholesterol, 49

recommended intakes of, 41, 49-50

stored during pregnancy, 35

see also Triglycerides

Fatty acids

carbohydrate intake and, 41

conversion of some dietary fiber to, 39

efficiency of absorption of, 45

as an energy source, 45

essential, 45, 46-49

metabolism of, 45, 100, 102, 137, 166, 169

structure, 44-45

tissue differences in composition of, 102

see also Saturated fatty acids;

Monounsaturated fatty acids;

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

Fiber,

see Dietary fiber

Flavonoids, 263

Fluoride

bioavailability, 237-238

and bone disease, 236

and dental caries, 42, 236

dietary sources and usual intakes, 235, 237-238

effects of food processing on, 237

ESADDI, 13, 238-239, 284

excessive intakes and toxicity, 238

status as essential nutrient, 235

Folate

absorption of, 150-151, 153, 154, 155

activity, measures of, 150

adult and adolescent requirements, 152-153

bioavailability, 150-151, 153, 154

changes in RDAs, 4, 156

deficiency, 151-155

dietary sources and usual intakes, 150

estimation of allowances, 152

excessive intakes and toxicity, 155

excretion of, 151

forms and functions of, 115, 150, 160

deficiency, 150, 151-152

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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indicators of nutritional status, 151-152

infant and child requirements, 154-155

intestinal synthesis of, 151

during pregnancy and lactation, 153-154

recommended allowances, 152-155

stability, 150, 155

Food fortification

with folate, 154

with niacin, 139

recommendations on, 13, 14

with vitamin A, 81

with vitamin C, 116

with vitamin D, 93, 94, 96, 177

Fructose, 40, 226

G

Gluconeogenesis, 166, 169

Glucose, 41, 45, 125, 262

Goitrogens, 214, 215

Growth

energy costs of, 31

folate and, 150, 154

iron needs during, 202

and protein requirements, 55, 56, 62-63

riboflavin and, 135

velocity, 35-36

vitamin A and, 86

vitamin E and, 104

zinc and, 210

Growth factors, 268

H

Health and welfare programs,

use of RDAs in, 21-22

Height-to-weight ratios, reference, 2, 14-18

Hemochromatosis, 203

Hesperidin, 263

High-fructose corn syrup, 40

Histidine, 53, 56-57, 67, 115

Human balance studies,

see Metabolic balance studies; Nitrogen balance studies

Human milk

average production, 35, 62, 72, 85, 103, 119, 210

bioavailability of nutrients in, 18, 119, 184, 227

colostrum, 104, 155

efficiency of maternal energy conversion to milk energy, 34-35

efficiency of vitamin A transfer to, 85

electrolyte levels in, 254, 256

energy content of, 34

and infant growth rates, 63

lipid content of, 48

mineral content of, 180, 184, 186, 191

protein content of, 62, 63, 64, 145

reference protein pattern for human milk substitutes, 64

trace element content of, 209, 215, 221, 225, 227, 232, 233, 237

vitamin content of, 85-86, 93-96, 103, 104, 109, 119-120, 128, 135, 140, 145, 154, 155, 163, 168, 171

water content of, 250

Hypertension, 7, 179, 254, 255, 256, 259

I

Infants

amino acid requirements of, 53, 56-57, 63, 64, 72

average milk consumption, 18

biotin deficiency in, 166-167

copper deficiency in, 225

estimation of allowances for, 18, 35-36

hypocalcemic tetany in, 186

hyponatremia in, 254

hypoprothrombinemia in, 111

linoleic acid deficiency in, 47-48

nutrient requirements, see specific nutrients

phosphorus deficiency in, 185

premature and low birth weight, 53, 72, 96, 99, 104, 120, 153, 154, 185, 201-202, 225, 254

protein requirements of, 62-64, 72

PUFA intakes, 104

reference, 94-95, 135

scurvy in, 115, 120

thiamin deficiency in, 125, 128

vitamin B6 deficiency in, 143, 145-146

vitamin B12 deficiency in, 163

vitamin supplements for, 64, 93, 94, 96, 104, 111, 128

International units

derivation for vitamin A, 80

derivation for vitamin D, 94

derivation for vitamin E, 100

Iodine

absorption, transport, and excretion, 213

biological role, 213

deficiency, 213, 214, 216

dietary sources and usual intakes, 214

environmental distribution of, 213, 214

excessive intakes and toxicity, 215-216

indicators of status, 213, 214, 215

recommended allowances, 215

value of iodized salt, 214, 216

Iron

absorption of, 13, 115, 120, 181, 195,

Continued to page 278

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Continued from page 277

197, 198-199, 200

adult requirements. 199-201

child and adolescent requirements, 202

deficiency, 14, 195-197, 199, 200, 201

dietary sources, 197-198

diets lacking animal protein, 202

excessive intakes and toxicity, 195, 202-203

functional and storage forms, 195, 198

indicators of status of, 120, 196, 197, 199, 200

infant requirements, 201-202

interaction with other nutrients, 13, 86, 115, 120, 181, 197, 198, 207, 208, 224

intestinal regulation of, 195

physiological requirements for, 12

during pregnancy and lactation, 201

recommended allowances, 5-6, 199-202

vitamin C and, 13, 115, 120, 197, 198

Isoleucine, 53, 56-57, 67

L

Lactose, 39, 175

Laetrile, 268

Lead, 267

Lean body mass

age and, 30

and protein requirements, 55, 60

and resting energy expenditure, 25, 30

and vitamin A requirements, 86

Lecithins, 44

Leucine, 53, 56-57, 67

Lignin, 39

Linoleic acid, 45, 46-49, 102

a-Linolenic acid, 47

Lipids

energy sources, 45

digestion of, 45

metabolism of, 145, 166

sources and intakes, 46

structure of, 44-45

transport abnormalities, 99

variations in tissues, 102

see also Fat; Fatty acids; andother specific lipids

Lipoproteins

high-density, 101, 211

low-density, 49, 101

very-low-density, 100-101

Lithium, 267

Lycopene, 87

Lysine, 53, 57, 66-71, 115

M

Magnesium

absorption of, 188

adult requirements, 190-191

biological role of, 187-188, 189

changes in RDAs, 5

deficiency, 189

dietary sources and usual intakes, 189-190

excessive intakes and toxicity, 192

infant and child requirements, 191-192

metabolic balance studies of, 190, 191

during pregnancy and lactation, 191

recommended allowances, 190- 192

role in biotin metabolism, 166

Manganese

adult requirements, 231-232

biological role of, 230

deficiency, 230

dietary sources and usual intakes, 231

ESADDI, 7-8, 13, 231-233, 284

excessive intakes and toxicity, 233

indicators of status, 231

infant and child requirements, 232

during pregnancy and lactation, 232-233

Menadione, 107, 112

Menaquinones, 107-111

Metabolic balance studies

physiological requirements determined through, 11

of trace element requirements, 8, 190, 191, 207, 208, 210, 219, 220, 226, 231-232

Metabolic rate

basal, 25, 26

eating and, 29-30

environmental temperature and, 32

and protein requirements, 59

Metabolism, inborn errors of, 56, 126, 166, 203, 244;

see also specific nutrients

Methionine, 53, 56, 57, 66, 67, 68, 71, 160, 244

Minerals

deficiencies in infants, 96

fiber intake and absorption of, 42, 175-176

see also specific minerals

Molybdenum

bioavailability of, 245

biochemical role, 243

deficiency, 243, 244, 245

dietary sources and usual intakes, 244-245

ESADDI, 7-8, 13, 245, 284

excessive intakes and toxicity, 245

Monounsaturated fatty acids, 44-45

Myo-inositol, 266

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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N

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (11)

energy intakes, 36

impaired iron status, 197, 203

iron intakes, 197

protein intakes, 68-68

vitamin A intakes, 81

weight-for-height data, 15

Nationwide Food Consumption Survey

calcium intakes, 176

energy intakes, 36

iron intakes, 198

protein intakes, 146

vitamin D intakes, 95

water intakes, 249

Niacin

adult requirements, 139

bioavailability of, 138, 139

biological functions of, 137

deficiency, 137

dietary sources and usual intakes, 138-139

and energy intake, 140

excessive intakes and toxicity, 140

indicators of nutritional status, 137, 138

infant and child requirements, 140

metabolism, 137

during pregnancy and lactation, 140

recommended allowances, 139-140

riboflavin and function of, 132, 133

toxicity of, 14

tryptophan conversion to, 132, 137, 138, 140

Nickel, 267

Nitrogen balance studies

of amino acid requirements, 56

methodologic problems in, 55

of protein requirements, 3, 54-55, 58, 60-61

Nutrients

intakes, 20-21

essentiality, 263-268

losses during food processing and preparation, 13

pharmacologic and toxic effects of, 14, 72-73, 87-88, 96-97, 112, 120, 121, 129, 140, 146, 155, 160, 166, 167, 192, 238

surpluses of, 14, 20

O

Obesity, 2, 12, 31, 49

Oleic acid, 45, 47, 262

Orotic acid, 269

Osteoporosis, 5, 72, 178, 179, 180, 238

P

Palmitic acid, 45, 262

Pangamic acid, 269

Pantothenic acid

adult requirements, 171

deficiency, 170

dietary sources and usual intakes, 170

ESADDI, 13, 171-172, 284

excessive intakes and toxicity, 172

infant, child, and adolescent requirements, 171-172

intestinal synthesis of, 170, 171

physiological roles, 169

during pregnancy and lactation, 171

Pellagra, 137, 140

Pharmacologic actions, see Nutrients

Phenylalanine, 53, 56-57, 67

Phosphorus

absorption of, 184

biological role of, 184

and calcium balance, 5, 72, 175, 177, 178-179, 184, 185, 186

deficiency, 185

dietary sources and usual intakes, 184-185

excessive intakes and toxicity, 186

recommended allowances, 185-186

zinc interaction with, 207

Phylloquinone, 107-112

Physical activity

age and patterns of, 30, 33, 36

climate and, 19, 32

energy costs of, 27-28, 32

and energy requirements, 3, 19, 26-29

health promotion through, 27

and protein requirements, 59, 60, 70-71

and riboflavin requirements, 134

strenuous, 19, 71, 134

and sweat losses, 19, 71, 253

Physiological requirements for nutrients

criteria for determining, 11

estimation of, 11-12

individual variability in, 11

of populations, 12

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, 44-45, 47, 48, 100, 102, 103, 104

Potassium

biological role, 255

changes in ESADDI, 13

deficiency, 255

dietary sources and usual intakes, 255-256

estimation of requirements, 7, 253, 256-257

excessive intakes and toxicity, 257

interaction with magnesium, 189

Pregnancy and lactation

amino acid patterns for, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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calculation of nutrient needs during, 2-3, 15, 18

efficiency of maternal energy conversion to milk energy, 34-35

folate deficiency during, 153-154

tryptophan to niacin interconversion during, 138, 140

vitamin A toxicity during, 87-88

see also Human milk; and specific nutrients

Premenstrual syndrome, 146

Proline, 115

Protein

age and requirements for, 58-60, 64-68

amino acid composition, 54, 64, 67-68

biochemical indices of, 55

and calcium balance, 72, 175, 177, 178-179

criteria of adequacy, 55-56

deficiency, 53, 224

dietary sources of, 67

digestibility, 54, 59, 64, 69-70

energy balance and, 54-55, 61

energy conversion factor for, 25

estimation of requirements, 53-55

excessive intakes and toxicity, 72-73

growth rate and, 55, 56

interaction with other dietary components, 4, 41, 72, 86, 143, 144, 146, 175, 177, 178-179, 206, 207-208

lean body mass and, 55, 60

metabolic changes and, 59

net protein utilization, 69

nitrogen balance and, 3, 54, 55, 58, 59-62, 63

and obligatory nitrogen loss, 54

physical activity and, 59, 60

physiological requirements for, 12

during pregnancy and lactation, 54, 60-62, 66, 145

quality of, 54, 59, 67, 68, 69-71

recommended intakes, 41, 58

sources and intakes, 21, 68-70, 73

turnover rates, 52, 53-54, 55, 59, 60, 62

and vitamin B6 requirement, 4, 143, 144, 146

Protein allowances

adjustment for dietary quality, 69-71

amino acid pattern and, 58, 64-70

basis for, 3, 13

changes in, 3, 72

dietary intake and, 68-70

factorial method for predicting requirements, 54, 60, 61-62, 63-65

physical activity and, 70-71

reference protein requirement in, 58-66, 69-70

standard deviation of requirement, 58

steps for establishing, 58

see also Amino acids and specific amino acids

PUFA,

see Polyunsaturated fatty acids

Pyridoxal phosphate, 142-144

Pyridoxamine phosphate, 142, 143

Pyridoxine, 132, 142

Pyrroloquinoline quinone, 268

Pyruvate carboxylase, 230

Q

Quercetin, 263

R

Reference individuals, 2, 14-18, 20, 37, 94-95, 135

Resting energy expenditures

body size and, 31

body weight and, 26

defined, 25

equations for, 26, 30, 32

estimation of, 25-26

gender and, 31

and lean body mass, 25, 30, 31

measurement of, 25

Retinoids

absorption of, 79

and cancer, 86

nutritional relationship between pre-formed vitamin A, carotenoids, and, 80-81

vitamin A activity, 78

Retinol

esterification of, 79

metabolism of, 79

requirements, 84

supplements, 83, 87-88

toxicity, 87-88

Retinol equivalents, defined, 81

Riboflavin

absorption and excretion, 132, 134, 135

adult requirements for, 133

biological role of, 132

deficiency, 132-133, 135

dietary sources and usual intakes, 133

energy expenditure and, 134

and nitrogen balance, 134

during pregnancy and lactation, 134-135

recommended allowances, 133-135

Rickets, 92, 93, 96, 185

Rutin, 263

S

Safety margin in RDAs and ESADDIs, 2, 11, 20, 71, 85, 96, 103, 118, 120,

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Continued from page 280

128, 129, 135, 200, 209, 215, 220, 233, 242

Saturated fatty acids, 44-45, 49, 50

School feeding programs, 21

Scurvy, 115, 117, 118

Selenium

adult requirements, 219-220

bioavailability of, 218-219

biological role of, 100, 217

deficiency, 217-218

dietary sources and usual intakes, 218-219

excessive intakes and toxicity, 221-222

indicators of' status, 219

interrelationship with vitamin E, 217,

infant and child requirements, 221

during pregnancy and lactation, 220-221

recommended allowances, 6, 13, 219-221

Silicon, 176, 267

Skinfold thickness, Tanner standards, 36

Sodium

adult requirements, 252-253

biological role of, 250-251

changes in ESADDI, 13

deficiency, 251

dietary sources and usual intakes, 251-252

estimates of requirements, 7, 252-254

excessive intakes and toxicity, 254-255

homeostatic control of, 250-251

infant and child requirements, 254

interaction with other dietary components, 41, 175, 253

obligatory losses, 252

during pregnancy and lactation, 253-254

Sorbitol, 41, 269

Spermine and spermidine, 268

Starches, 39, 40

Stearic acid, 45, 262

Stress, and nitrogen loss, 71

Sucrose, 40, 41

Sugars, 39, 40, 41, 262

Supplements and supplementation

bioavailability of, 80

calcium, 181

ß-carotene, 82

excessive intakes through, 81

fiber concentrates, 42

folic acid, 153, 154, 155

for infants, 64, 93, 94, 96, 104, 111, 128, 155, 207, 210

iron, 7, 14, 201, 202

pantothenic acid, 171

prevalence of use of, 81, 117

recommendations on, 13

retinol, 83

salt, 251

therapeutic, 14, 82-83

thiamin, 128

toxicity of, 97, 202, 211

tryptophan, 138

vitamin A, 80, 81, 82, 85

vitamin B6, 146

vitamin B12, 163

vitamin C, 117, 120

vitamin D, 93, 96, 97

vitamin E, 104, 105

vitamin K, 110

zinc, 207, 208, 210, 211

T

Taurine, 264

Thiamin

absorption and excretion of, 125, 127, 128

adult requirements, 126-128

biological role of, 125, 128

and carbohydrate metabolism, 125, 128

child and adolescent requirements, 129

deficiency, 125-126, 127

dietary sources and usual intakes, 126

excessive intakes and toxicity, 129

indicators of status, 127

infant requirements, 128

during pregnancy and lactation, 128

recommended allowances, 126-129

Thiaminase, 126

Threonine, 53, 57, 66, 67, 68, 71

Tin, 267

Total Diet Study, 190, 214, 225, 231, 237, 245, 251

Toxicity of nutrients, 14, 72-73, 87-88, 96-97, 112, 121, 129, 146, 202-203, 210-211,215-216, 211-212, 233, 238, 245, 257, 258-259

Trace elements

essential in animals, 267-268

metabolic balance studies of, 11, 190, 191, 207, 208, 210, 219, 220, 226, 231-232

changes in ESADDI, 13

factorial methods for, 232

fiber intake and absorption of, 198, 206, 207, 209

with no biological function, 262

summary table, 284

see also specific trace elements

Triglycerides, 41, 44, 45, 101

Tryptophan, 115, 132

conversion to niacin, 137-140

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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excretion of, 53

hormonal status and metabolism of, 144

load test for vitamin B6 status, 143, 146

and protein quality, 68, 70, 71

requirements, 57, 64, 66, 67

supplements, 138

Tyrosine, 53, 56-57, 67, 115

U

Ultraviolet light, and vitamin D synthesis, 92, 93

V

Valine, 53, 56-57, 67

Vanadium, 267

Vegetarians, 95, 120, 160-161, 162, 163

Vitamin A

absorption of, 45, 79, 86

activity, 78, 80-81

adult requirements, 81-85

age and, 84

biological role of, 78

and body weight, 83, 84

and cancer, 86-87

and color intensity of fruits and vegetables, 81

day-to-day variability in intakes, 21

deficiencies of other nutrients affecting utilization of, 86

deficiency signs, 80, 82, 83, 86

depletion rate of body stores, 84

depletion-repletion studies, 82-83

dietary sources and usual intakes, 81, 82

excessive intakes and toxicity, 14, 87-88, 146

fetal utilization of, 85

infant and child requirements, 85-86

metabolism of, 20, 78-79

nutritional relationship between retinoids, carotenoids, and, 80-81

precursors of, 13, 78

during pregnancy and lactation, 85

recommended allowances, 81-87

storage, 79

supplementation, 82, 85

therapeutic uses at high doses, 14

see also Carotenoids; Retinoids; Retinol

Vitamin B6

absorption of, 143

adult requirements, 144-145

bioavailability of, 144

changes in RDAs, 4

deficiency, 143, 144

dietary sources and usual intakes, 143-144

drugs affecting metabolism of, 144

excessive intakes and toxicity, 14, 146

forms and biological functions, 142

indicators of nutritional status, 143, 145

infant and child requirements, 145-146

during pregnancy and lactation, 145

and protein intake, 4, 143, 144, 146

recommended allowances, 144-146

Vitamin B12

absorption of, 159, 160, 162

adult requirements, 162

basis for establishing allowances, 161

changes in RDAs, 4-5, 163-164

deficiency, 159-160, 161-162

dietary sources and usual intakes of, 159

forms and functions of, 158-159, 160

infant and child requirements, 163

intestinal synthesis of, 159

metabolism, 160-161

pool size and turnover, 20, 161, 162

during pregnancy and lactation, 162-163

recommended allowances, 162-163

Vitamin C

absorption, transport, storage, and excretion, 116, 117-118

adult requirements, 117-119

biological role of, 100, 115

and cancer, 120

cigarette smoking and metabolic turn-over of, 4, 119

and colds and respiratory illnesses, 120

deficiency, 115, 117

dietary sources and usual intakes, 116

indicators of nutritional status, 117

infant and child requirements, 119

interaction with other nutrients, 13, 115, 120, 197, 198,226

and iron absorption, 13, 115, 120, 197, 198

losses during food preparation, 117, 118

and nitrosamine formation, 120

pharmacological intakes and toxicity, 120

during pregnancy and lactation, 119

recommended allowances, 4, 117-120

supplementation, 117, 120

Vitamin D

absorption of, 45

adult requirements, 95-96

biochemistry and metabolism of, 93-94

biological role of, 92

and calcium balance, 5, 93-94, 95, 96, 175-177

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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deficiency signs, 92-93

dietary sources and usual intakes, 94-95

essentiality of, 93

indicators of status, 94

infant and child requirements, 96

malabsorption of, 93

during pregnancy and lactation, 93, 94, 96

recommended allowances, 95-96

stability in foods, 94

supplements, 93, 96, 97

synthesis of, 92

toxicity of, 14, 96-97

Vitamin E

absorption of, 45, 100, 104

adult requirements, 102-103

deficiency, 99, 100

dietary sources and usual intakes, 101-102

excessive intakes of, 104-105

function and metabolism of, 100-101

infant and child requirements, 99, 103-104

interrelationship with other nutrients, 86, 217, 218

losses during cooking and processing, 101

occurrence and biological activity, 99-100

polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 48, 100, 102, 103

during pregnancy and lactation, 103

recommended allowances, 102-105

supplements, 104, 105

Vitamin K

adult requirements, 109-111

biological indicators of status, 110

biological role of, 107, 108

compounds, 107

deficiency, 107, 109, 111, 112

dietary source and usual intakes, 109

excessive intakes and toxicity, 112

infant and child requirements, 111

metabolism of, 108

during pregnancy and lactation, 111

recommended allowances, 3-4, 13, 109-112

supplementation, 110

synthesis by intestinal bacteria, 108, 110

Vitamin P factors, 263

Vitamin Q, 263

W

Water

estimate of requirements, 249-250

excessive intakes and toxicity, 249, 250

intake and loss routes and magnitudes, 247-249

sources, 249

thirst sensation, 249

Weight, see Body weight

X

Xerophthalmia, 80

Z

Zinc

adult requirements, 208-209

bioavailability of, 206, 207-208

biological role of, 205-206

body pool and turnover rates, 206

deficiency, 206-207, 210

dietary sources and usual intakes, 207-208

excessive intakes and toxicity, 210-211

homeostatic regulation of, 206, 208

infant and child requirements, 210

interaction with other dietary components, 86, 176, 181, 206, 207-208, 210-211,225, 226

indicators of status, 208

during pregnancy and lactation, 206, 209-210

recommended allowances, 6, 208-210

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Since its introduction in 1943 Recommended Dietary Allowances has become the accepted source of nutrient allowances for healthy people.

These Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are used throughout the food and health fields. Additionally, RDAs serve as the basis for the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, the Food and Drug Administration's standards for nutrition labeling of foods.

The 10th Edition includes research results and expert interpretations from years of progress in nutrition research since the previous edition and provides not only RDAs but also "Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes"--provisional values for nutrients where data were insufficient to set an RDA.

Organized by nutrient for ready reference, the volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, sources of supply, effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes, relevant study results, and more.

The volume concludes with the invaluable "Summary Table of Recommended Dietary Allowances," a convenient and practical summary of the recommendations.

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